S E LaPatra

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (155)376.02 Total impact

  • Richard M Kocan · Scott LaPatra ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the effect of increasing exposure-dose on Ichthyophonus prevalence and infection intensity in experimentally infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Specific-pathogen free (SPF) trout were exposed per os to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts obtained from naturally infected donor fish, then sampled after 30 and 60 days post-exposure. Both in vitro explant culture and histology revealed that as the number of schizonts per dose increased there was a proportionate increase in the number of infected fish, as well as an increase in the number of infected organs; parasite density in individual infected organs also increased with dose. Explant culture revealed that all fish exposed to the highest dose (≥2,080 schizonts) became infected, while only 67% of those exposed to the intermediate dose (1,040 - 1,153 schizonts) were Ichthyophonus-positive after 60 days; Ichthyophonus was not detected in fish exposed to the 2 lowest doses (≤280 schizonts). Histologic examination of individual infected organs also revealed increasing infection prevalence and parasite density in response to exposure to increasing numbers of Ichthyophonus schizonts.
    Journal of Parasitology 09/2015; DOI:10.1645/14-716 · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Yong Zhou · Yuding Fan · Scott E LaPatra · Jie Ma · Jin Xu · Yan Meng · Nan Jiang · Lingbing Zeng ·
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    ABSTRACT: The major capsid protein (MCP) is the main immunogenic protein of iridoviruses, that has been widely used as an immunogen in vaccination trials. In this study, the codon-optimized giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) MCP gene (O-MCP) was synthesized and cloned into a pPICZα B vector for secretory expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris after methanol induction. The expression of the O-MCP protein was detected by the Bradford protein assay, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and electron microscopy. The Bradford protein assay indicated that the concentration of the O-MCP expressed was about 40μg/ml in culture supernatants. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the O-MCP had a molecular weight of about 66kDa and reacted with a His-specific MAb that was confirmed by Western blotting. Electron microscopy observations revealed that the purified O-MCP could self-assemble into virus-like particles. Healthy giant salamanders were vaccinated by intramuscular injection with the O-MCP antigen at a dose of 20μg/individual. The numbers of erythrocytes and leukocytes in the peripheral blood of immunized Chinese giant salamanders increased significantly at day 3 and reached a peak at day 5 post-immunization. Meanwhile, the differential leukocyte counts of monocytes and neutrophils increased significantly at day 5 post-immunization compared to that of the control group. The percentage of lymphocytes was 71.33±3.57% at day 21 post-immunization. The neutralization assay showed that the serum neutralizing antibody titer reached 321 at day 21 post-immunization. The GSIV challenge test revealed that the relative percent survival of Chinese giant salamanders vaccinated with O-MCP was 78%. These results indicated that the O-MCP antigen expressed by the Pichia pastoris system elicited significant immune response in the Chinese giant salamander against GSIV and might represent a potential yeast-derived vaccine candidate that could be used for the control of disease caused by the giant salamander iridovirus. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 08/2015; 33(42). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.054 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    I Salinas · E B Erhardt · S E LaPatra ·
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the earliest age at which farmed fish can be successfully vaccinated is a very important question for fish farmers. Nasal vaccines are novel mucosal vaccines that prevent aquatic infectious diseases of finfish. The present study investigates the ontogeny of the olfactory organ of rainbow trout by histology and aims to establish the earliest age for vaccination against infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease using the nasal route. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated intranasally (I.N) at three different ages: 1050 degree days (DD) (group A); 450 DD (group B); and 360 DD (group C), or 70, 30 and 24 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. The mean weights of groups A, B and C were 4.69 g, 2.9 g and 2.37 g, respectively. Fish received either a live attenuated IHN virus vaccine, ERM formalin killed bacterin or saline (mock vaccinated). Fish were challenged to the corresponding live pathogen 28 days post-vaccination. IHN vaccine delivery at 360 DD resulted in 40% mortality likely due to residual virulence of the vaccine. No mortality was observed in the ERM nasal delivery groups. Following challenge, very high protection rates against IHN virus were recorded in all three age groups with survivals of 95%, 100% and 97.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival against ERM was 82.5%, 87.5% and 77.5% in groups A, B and C, respectively. Survival rates did not differ among ages for either vaccine. Our results indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of nasal vaccination as early as 360 DD and vaccination-related mortalities when a live attenuated viral vaccine was used in the youngest fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 06/2015; 53(1). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2015.05.015 · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Jie Ma · Nan Jiang · Scott E. LaPatra · Ling Jin · Jin Xu · Yuding Fan · Yong Zhou · Lingbing Zeng ·
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    ABSTRACT: Haematopoietic necrosis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) and has caused huge economic losses in aquaculture worldwide. Currently the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2 in vitro is very difficult due to the lack of permissive cell lines. Studies on the pathogenesis of CyHV-2 have been hampered because the virus has not been extensively characterized. In this study, a novel cell line from the brain of gibel carp, denoted GiCB, has been established and characterized. Sustainable propagation of CyHV-2 in the GiCB cell line has been confirmed by virus infection and titration, PCR, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The GiCB cells showed typical cytopathic effect by day 6 post-infection with CyHV-2 including cell shrinkage, rounding, and cell fusion with cytoplasmic vacuolization. The virus titer reached 10(7.5±0.37)TCID50/ml and has been successfully passaged over 50 times in the GiCB cell line. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the complete replication of CyHV-2 in GiCB cells. CyHV-2-infected GiCB cells reacted strongly with polyclonal antibodies against CyHV-2 and CyHV-2 RNA in cells hybridized specifically with the virus RNA probes. Additionally, an experimental infection demonstrated that CyHV-2 produced in GiCB cells caused 100% mortality in gibel carp. All the results provide solid evidence that the GiCB cell line is highly permissive for the isolation and propagation of CyHV-2. This is a significant advancement that will promote additional research on CyHV-2 infection in fish in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Microbiology 04/2015; 177(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.04.006 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    J. P. Evenhuis · T.D. Leeds · D.P. Marancik · S.E. LaPatra · G.D. Wiens ·
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    ABSTRACT: Columnaris disease (CD), caused by Flavobacterium columnare, is an emerging disease affecting rainbow trout aquaculture. Objectives of this study were to 1) estimate heritability of CD resistance in a rainbow trout line (ARS-Fp-R) previously selected 4 generations for improved bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance; 2) estimate genetic correlations among CD resistance, BCWD resistance, and growth to market BW; and 3) compare CD resistance among the ARS-Fp-R, ARS-Fp-S (selected 1 generation for increased BCWD susceptibility), and ARS-Fp-C (selection control) lines. Heritability of CD resistance was estimated using data from a waterborne challenge of 44 full-sib ARS-Fp-R families produced using a paternal half-sib mating design, and genetic correlations were estimated using these data and 5 generations of BCWD resistance, 9-mo BW (approximately 0.5 kg), and 12-mo BW (approximately 1.0 kg) data from 405 ARS-Fp-R full-sib families. The CD and BCWD challenges were initiated at approximately 52 and 84 d posthatch, or approximately 650 and 1,050 degree days (°C × d), respectively. Survival of ARS-Fp-R families ranged from 0 to 48% following CD challenge and heritability estimates were similar between CD (0.17 ± 0.09) and BCWD (0.18 ± 0.03) resistance, and the genetic correlation between these 2 traits was favorable (0.35 ± 0.25). Genetic correlations were small and antagonistic (–0.15 ± 0.08 to –0.19 ± 0.24) between the 2 resistance traits and 9- and 12-mo BW. Two challenges were conducted in consecutive years to compare CD resistance among ARS-Fp-R, ARS-Fp-C, and ARS-Fp-S families. In the first challenge, ARS-Fp-R families (83% survival) had greater CD resistance than ARS-Fp-C (73.5%; P = 0.02) and ARS-Fp-S (68%; P < 0.001) families, which did not differ (P = 0.16). In the second challenge, using an approximately 2.5-fold greater challenge dose, ARS-Fp-R families exhibited greater CD resistance (56% survival) than ARS-Fp-S (38% survival; P = 0.02) families. The favorable genetic correlation between CD and BCWD resistance is supported by greater CD resistance of the ARS-Fp-R line compared to the ARS-Fp-C and ARS-Fp-S lines and suggests that both traits will be improved simultaneously when selection is practiced on only 1 trait. In summary, these data indicate the feasibility of further selective breeding of the BCWD-resistant ARS-Fp-R line for increased CD resistance to produce a double pathogen–resistant line of rainbow trout.
    Journal of Animal Science 03/2015; 93(4). DOI:10.2527/jas.2014-8566 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    Michael C Nelson · Scott E LaPatra · Timothy J Welch · Joerg Graf ·
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    ABSTRACT: We present the complete, closed, and finished chromosomal and extrachromosomal genome sequences of Yersinia ruckeri strain CSF007-82, the etiologic agent of enteric red mouth disease in salmonid fish. The chromosome is 3,799,036 bp with a G+C content of 47.5% and encodes 3,530 predicted coding sequences (CDS), 7 ribosomal operons, and 80 tRNAs.
    Genome Announcements 01/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1128/genomeA.01491-14
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    Scott LaPatra · Samantha Kao · Erik B Erhardt · Irene Salinas ·
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    ABSTRACT: Farmed fish are susceptible to different infectious disease agents including viruses and bacteria. Thus, multivalent vaccines or vaccination programs against two or more pathogens are valuable tools in aquaculture. Recently, nasal vaccines have been shown to be very effective in rainbow trout. The current study investigates, for the first time, the use of the nasal route in dual vaccination trials against two important aquatic diseases, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHN) and enteric red mouth (ERM) disease. Rainbow trout received live attenuated IHN virus (IHNV) vaccine and the ERM bacterin using four different vaccine delivery methods and were challenged with virulent IHNV or Yersinia ruckeri 7 (100deg day) and 28 (400deg day) days post-vaccination. The highest survival rates against IHNV at day 7 were obtained by nasal vaccination either when IHNV and ERM were delivered separately into each nare or when they were premixed and delivered to both nasal rosettes (group D). Protection at 28 days against IHNV was similar in all four vaccinated groups. Early protection against ERM was highest in fish that received each vaccine in separate nares (group B), whereas protection at 28 days was highest in the i.p. vaccinated group (group E), followed by the nasally vaccinated group (group B). Survival results were supported by histological observations of the left and right olfactory organ which showed strong immune responses one day (14deg days) after vaccination in group B vaccinated fish. These data indicate that dual vaccination against two different pathogens via the nasal route is a very effective vaccination strategy for use in aquaculture, particularly when each nare is used separately during delivery. Further long-term studies should evaluate the contribution of adaptive immunity to the protection levels observed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Vaccine 01/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.12.055 · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • Wenzhi Liu · Jin Xu · Jie Ma · Scott E. LaPatra · Yan Meng · Yu-ding Fan · Yong Zhou · Xin Yang · Lingbing Zeng ·
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    ABSTRACT: Chinese giant salamander hemorrhage is a newly emerged infectious disease in China and has caused huge economic losses. The causative pathogen has been identified as the giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV). In this study, the immunological responses and protection in Chinese giant salamander immunized with β-propiolactone inactivated GSIV are reported. Red and white blood cell counting and classification, phagocytic activity, neutralizing antibody titration, immune-related gene expression and determination of the relative percent survival were evaluated after vaccination. The red and white blood cell counts showed that the numbers of erythrocytes and leukocytes in the peripheral blood of immunized Chinese giant salamanders increased significantly on days 4 and 7 post-injection (P < 0.01). Additionally, the differential leukocyte count of monocytes and neutrophils were significantly different compared to the control group (P < 0.01); the percentage of lymphocytes was 70.45 ± 7.52% at day 21. The phagocytic percentage and phagocytic index was 38.78 ± 4.33% and 3.75 ± 0.52, respectively, at day 4 post-immunization which were both significantly different compared to the control group (P < 0.01). The serum neutralizing antibody titer increased at day 14 post-immunization and reached the highest titer (341 ± 9.52) at day 21. The quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the immunization significantly up-regulated the expression of immune related genes TLR-9 and MyD88 the first two weeks after immunization. The challenge test conducted at day 30 post-injection demonstrated that the immunized group produced a relative survival of 72%. These results indicate that the inactivated GSIV could elicit significant non-specific and specific immunological responses in Chinese giant salamander that resulted in significant protection against GSIV induced disease.
    Veterinary Microbiology 11/2014; 174(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.10.028 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in genotyping-by-sequencing have enabled genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in non-model species including those in aquaculture programs. As with other aquaculture species, rainbow trout and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are susceptible to disease and outbreaks can lead to significant losses. Fish culturists have therefore been pursuing strategies to prevent losses to common pathogens such as Flavobacterium psychrophilum (the etiological agent for bacterial cold water disease (CWD)) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by adjusting feed formulations, vaccine development, and selective breeding. However, discovery of genetic markers linked to disease resistance offers the potential to utilize marker assisted selection to increase resistance and reduce outbreaks. For this study we sampled juvenile fish from 40 families from two year classes that either survived or died following controlled exposure to either CWD or IHNV. Restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing produced 4,661 polymorphic SNP loci after strict filtering. Genotypes from individual survivors and mortalities were then used to test for association between disease resistance and genotype at each locus using the program TASSEL. After accounting for kinship and stratification of the samples, tests revealed 12 SNP markers that were highly associated with resistance to CWD and 19 markers associated with resistance to IHNV. These markers are candidates for further investigation and are expected to be useful for marker assisted selection in future broodstock selection for various aquaculture programs.
    G3-Genes Genomes Genetics 10/2014; DOI:10.1534/g3.114.014621 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mucosal surfaces of all vertebrates have been exposed to similar evolutionary pressures for millions of years. In terrestrial vertebrates such as birds and mammals, the nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) represents a first line of immune defence. Here we propose that NALT is an ancient arm of the mucosal immune system not restricted to terrestrial vertebrates. We find that NALT is present in rainbow trout and that it resembles other teleost mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Trout NALT consists of diffuse lymphoid cells and lacks tonsils and adenoids. The predominant B-cell subset found in trout NALT are IgT(+) B cells, similar to skin and gut. The trout olfactory organ is colonized by abundant symbiotic bacteria, which are coated by trout secretory immunoglobulin. Trout NALT is capable of mounting strong anti-viral immune responses following nasal delivery of a live attenuated viral vaccine. Our results open up a new tool for the control of aquatic infectious diseases via nasal vaccination.
    Nature Communications 10/2014; 5:5205. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6205 · 11.47 Impact Factor
  • Richard A. Glenn · Ann L. Gannam · Scott E. LaPatra ·
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    ABSTRACT: Rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis oil has shown potential for use as a phytobiotic fish feed supplement with antioxidant properties that can inhibit the growth of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the pathogen that causes bacterial cold-water disease (BCWD). To determine the in vivo effectiveness of rosemary oil in preventing or minimizing BCWD, Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were fed commercial feed top-coated with one of two concentrations of rosemary oil (1% or 3% of the feed) or a control diet for 14 d. Fish from each feed treatment were then challenged with one of two doses of F. psychrophilum via subcutaneous injection, and mortality was monitored for 28 d. In both F. psychrophilum challenges, fish treated with feed coated with rosemary oil at the 1% and 3% levels experienced significantly higher mortality than fish treated with only soybean oil–coated feed. While the use of rosemary oil as a top-coat on feed increased mortality among Rainbow Trout subjected to a disease challenge in the current study, the mechanism for this result has not been established.Received January 22, 2014; accepted April 18, 2014
    North American Journal of Aquaculture 10/2014; 76(4). DOI:10.1080/15222055.2014.920749 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The genome sequence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum strain CSF259-93, isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), consists of a single circular genome of 2,900,735 bp and 2,701 predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Strain CSF259-93 has been used to select a line of rainbow trout with increased genetic resistance against bacterial cold water disease.
    Genome Announcements 09/2014; 2(5). DOI:10.1128/genomeA.00889-14
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    Scott E. LaPatra · Tyson R. Fehringer · Kenneth D. Cain ·
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the potential for protection against Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection, a study was conducted where a probiotic, Enterobacter sp. strain C6-6, was delivered to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, via injection. Two separate studies were conducted. In a preliminary study groups of rainbow trout (mean weight, 2 g) were either left unhandled or intramuscularly (IM) injected with a standardized concentration of either a 48 or 72 h culture of C6-6 and subsequently challenged with two different doses of F. psychrophilum 7, 28 and 56 days post-injection (PI). The relative survival ranged from 66 to 87%, 42 to 53% and 0 to 18% at 7, 28 and 56 days PI, respectively. In the second study groups of rainbow trout (mean weight, 1.3 g) received either an intraperitoneal injection (IP) of phosphate buffered saline (PBS; negative control), supernatant from a C6-6 culture, formalin killed C6-6, or live C6-6 and were subsequently challenged with F. psychrophilum 7 or 28 days PI. Log rank survival analysis showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in mortality for fish receiving these treatments at both 7 and 28 days PI. Injection of live C6-6 resulted in the lowest mortality at either time point and cumulative mortality at 7 days PI was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in fish receiving formalin killed (62.7 ± 7.4%) or live Enterobacter C6-6 (48 ± 6.9%) when compared to the negative controls (92 ± 2.3%). Additionally, at 28 days PI, fish receiving the formalin killed or live C6-6 had significantly increased antibody titers against F. psychrophilum. This was not expected and suggests that protection observed at 28 days could be in part due to a cross protective adaptive immune response. Antibody titers were not detected at 7 days PI but significant protection was observed and indicates that innate immunity was responsible for this. Taken together, results from this study indicate that protection against F. psychrophilum after either IM or IP injection of this naturally occurring bacterium, either alive or dead, is at least in part dependent on the enhanced immune function(s) of the treated fish. This may shed light on protective mechanisms associated with the use of the Enterobacter sp. and may be useful as a potential alternate strategy for reducing the impacts from F. psychrophilum infection through non-specific immune-enhancement during times of increased fish stress or as a possible adjuvant.
    Aquaculture 09/2014; 433:361–366. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.06.022 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    Nan Wu · Scott E LaPatra · Jun Li · J Oriol Sunyer · Yong-An Zhang ·
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    ABSTRACT: C5a, the most potent anaphylatoxin generated during complement activation, has important pro-inflammatory actions and has also been shown to enhance antigen-specific antibody response in mammals, thereby acting as a molecular adjuvant. In rainbow trout, C5a has been shown to have a chemoattractant ability and its receptor has also been found on potential APCs. In this study, we tested the possible role of trout C5a as a molecular adjuvant. We demonstrated the presence of native C5a in trout serum using the antibody generated by recombinant trout C5a, and then we generated recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus glycoprotein (G), and a G-C5a fusion protein to test the adjuvant activity of trout C5a. Recombinant G-C5a displayed a potent chemoattractant activity in contrast to G alone, indicating that the C5a portion of the fusion protein was functional. Thereafter, G-C5a, partially emulsified in a small quantity of IFA, was injected into one group of trout, while the other group of trout was inoculated with the same dose of recombinant G. At four to sixteen weeks post-injection, the serum IgM antibody levels of the fish injected with recombinant G-C5a were obviously higher than those injected with G protein alone. Thus, these results suggest, for the first time, that C5a acts as molecular adjuvant in teleost fish by enhancing antibody response to a soluble antigen.
    Fish &amp Shellfish Immunology 08/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1016/j.fsi.2014.08.013 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    Karen P. Plant · Scott E. LaPatra · Douglas R. Call · Kenneth D. Cain ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Flavobacterium psychrophilum gliding motility N (GldN) protein was investigated to determine its ability to elicit antibody responses and provide protective immunity in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). GldN was PCR amplified and cloned into pET102/D-TOPO and expressed in Escherichia coli. Bacteria expressing recombinant GldN (rGldN) were formalin inactivated and injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into rainbow trout with Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) in 4 separate studies that used two different immunization protocols followed by challenge evaluations. Fish injected with E. coli only in FCA served as the control. Antibody responses to F. psychrophilum whole cell lysates measured by ELISA were low in all 4 studies. Protection against F. psychrophilum challenge was observed in the first study but not in the 3 following studies. The discrepancies in results obtained in the later studies are unclear but may relate to formalin treatment of the antigen preparations. Overall it appeared that rGldN delivered i.p. as a crude formalin killed preparation is not a consistent vaccine candidate and more work is required. Additionally, this study illustrates the importance of conducting multiple in-vivo evaluations on potential vaccine(s) before any conclusions are drawn.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 07/2014; 358(1). DOI:10.1111/1574-6968.12543 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM(+) WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM(+) WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM(-) WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM(+) WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM(+) WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at -127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. Importance: This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein-Barr virus and ICP4 from herpes simplex virus 1, which are genes important for latency. These strongly suggest that latency is evolutionally conserved across vertebrates.
    Journal of Virology 06/2014; 88(16). DOI:10.1128/JVI.00990-14 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • Jason P. Evenhuis · Scott E. LaPatra · David Marancik ·
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    ABSTRACT: Flavobacterium columnare is the etiologic agent of columnaris disease, a pervasive disease of fresh water finfish. During the past 4 years, losses that ranged from 5 to 50% in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry being reared at a constant 14.5 °C (mean weight, 0.2 g; ~ 400°days post-fertilization), have been occurring in Hagerman Valley, Idaho, USA. A total of 70 different F. columnare isolates were obtained from diseased fish and the water they were reared in. All of the isolates were confirmed to be genomovar I by 16S rRNA restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, 16S–23S rDNA spacer region and the gyrase B subunit genes from these 70 strains revealed no sequence differences among these isolates. Whole-cell protein profiling by SDS-PAGE also indicated low variation between isolates. Virulence was assessed for a representative isolate and demonstrated a high degree of pathogenicity against rainbow trout fry at 15 °C. These results suggest the emergence of a highly successful F. columnare strain that can affect very early life stages of fish being reared at a constant 14.5 °C at a commercial rainbow trout farm in Idaho.
    Aquaculture 01/2014; s 418–419:126–131. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2013.09.044 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Commensal microorganisms live in association with the mucosal surfaces of all vertebrates. The skin of teleost fish is known to harbor commensals. In this study we report for the first time the presence of an intracellular Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus warneri that resides in the skin epidermis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). S. warneri was isolated from healthy hatchery trout skin epithelial cells. In situ hybridization confirmed the intracellular nature of the bacterium. Skin explants exposed in vitro to S. warneri or the extracellular pathogen Vibrio anguillarum show that S. warneri is able to induce an anti-inflammatory cytokine status via TGF-β1b compared to the pro-inflammatory responses (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-∝) elicited by V. anguillarum. In vivo experiments showed that S. warneri is not pathogenic to rainbow trout when injected intraperitoneally at high concentrations. However, S. warneri is able to stimulate V. anguillarum growth and biofilm formation on rainbow trout scales. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout skin commensals such as S. warneri have the potential to become indirect pathobionts by enhancing growth and biofilm formation of pathogens such as V. anguillarum. These results show that fish farming practices (i.e. handling and other manipulations) can alter the skin microbiota and compromise the skin health of rainbow trout.
    Veterinary Microbiology 12/2013; 169(1). DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.12.012 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yersinia ruckeri is a well-established bacterial pathogen for many salmonid species, against which a formalin-killed bacterin vaccine has been effective in reducing disease outbreaks. Previous studies have reported conflicting results about the protective value of the systemic humoral response to Yersinia ruckeri vaccination. Here we directly demonstrate that plasma contains the long-term protective component elicited by both immersion and intraperitoneal injection vaccination of rainbow trout. A total of 0.5μL of plasma from vaccinated fish provided almost complete protection against experimental challenge. Conversely, the cells obtained from peripheral blood conferred little or no protection in naïve recipients. The protective component of immune sera was IgM based on size exclusion chromatography and recognition by monoclonal antibody Warr 1-14. Immune plasma generated against a Y. ruckeri biotype 1 strain protected equally against challenges with Y. ruckeri biotype 1 and 2 strains. These results illustrate the importance of the humoral IgM response against Y. ruckeri and the use of doubled haploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and transfer of plasma/serum and cells into F1 outcross progeny as a model system for dissection of the mechanism(s) of vaccine-induced protection.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 12/2013; 44(1). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2013.12.004 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skin homeostasis is critical to preserve animal integrity. Although the skin of most vertebrates is known to contain a skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), very little is known about skin B-cell responses as well as their evolutionary origins. Teleost fish represent the most ancient bony vertebrates containing a SALT. Due to its lack of keratinization, teleost skin possesses living epithelial cells in direct contact with the water medium. Interestingly, teleost SALT structurally resembles that of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and it possesses a diverse microbiota. Thus, we hypothesized that, because teleost SALT and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have probably been subjected to similar evolutionary selective forces, their B-cell responses would be analogous. Confirming this hypothesis, we show that IgT, a teleost immunoglobulin specialized in gut immunity, plays the prevailing role in skin mucosal immunity. We found that IgT(+) B cells represent the major B-cell subset in the skin epidermis and that IgT is mainly present in polymeric form in the skin mucus. Critically, we found that the majority of the skin microbiota are coated with IgT. Moreover, IgT responses against a skin parasite were mainly limited to the skin whereas IgM responses were almost exclusively detected in the serum. Strikingly, we found that the teleost skin mucosa showed key features of mammalian mucosal surfaces exhibiting a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Thus, from an evolutionary viewpoint, our findings suggest that, regardless of their phylogenetic origin and tissue localization, the chief immunoglobulins of all mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue operate under the guidance of primordially conserved principles.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; 110(32). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1304319110 · 9.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
376.02 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1997-2013
    • Washington State University
      • • Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology (VMP)
      • • Department of Animal Sciences
      پولمن، واشینگتن, Washington, United States
  • 2005-2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Pathobiology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2009
    • Technical University of Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2008
    • USGS National Wetlands Research Center
      Lafayette, Louisiana, United States
  • 2000
    • Oregon State University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Corvallis, Oregon, United States