[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to evaluate the inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on nuclear-factor- (NF-) κ B in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. RAW 264.7 cells were pretreated with indicated concentrations of ginsenoside Rh2 for 1 h prior to the incubation of LPS (1 μ g/mL) for indicated time period. Ginsenoside Rh2 reduced CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions 24 h after LPS stimulation. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rh2 significantly inhibited TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) phosphorylation 30 min after LPS stimulation. Ginsenoside Rh2 was further shown to inhibit NF- κ B p65 translocation into the nucleus by suppressing I κ B- α degradation. Also, LPS increased mRNA expression of TNF- α and IL-1 α time-dependently, while TQ reduced TNF- α within 3 h and IL-1 α within 1 h. And we firstly found that pretreatment of ginsenoside Rh2 successively inhibited hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1 α expression increased by LPS. In conclusion, ginsenoside Rh2 may inhibit LPS-induced NF- κ B activation and reduce HIF-1 α accumulation, suggesting that ginsenoside Rh2 may be considered as a potential therapeutic candidate for chronic inflammatory diseases.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2013; 2013(7):646728. DOI:10.1155/2013/646728 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hepatoprotective activity and molecular mechanism of betulinic acid (BA) was investigated on acute liver failure induced by d-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo.
Mice were administered with different doses of BA (20 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before injection of D-GalN (700 mg/kg)/LPS (10 µg/kg) and sacrificed 6 h after treatment with D-GalN/LPS.
Pretreatment with BA significantly prevented the increases of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, while it increased the content of glutathione and catalase, and reduced malondialdehyde. BA showed obvious anti-oxidant effects and prevented D-GalN/LPS-induced apoptosis, as indicated by DNA ladder. BA treatment resulted in regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase. We found that BA mediated production of c-jun NH(2) -terminal protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase induced by D-GalN/LPS, promoted the expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and restored mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization.
The results suggested that BA prevented D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure by upregulation of Bcl-2 and antioxidation and mediation of cytokines causing apoptotic cell death and lessened liver damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa (GM) on acute alcohol-induced fatty liver. Mice were treated with ethanol (5 g/kg of body weight) by gavage every 12 h for a total of three doses to induce acute fatty liver. Methanol extract of GM (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or silymarin (100 mg/kg) was gavaged simultaneously with ethanol for three doses. GM administration significantly reduced the increases in serum ALT and AST levels, the serum and hepatic triglyceride levels, at 4 h after the last ethanol administration. GM was also found to prevent ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and necrosis, as indicated by liver histopathological studies. Additionally, GM suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, restored the glutathione (GSH) levels, and enhanced the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities. The concurrent administration of GM efficaciously abrogated cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction. Moreover, GM significantly reduced the nuclear translocation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (nSREBP-1) in ethanol-treated mice. These data indicated that GM possessed the ability to prevent ethanol-induced acute liver steatosis, possibly through blocking CYP2E1-mediated free radical scavenging effects and SREBP-1-regulated fatty acid synthesis. Especially, GM may be developed as a potential therapeutic candidate for ethanol-induced oxidative damage in liver.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2010; 58(24):13013-9. DOI:10.1021/jf103976y · 2.91 Impact Factor