[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outcomes of three protocols of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer were evaluated. A total of 259 patients treated with 5-field IMRT between 2005 and 2011 were analyzed. First, 74 patients were treated with a daily fraction of 2.0 Gy to a total of 74 Gy (low risk) or 78 Gy (intermediate or high risk). Then, 101 patients were treated with a 2.1-Gy daily fraction to 73.5 or 77.7 Gy. More recently, 84 patients were treated with a 2.2-Gy fraction to 72.6 or 74.8 Gy. The median patient age was 70 years (range, 54-82) and the follow-up period for living patients was 47 months (range, 18-97). Androgen deprivation therapy was given according to patient risk. The overall and biochemical failure-free survival rates were, respectively, 96 and 82% at 6 years in the 2.0-Gy group, 99 and 96% at 4 years in the 2.1-Gy group, and 99 and 96% at 2 years in the 2.2-Gy group. The biochemical failure-free rate for high-risk patients in all groups was 89% at 4 years. Incidences of Grade ≥2 acute genitourinary toxicities were 9.5% in the 2.0-Gy group, 18% in the 2.1-Gy group, and 15% in the 2.2-Gy group (P = 0.29). Cumulative incidences of Grade ≥2 late gastrointestinal toxicity were 13% in the 2.0-Gy group at 6 years, 12% in the 2.1-Gy group at 4 years, and 3.7% in the 2.2-Gy group at 2 years (P = 0.23). So far, this stepwise shortening of treatment periods seems to be successful.
Journal of Radiation Research 10/2013; · 1.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation proctitis after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) differs from that seen after pelvic irradiation in that this adverse event is a result of high-dose radiation to a very small area in the rectum. We evaluated the results of treatment for hemorrhagic proctitis after IMRT for prostate cancer.
Between November 2004 and February 2010, 403 patients with prostate cancer were treated with IMRT at 2 institutions. Among these patients, 64 patients who developed late rectal bleeding were evaluated. Forty patients had received IMRT using a linear accelerator and 24 by tomotherapy. Their median age was 72 years. Each patient was assessed clinically and/or endoscopically. Depending on the severity, steroid suppositories or enemas were administered up to twice daily and Argon plasma coagulation (APC) was performed up to 3 times. Response to treatment was evaluated using the Rectal Bleeding Score (RBS), which is the sum of Frequency Score (graded from 1 to 3 by frequency of bleeding) and Amount Score (graded from 1 to 3 by amount of bleeding). Stoppage of bleeding over 3 months was scored as RBS 1.
The median follow-up period for treatment of rectal bleeding was 35 months (range, 12-69 months). Grade of bleeding was 1 in 31 patients, 2 in 26, and 3 in 7. Nineteen of 45 patients (42%) observed without treatment showed improvement and bleeding stopped in 17 (38%), although mean RBS did not change significantly. Eighteen of 29 patients (62%) treated with steroid suppositories or enemas showed improvement (mean RBS, from 4.1 ± 1.0 to 3.0 ± 1.8, p = 0.003) and bleeding stopped in 9 (31%). One patient treated with steroid enema 0.5-2 times a day for 12 months developed septic shock and died of multiple organ failure. All 12 patients treated with APC showed improvement (mean RBS, 4.7 ± 1.2 to 2.3 ± 1.4, p < 0.001) and bleeding stopped in 5 (42%).
After adequate periods of observation, steroid suppositories/enemas are expected to be effective. However, short duration of administration with appropriate dosage should be appropriate. Even when patients have no response to pharmacotherapy, APC is effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between waiting time (WT) and disease progression in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung adenocarcinoma (AD) or squamous cell carcinoma (SQ).
201 patients with Stage I AD or SQ undergoing SBRT between January 2004 and June 2010 were analyzed. The WT was defined as the interval between diagnostic computed tomography before referral and computed tomography for treatment planning or positioning before SBRT. Tumor size was measured on the slice of the longest tumor diameter, and tumor volume was calculated from the longest diameter and the diameter perpendicular to it. Changes in tumor volume and TNM stage progression were evaluated, and volume doubling time (VDT) was estimated.
The median WT was 42 days (range, 5-323 days). There was a correlation between WT and rate of increase in volume in both AD and SQ. The median VDTs of AD and SQ were 170 and 93 days, respectively. Thirty-six tumors (23%) did not show volume increase during WTs >25 days. In 41 patients waiting for ≤4 weeks, no patient showed T stage progression, whereas in 25 of 120 (21%) patients waiting for >4 weeks, T stage progressed from T1 to T2 (p = 0.001). In 10 of 110 (9.1%) T1 ADs and 15 of 51 (29%) T1 SQs, T stage progressed (p = 0.002). N stage and M stage progressions were not observed.
Generally, a WT of ≤4 weeks seems to be acceptable. The WT seems to be more important in SQ than in AD.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2010; 82(1):463-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor