[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to elucidate high K(+)-induced relaxation in the human gastric fundus. Circular smooth muscle from the human gastric fundus greater curvature showed stretch-dependent high K(+) (50 mM)-induced contractions. However, longitudinal smooth muscle produced stretch-dependent high K(+)-induced relaxation. We investigated several relaxation mechanisms to understand the reason for the discrepancy. Protein kinase inhibitors such as KT 5823 (1 µM) and KT 5720 (1 µM) which block protein kinases (PKG and PKA) had no effect on high K(+)-induced relaxation. K(+) channel blockers except 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a voltage-dependent K(+) channel (K(V)) blocker, did not affect high K(+)-induced relaxation. However, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo (4,3-A)quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitors of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and 4-AP inhibited relaxation and reversed relaxation to contraction. High K(+)-induced relaxation of the human gastric fundus was observed only in the longitudinal muscles from the greater curvature. These data suggest that the longitudinal muscle of the human gastric fundus greater curvature produced high K(+)-induced relaxation that was activated by the nitric oxide/sGC pathway through a K(V) channel-dependent mechanism.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 10/2012; 16(5):297-303. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to elucidate high-K(+)induced response of circular and longitudinal smooth muscle from human gastric corpus using isometric contraction. Contraction from circular and longitudinal muscle stripes of gastric corpus greater curvature and lesser curvature were compared. Circular smooth muscle from corpus greater curvature showed high K(+) (50 mM)-induced tonic contraction. On the contrary, however, longitudinal smooth muscle strips showed high K(+) (50 mM)-induced sustained relaxation. To find out the reason for the discrepancy we tested several relaxation mechanisms. Protein kinase blockers like KT5720, PKA inhibitor, and KT5823, PKG inhibitor, did not affect high K(+)-induced relaxation. K(+) channel blockers like tetraethylammonium (TEA), apamin (APA), glibenclamide (Glib) and barium (Ba(2+)) also had no effect. However, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo (4,3-A) quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and 4-AP (4-aminopyridine), voltage-dependent K(+) channel (K(V)) blocker, inhibited high K(+)-induced relaxation, hence reversing to tonic contraction. High K(+)-induced relaxation was observed in gastric corpus of human stomach, but only in the longitudinal muscles from greater curvature not lesser curvature. L-NNA, ODQ and K(V) channel blocker sensitive high K(+)-induced relaxation in longitudinal muscle of higher portion of corpus was also observed. These results suggest that longitudinal smooth muscle from greater curvature of gastric corpus produced high K(+)-induced relaxation which was activated by NO/sGC pathway and by K(V) channel dependent mechanism.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 12/2011; 15(6):405-13. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We elucidated the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in human stomach, using cryosection and c-Kit immunohistochemistry to identify c-Kit positive ICC. Before c-Kit staining, we routinely used hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining to identify every structure of human stomach, from mucosa to longitudinal muscle. HE staining revealed that the fundus greater curvature (GC) had prominent oblique muscle layer, and c-Kit immunostaining c-Kit positive ICC cells were found to have typical morphology of dense fusiform cell body with multiple processes protruding from the central cell body. In particular, we could observe dense processes and ramifications of ICC in myenteric area and longitudinal muscle layer of corpus GC. Interestingly, c-Kit positive ICC-like cells which had morphology very similar to ICC were found in gastric mucosa. We could not find any significant difference in the distribution of ICC between fundus and corpus, except for submucosa where the density of ICC was much higher in gastric fundus than corpus. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the density of ICC between each area of fundus and corpus, except for muscularis mucosa. Finally, we also found similar distribution of ICC in normal and cancerous tissue obtained from a patient who underwent pancreotomy and gastrectomy. In conclusion, ICC was found ubiquitously in human stomach and the density of ICC was significantly lower in the muscularis mucosa of both fundus/corpus and higher in the submucosa of gastric fundus than corpus.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 10/2010; 14(5):317-24. · 1.00 Impact Factor