S E LaPatra

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Are you S E LaPatra?

Claim your profile

Publications (125)278.16 Total impact

  • Jason P. Evenhuis, Scott E. LaPatra, David Marancik
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a pervasive disease of fresh water finfish. During the past 4 years, losses that ranged from 5 to 50% in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry being reared at a constant 14.5 °C (mean weight, 0.2 g; ~ 400°days post-fertilization), have been occurring in Hagerman Valley, Idaho, USA. A total of 70 different F. columnare isolates were obtained from diseased fish and the water they were reared in. All of the isolates were confirmed to be genomovar I by 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, 16S–23S rDNA spacer region and the gyrase B subunit genes from these 70 strains revealed no sequence differences among these isolates. Whole-cell protein profiling by SDS-PAGE also indicated low variation between isolates. Virulence was assessed for a representative isolate and demonstrated a high degree of pathogenicity against rainbow trout fry at 15 °C. These results suggest the emergence of a highly successful F. columnare strain that can affect very early life stages of fish being reared at a constant 14.5 °C at a commercial rainbow trout farm in Idaho.
    Aquaculture. 01/2014; s 418–419:126–131.
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commensal microorganisms live in association with the mucosal surfaces of all vertebrates. The skin of teleost fish is known to harbor commensals. In this study we report for the first time the presence of an intracellular Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus warneri that resides in the skin epidermis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). S. warneri was isolated from healthy hatchery trout skin epithelial cells. In situ hybridization confirmed the intracellular nature of the bacterium. Skin explants exposed in vitro to S. warneri or the extracellular pathogen Vibrio anguillarum show that S. warneri is able to induce an anti-inflammatory cytokine status via TGF-β1b compared to the pro-inflammatory responses (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-∝) elicited by V. anguillarum. In vivo experiments showed that S. warneri is not pathogenic to rainbow trout when injected intraperitoneally at high concentrations. However, S. warneri is able to stimulate V. anguillarum growth and biofilm formation on rainbow trout scales. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout skin commensals such as S. warneri have the potential to become indirect pathobionts by enhancing growth and biofilm formation of pathogens such as V. anguillarum. These results show that fish farming practices (i.e. handling and other manipulations) can alter the skin microbiota and compromise the skin health of rainbow trout.
    Veterinary Microbiology 12/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Yersinia ruckeri is a well-established bacterial pathogen for many salmonid species, against which a formalin-killed bacterin vaccine has been effective in reducing disease outbreaks. Previous studies have reported conflicting results about the protective value of the systemic humoral response to Yersinia ruckeri vaccination. Here we directly demonstrate that plasma contains the long-term protective component elicited by both immersion and intraperitoneal injection vaccination of rainbow trout. A total of 0.5μL of plasma from vaccinated fish provided almost complete protection against experimental challenge. Conversely, the cells obtained from peripheral blood conferred little or no protection in naïve recipients. The protective component of immune sera was IgM based on size exclusion chromatography and recognition by monoclonal antibody Warr 1-14. Immune plasma generated against a Y. ruckeri biotype 1 strain protected equally against challenges with Y. ruckeri biotype 1 and 2 strains. These results illustrate the importance of the humoral IgM response against Y. ruckeri and the use of doubled haploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and transfer of plasma/serum and cells into F1 outcross progeny as a model system for dissection of the mechanism(s) of vaccine-induced protection.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 12/2013; · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Skin homeostasis is critical to preserve animal integrity. Although the skin of most vertebrates is known to contain a skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), very little is known about skin B-cell responses as well as their evolutionary origins. Teleost fish represent the most ancient bony vertebrates containing a SALT. Due to its lack of keratinization, teleost skin possesses living epithelial cells in direct contact with the water medium. Interestingly, teleost SALT structurally resembles that of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and it possesses a diverse microbiota. Thus, we hypothesized that, because teleost SALT and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have probably been subjected to similar evolutionary selective forces, their B-cell responses would be analogous. Confirming this hypothesis, we show that IgT, a teleost immunoglobulin specialized in gut immunity, plays the prevailing role in skin mucosal immunity. We found that IgT(+) B cells represent the major B-cell subset in the skin epidermis and that IgT is mainly present in polymeric form in the skin mucus. Critically, we found that the majority of the skin microbiota are coated with IgT. Moreover, IgT responses against a skin parasite were mainly limited to the skin whereas IgM responses were almost exclusively detected in the serum. Strikingly, we found that the teleost skin mucosa showed key features of mammalian mucosal surfaces exhibiting a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Thus, from an evolutionary viewpoint, our findings suggest that, regardless of their phylogenetic origin and tissue localization, the chief immunoglobulins of all mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue operate under the guidance of primordially conserved principles.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Farmed and wild salmonids are affected by a variety of skin conditions, some of which have significant economic and welfare implications. In many cases, the causes are not well understood, and one example is cold water strawberry disease of rainbow trout, also called red mark syndrome, which has been recorded in the UK since 2003. To date, there are no internationally agreed methods for describing these conditions, which has caused confusion for farmers and health professionals, who are often unclear as to whether they are dealing with a new or a previously described condition. This has resulted, inevitably, in delays to both accurate diagnosis and effective treatment regimes. Here, we provide a standardized methodology for the description of skin conditions of rainbow trout of uncertain aetiology. We demonstrate how the approach can be used to develop case definitions, using coldwater strawberry disease as an example.
    Journal of Fish Diseases 03/2013; · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that used restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that all isolates typed from salmonids were Genomovar I. Our objective was to develop a laboratory challenge model for F. columnare in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and use the model to determine the virulence of Genomovar I and II isolates. Six F. columnare isolates were obtained from rainbow trout experiencing losses due to columnaris disease and were determined to be Genomovar I. Three of these were chosen for a preliminary assessment of virulence, and isolate 051-10-S5 was chosen for additional experiments to determine the reproducibility of the waterborne challenge model. In 2 independent experiments, cumulative percent mortalities (CPM) were 49 ± 10% and 50 ± 19%. Challenge of rainbow trout with Genomovar I and II isolates demonstrated a difference in the CPM, with the Genomovar II isolates inducing significantly higher CPM. This reproducible waterborne challenge model for columnaris disease in rainbow trout will be useful to investigate host-pathogen interactions, vaccine development, and other potential control strategies. This research also provides a basis for further defining the molecular diversity and virulence associated with F. columnare genomovars in rainbow trout and other salmonid species.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 11/2012; 101(2):115-22. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Small amoeboid cells, believed to be the infectious stage of Ichthyophonus sp., were observed in the bolus (stomach contents) and tunica propria (stomach wall) of Pacific staghorn sculpins and rainbow trout shortly after they ingested Ichthyophonus sp.-infected tissues. By 24-48 hr post-exposure (PE) the parasite morphed from the classically reported multi-nucleate thick walled schizonts to 2 distinct cell types; a larger multinucleate amoeboid cell surrounded by a narrow translucent zone and a smaller spherical cell surrounded by a "halo" and resembling a small schizont. Both cell types also appeared in the tunica propria, indicating that they had recently penetrated the columnar epithelium of the stomach. No Ichthyophonus sp. pseudo-hyphae ("germination tubes") were observed in the bolus or penetrating the stomach wall. Simultaneously, Ichthyophonus sp. was isolated in vitro from aortic blood, which was consistently positive from 6 -144 hr PE, then only intermittently for the next 4 wks. Small PAS-positive cells observed in blood cultures grew into colonies consisting of non-septate tubules (pseudo-hyphae) terminating in multinucleated knob-like apices similar to those seen in organ explant cultures. Organ explants were culture-positive every day; however, typical Ichthyophonus sp. schizonts were not observed histologically until 20-25 days PE. From 20 to 60 days PE, schizont diameter increased from < 25 µm to ≥ 82 µm. Based on the data presented herein, we are confident that we have resolved the life cycle of Ichthyophonus sp. within the piscivorous host.
    Journal of Parasitology 08/2012; · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, 318 bacterial strains were isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of 29 rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). These bacteria were screened in vitro for their ability to inhibit growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the causative agent of coldwater disease. Bacteria observed to inhibit F. psychrophilum growth were further screened against rainbow trout bile, as an indicator of their ability to survive in the GI tract. This screening resulted in narrowing the pool to 24 bacterial isolates. Those 24 isolates were then tested for pathogenicity in rainbow trout by intraperitoneal injection. Following a 28-day challenge, eight isolates were shown to cause direct mortality and were eliminated from further study. As a result, 16 bacterial isolates were identified as probiotic candidates with the potential to control or reduce disease caused by F. psychrophilum.
    Journal of Fish Diseases 08/2012; 35(11):809-16. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Fish Diseases 07/2012; 35(10):775-9. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the aetiologic agent of bacterial coldwater disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome. In this study, we compared a wild-type strain (CSF 259-93) with a rifampicin-resistant strain and virulence-attenuated strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259-93B.17). The attenuated strain harboured a mutation in the rpoB gene consistent with resistance to rifampicin. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and mass spectrometry demonstrated an altered proteome with eight proteins characteristic for the parent strain and six that were unique to the attenuated strain. Immunoblotting with a diagnostic monoclonal antibody (FL-43) identified a putative antigen (FP1493) that was subsequently cloned, expressed as a recombinant protein and confirmed as recognized by FL-43. 2D-PAGE, immunoblotting with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), convalescent antisera and mass spectrometry of bacterial whole-cell lysates revealed several uniquely expressed immunoreactive proteins including FP1493. An FP1493 recombinant subunit vaccine was tested, but did not provide protection against challenge with the CSF259-93 strain. While the exact mechanism responsible for altered protein synthesis and attenuation of CSF 259-93B.17 is still unknown, the differentially expressed immunoreactive proteins are a valuable resource to develop subunit vaccines and to identify proteins that are potentially involved in disease.
    Journal of Fish Diseases 05/2012; 35(7):529-39. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A DNA vaccine against infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is effective at protecting rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against disease, but intramuscular injection is required and makes the vaccine impractical for use in the freshwater rainbow trout farming industry. Poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved polymer that can be used to deliver DNA vaccines. We evaluated the in vivo absorption of PLGA nanoparticles containing coumarin-6 when added to a fish food pellet. We demonstrated that rainbow trout will eat PLGA nanoparticle coated feed and that these nanoparticles can be detected in the epithelial cells of the lower intestine within 96 h after feeding. We also detected low levels of gene expression and anti-IHNV neutralizing antibodies when fish were fed or intubated with PLGA nanoparticles containing IHNV G gene plasmid. A virus challenge evaluation suggested a slight increase in survival at 6 weeks post-vaccination in fish that received a high dose of the oral vaccine, but there was no difference when additional fish were challenged at 10 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to induce an immune response using an orally delivered DNA vaccine, but the current system needs improvement.
    Journal of Fish Diseases 03/2012; 35(3):203-14. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the aetiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease (CWD), and this pathogen has large economic impacts on salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Previously, it was demonstrated that high levels of protection against F. psychrophilum challenge were conferred to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), by immunization with distinct molecular mass fractions of the bacterium, and specific antibodies were correlated with protection. In this study, an immunoproteomic analysis of F. psychrophilum was performed using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting with serum from fish immunized with high- and mid-molecular mass fractions of the bacterium. Mass spectrometry was used to determine the protein identity, and 15 immunogenic proteins were positively identified following Mascot searches of the F. psychrophilum genome. Based on known function and immunogenicity of homologous proteins in other bacterial pathogens, antibodies specific for several of the identified proteins may be important for protective immunity from CWD. These include outer membrane protein OmpA (P60), trigger factor, ClpB, elongation factor G, gliding motility protein GldN and a conserved hypothetical protein. This work increases the understanding of the protective humoral immune response of rainbow trout against these distinct molecular mass fractions of F. psychrophilum and provides new potential targets for recombinant protein vaccine development.
    Journal of Fish Diseases 11/2011; 34(11):823-30. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sequencing of approximately one half of the genome of acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2), which is a member of the genus Ictalurivirus in the family Alloherpesviridae, revealed that the gene organization is very similar to that of ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (IcHV-1), the founder member of the genus. The sequenced region encodes the AciHV-2 homologues of IcHV-1 ORF24 to ORF69. It contains 46 predicted protein-coding regions, including 12 that seem to have a homologue in every alloherpesvirus genome sequenced to date. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, based on the concatenated sequence of these conserved genes, implied that the family Alloherpesviridae is composed of three major clades and could be subdivided into three subfamilies.
    Archives of Virology 09/2011; 156(12):2291-6. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Strawberry disease (SD) is an inflammatory skin disorder in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). The aetiology of SD is unknown although the 16S rDNA sequence of a Rickettsia-like organism (RLO) has been associated with SD lesions using a nested PCR assay. In this study, we developed a Taqman quantitative PCR assay (qPCR) that targeted the RLO 16S rDNA sequence to examine the distribution of RLO relative to lesion status. We compared 18 lesion samples from 13 fish representing high or low lesion severity as judged by gross examination. QPCR results showed that there was a higher number of RLO sequences in high severity lesions (mean of 12,068 copies) compared with fewer copies of RLO sequence in low severity lesions (mean of 3287 copies, P = 0.012). Grossly normal skin samples (n = 13) from SD-affected fish were all negative by qPCR except two samples (121 and 139 copies). The qPCR assay described herein is a useful tool to investigate the role of RLO in SD in the absence of a culture system for RLO. Our results demonstrate a positive correlation between copy number and lesion severity consistent with the hypothesis that the RLO is the aetiologic agent of SD.
    Journal of Fish Diseases 09/2011; 34(9):701-9. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The plasma of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii that survived laboratory-induced viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) epizootics contained humoral substances that, when injected into naive animals, conferred passive immunity against the disease. Among groups exposed to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), injection of donor plasma from VHS survivors resulted in significantly greater survival (50%) and significantly lower tissue titers (1.5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units [PFU]/g) than the injection of plasma from VHSV-naive donors (6% survival; 3.7 x 10(6) PFU/g). Additionally, the magnitude of the protective immune response increased during the postexposure period; plasma that was collected from survivors at 123 d postexposure (931 degree-days) provided greater protection than plasma collected from survivors at 60 d postexposure (409 degree-days). These results provide proof of concept that the VHSV exposure history of Pacific herring populations can be determined post hoc; furthermore, the results can be used as the foundation for developing additional high-throughput diagnostic techniques that may be effective at quantifying herd immunity and forecasting the potential for future VHS epizootics in populations of wild Pacific herring.
    Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 09/2011; 23(3):140-7. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biotype 2 (BT2) variants of the bacterium Yersinia ruckeri are an increasing disease problem in U.S. and European aquaculture and have been characterized as serovar 1 isolates that lack both peritrichous flagella and secreted phospholipase activity. The emergence of this biotype has been associated with an increased frequency of enteric redmouth disease (ERM) outbreaks in previously vaccinated salmonid fish. In this study, four independent specific natural mutations that cause the loss of both motility and secreted lipase activity were identified in BT2 strains from the United States, United Kingdom, and mainland Europe. Each of these was a unique mutation in either fliR, flhA, or flhB, all of which are genes predicted to encode essential components of the flagellar secretion apparatus. Our results demonstrate the existence of independent mutations leading to the BT2 phenotype; thus, this phenotype has emerged separately at least four times. In addition, BT2 strains from the United Kingdom were shown to have the same mutant allele found in U.S. BT2 strains, suggesting a common origin of this BT2 lineage. This differentiation of distinct BT2 lineages is of critical importance for the development and validation of alternative vaccines or other treatment strategies intended for the control of BT2 strains.
    Applied and environmental microbiology 03/2011; 77(10):3493-9. · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • K P Plant, S E Lapatra, D R Call, K D Cain
    Journal of Fish Diseases 03/2011; 34(3):247-50. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes significant mortality in salmonid species. In North America IHNV has three major genogroups designated U, M, and L. Host-specificity of the M and U genogroups of IHNV has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges, with M isolates being more prevalent and more virulent in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and U isolates being more prevalent and highly virulent in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In this study, efficacy of DNA vaccines containing either M (pM) or U (pU) virus glycoprotein genes was investigated during intra- and cross-genogroup challenges in rainbow trout. In virus challenges at 7 days post-vaccination (early antiviral response), both pM and pU were highly protective against either M or U IHNV. In challenges at 28 days post-vaccination (specific antiviral response), both pM and pU were protective against M IHNV but the homologous pM vaccine was significantly more protective than pU in one of two experiments. At this stage both pM and pU induced comparably high protection against U IHNV challenge. Correlates of protection were also investigated by assessing the expression of the interferon-stimulated gene Mx-1 and the production of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) following pM or pU DNA vaccination. Mx-1 gene expression, measured at 4 and 7 days post-vaccination as an indicator of the host innate immune response, was found to be significantly higher after pM than pU vaccination in some cases. Neutralizing antibody was produced in response to the two vaccines, but antibody titers did not show consistent correlation with protection. The results show that the rainbow trout innate and adaptive immune responses have some ability to distinguish between the U and M genogroup IHNV, but overall the pM and pU vaccines were protective against both homologous and cross-genogroup challenges.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 03/2011; 31(1):43-51. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Karen P Plant, Scott E Lapatra
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disease prevention is essential to the continued development of aquaculture around the world. Vaccination is the most effective method of combating disease and currently there are a number of vaccines commercially available for use in fish. The majority of aquatic vaccines are delivered by injection, which is by far the most effective method when compared to oral or immersion deliveries. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible for large numbers of fish under 20 g. Attempts to develop novel oral and immersion delivery methods have resulted in varying degrees of success but may have great potential for the future.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 03/2011; 35(12):1256-62. · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been classified as a member of the family of Alloherpesviridae within the order of Herpesvirales. One of the unique features of Herpesviridae is latent infection following a primary infection. However, KHV latency has not been recognized. To determine if latency occurs in clinically normal fish from facilities with a history of KHV infection or exposure, the presence of the KHV genome was investigated in healthy koi by PCR and Southern blotting. KHV DNA, but not infectious virus or mRNAs from lytic infection, was detected in white blood cells from investigated koi. Virus shedding was examined via tissue culture and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) testing of gill mucus and feces from six koi every other day for 1 month. No infectious virus or KHV DNA was detected in fecal secretion or gill swabs, suggesting that neither acute nor persistent infection was present. To determine if KHV latent infections can be reactivated, six koi were subjected to a temperature stress regime. KHV DNA and infectious virus were detected in both gill and fecal swabs by day 8 following temperature stress. KHV DNA was also detectable in brain, spleen, gills, heart, eye, intestine, kidney, liver, and pancreas in euthanized koi 1 month post-temperature stress. Our study suggests that KHV may become latent in leukocytes and other tissues, that it can be reactivated from latency by temperature stress, and that it may be more widespread in the koi population than previously suspected.
    Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(10):4954-62. · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
278.16 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2013
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathobiology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Washington State University
      • Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology (VMP)
      Pullman, WA, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Idaho
      • Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources
      Moscow, Idaho, United States
  • 2011
    • United States Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Research Service (ARS)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2000–2011
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Global Health
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
    • University of Everett Washington
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • Kagoshima University
      • United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences
      Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 2009
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Faculty of Land and Food Systems
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2006–2008
    • USGS National Wetlands Research Center
      Lafayette, Louisiana, United States
  • 2004–2008
    • Hungarian Academy of Sciences
      • Institute for Veterinary Medical Research, MTA Centre for Agricultural Research
      Budapest, Budapest fovaros, Hungary
  • 2002
    • Sydvestjysk Sygehus
      Esbjærg, South Denmark, Denmark
  • 1999
    • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada