[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to improve gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis by identifying and validating an INflammatory PROtein-driven GAstric cancer Signature (hereafter INPROGAS) using low-cost affinity proteomics. The detection of 120 cytokines, 43 angiogenic factors, 41 growth factors, 40 inflammatory factors and 10 metalloproteinases was performed using commercially available human antibody microarray-based arrays. We identified 21 inflammation-related proteins (INPROGAS) with significant differences in expression between GC tissues and normal gastric mucosa in a discovery cohort of matched pairs (n=10) of tumor/normal gastric tissues. Ingenuity pathway analysis confirmed the "inflammatory response", "cellular movement" and "immune cell trafficking" as the most overrepresented biofunctions within INPROGAS. Using an expanded independent validation cohort (n = 22), INPROGAS classified gastric samples as "GC" or "non-GC" with a sensitivity of 82% (95% CI 59-94) and a specificity of 73% (95% CI 49-89). The positive predictive value and negative predictive value in this validation cohort were 75% (95% CI 53-90) and 80% (95% CI 56-94), respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value in this validation cohort were 75% (95% CI 53-90) and 80% (95% CI 56-94), respectively. Antibody microarray analyses of the GC-associated inflammatory proteome identified a 21-protein INPROGAS that accurately discriminated GC from noncancerous gastric mucosa.