[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 4th electron transferring tryptophan in animal cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases is discovered and functionally analyzed by transient absorption. It yields a much longer-lived flavin-tryptophan radical pair than the mere tryptophan triad in related flavoproteins, questioning the putative role of the primary light reaction of cryptochrome in animal magnetoreception.
Chemical Communications 08/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5CC06276D · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imidazole was tethered to the C5 position of thymine in the ATP-binding DNA aptamer with two types of linkers, and the affinities of each aptamer for ATP and AMP were determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements. The imidazole-tethered aptamers exhibited higher affinity for ATP, almost independently of the linker structure or the modification site.
The Analyst 07/2015; 140(17). DOI:10.1039/C5AN01347J · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein complex is a key factor that detects DNA damage and initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) in mammalian cells. Although biochemical and structural studies have elucidated the interaction of XPC with damaged DNA, the mechanism of its regulation in vivo remains to be understood in more details. Here, we show that the XPC protein undergoes modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins and the lack of this modification compromises the repair of UV-induced DNA photolesions. In the absence of SUMOylation, XPC is normally recruited to the sites with photolesions, but then immobilized profoundly by the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein (UV-DDB) complex. Since the absence of UV-DDB alleviates the NER defect caused by impaired SUMOylation of XPC, we propose that this modification is critical for functional interactions of XPC with UV-DDB, which facilitate the efficient damage handover between the two damage recognition factors and subsequent initiation of NER.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bent structures are formed in DNA by the binding of small molecules or proteins. We developed a chemical method to detect bent DNA structures. Oligonucleotide duplexes in which two mercaptoalkyl groups were attached to the positions facing each other across the major groove were prepared. When the duplex contained the cisplatin adduct, which was proved to induce static helix bending, interstrand disulfide bond formation under an oxygen atmosphere was detected by HPLC analyses, but not in the non-adducted duplex, when the two thiol-tethered nucleosides were separated by six base pairs. When the insert was five and seven base pairs, the disulfide bond was formed and was not formed, respectively, regardless of the cisplatin adduct formation. The same reaction was observed in the duplexes containing an abasic site analog and the (6-4) photoproduct. Compared with the cisplatin case, the disulfide bond formation was slower in these duplexes, but the reaction rate was nearly independent of the linker length. These results indicate that dynamic structural changes of the abasic site- and (6-4) photoproduct-containing duplexes could be detected by our method. It is strongly suggested that the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein, which specifically binds these duplexes and functions at the first step of global-genome nucleotide excision repair, recognizes the easily bendable nature of damaged DNA.
PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117798. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117798 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photolyases (PHRs) utilize near UV/blue light to specifically repair the major photoproducts (PPs) of UV-induced damaged DNA. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD)-PHR binds flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and repairs CPD lesions in double-stranded DNA. To understand the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR, we applied light-induced difference Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to CPD-PHR, whose signals were identified by use of isotope-labeling. To further investigate the enzymatic function, here we study the activation and repair mechanism of CPD-PHR with the substrate in single strand DNA, and the obtained FTIR spectra are compared with those in double-stranded DNA, the natural substrate. The difference spectra of photoactivation, the fully-reduced (FADH-) minus semiquinone (FADH•) spectra, are almost identical in the presence of single strand and double-stranded DNA, except for slight spectral modification in the amide-I region. On the other hand, the difference spectra of photorepair were highly substrate dependent. Strong bands of the C=O stretch (1,720-1,690 cm-1) and phosphate vibrations (1,090-1,060 cm-1) of double-stranded DNA may have disappeared in the case of single strand DNA. However, an isotope-labeled enzyme study revealed that spectral features upon DNA repair are similar between both substrates, and the main reason for the apparent spectral difference originates from structural flexibility of DNA after repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observations of light-receptive enzyme complexes are usually complicated by simultaneous overlapping signals from the chromophore, apo-protein, and substrate, so that only the initial, ultrafast, photon-chromophore reaction, and the final, slow, protein conformational change provide separate, non-overlapping signals. Each provides its own advantages, whereas sometimes the overlapping signals from the intervening timescales still cannot be fully deconvoluted. We overcome the problem by using novel method to selectively isotope-label the apo-protein but not the FAD cofactor. This enabled the FTIR signals to be separated from apo-protein, FAD cofactor, and DNA substrate. Consequently, comprehensive structure-functional study by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the E. coli CPD-Photolyase (CPD-PHR) DNA repair enzyme was possible. FTIR signals could be identified and assigned upon FAD photoactivation and DNA repair which revealed protein dynamics for both processes, beyond simple one-electron reduction and ejection, respectively. The FTIR data suggests that the synergistic cofactor-protein partnership in CPD-PHR linked to changes in FAD shape upon one-electron reduction may be coordinated with conformational changes in the apo-protein, allowing it to fit the DNA substrate. Activation of CPD-PHR chromophore primes the apo-protein for subsequent DNA repair, suggesting that CPD-PHR is not simply an electron-ejecting structure. When FAD is activated, changes in its structure may trigger coordinated conformational changes in the apo-protein and thymine carbonyl of the substrate, highlighting the role of Glu275. In contrast, during DNA repair and release processes, primary conformational changes occur in the enzyme and DNA substrate, with little contribution from the FAD cofactor and surrounding amino acid residues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report bending flexibility of damaged duplexes possessing an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site analogue, a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), and a pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4PP). Based on the electrochemical evaluation on electrodes, the duplex flexibilities of the lesions increased in the following order: CPD < AP < 6-4PP. We discussed the possibility that the emerging local flexibility might be a good sign for UV-damaged DNA-binding proteins on duplexes.
Chemical Communications 08/2014; 50(76). DOI:10.1039/c4cc04513k · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To maintain genetic integrity, ultraviolet light-induced photoproducts in DNA must be removed by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, which is initiated by damage recognition and dual incisions of the lesion-containing strand. We intended to detect the dual-incision step of cellular NER, by using a fluorescent probe. A 140-base pair linear duplex containing the (6-4) photoproduct and a fluorophore-quencher pair was prepared first. However, this type of DNA was found to be degraded rapidly by nucleases in cells. Next, a plasmid was used as a scaffold. In this case, the fluorophore and the quencher were attached to the same strand, and we expected that the dual-incision product containing them would be degraded in cells. At 3 h after transfection of HeLa cells with the plasmid-type probes, fluorescence emission was detected at the nuclei by fluorescence microscopy only when the probe contained the (6-4) photoproduct, and the results were confirmed by flow cytometry. Finally, XPA fibroblasts and the same cells expressing the XPA gene were transfected with the photoproduct-containing probe. Although the transfer of the probe into the cells was slow, fluorescence was detected depending on the NER ability of the cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic information encoded in genomes must be faithfully replicated and transmitted to daughter cells. The recent discovery of consecutive DNA conversions by TET family proteins of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) suggests these modified cytosines act as DNA lesions, which could threaten genome integrity. Here, we have shown that although 5caC pairs with guanine during DNA replication in vitro, G·5caC pairs stimulated DNA polymerase exonuclease activity and were recognized by the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. Knockdown of thymine DNA glycosylase increased 5caC in genome, affected cell proliferation via MMR, indicating MMR is a novel reader for 5caC. These results suggest the epigenetic modification products of 5caC behave as DNA lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological risk assessment studies of chemical substances that induce DNA lesions have been primarily based on the action of DNA polymerases during replication. However, DNA lesions interfere not only with replication, but also with transcription. There is no simple method for the detection of the DNA lesion-induced inhibition of transcription. Here, we report an assay for estimating the toxicity of chemical substances by visualizing transcription in mammalian cells using nucleotide analog 5-ethynyluridine (EU) and its click chemistry reaction. Ultraviolet light and representative chemical substances (camptothecin, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, mitomycin C, and cisplatin, but not etoposide) of DNA- damaging agents show toxicity, as indicated by RNA synthesis inhibition in response to DNA damage in HeLa cells. Using titanium dioxide, we observed RNA synthesis inhibition in response to the rutile form, but not the anatase form, indicating that rutile titanium dioxide is a toxic substance. Because this method is based on the transcriptional response to DNA lesions, we can use terminally differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells, the differentiation of which can be induced by nerve growth factors, for evaluating chemical substances. Ultraviolet light and some chemicals (camptothecin, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, mitomycin C, and cisplatin, but not etoposide) inhibited RNA synthesis in non-differentiated PC12 cells. Conversely, camptothecin and cisplatin did not inhibit RNA synthesis in differentiated PC12 cells, but 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, mitomycin C, and etoposide did. And using titanium dioxide, we did not observed any RNA synthesis inhibition. These data suggest that this method might be used to estimate the potential risk of chemical substances in differentiated mammalian cells, which are the most common cell type found in the human body.
The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 03/2014; 39(2):293-9. DOI:10.2131/jts.39.293 · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because cells are constantly subjected to DNA damaging insults, DNA repair pathways are critical for genome integrity . DNA damage recognition protein complexes (DRCs) recognize DNA damage and initiate DNA repair. The DNA-Damage Binding protein 2 (DDB2) complex is a DRC that initiates nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet light (UV) -. Using a purified DDB2 DRC, we created a probe ("DDB2 proteo-probe") that hybridizes to nuclei of cells irradiated with UV and not to cells exposed to other genotoxins. The DDB2 proteo-probe recognized UV-irradiated DNA in classical laboratory assays, including cyto- and histo-chemistry, flow cytometry, and slot-blotting. When immobilized, the proteo-probe also bound soluble UV-irradiated DNA in ELISA-like and DNA pull-down assays. In vitro, the DDB2 proteo-probe preferentially bound 6-4-photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] rather than cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). We followed UV-damage repair by cyto-chemistry in cells fixed at different time after UV irradiation, using either the DDB2 proteo-probe or antibodies against CPDs, or (6-4)PPs. The signals obtained with the DDB2 proteo-probe and with the antibody against (6-4)PPs decreased in a nearly identical manner. Since (6-4)PPs are repaired only by nucleotide excision repair (NER), our results strongly suggest the DDB2 proteo-probe hybridizes to DNA containing (6-4)PPs and allows monitoring of their removal during NER. We discuss the general use of purified DRCs as probes, in lieu of antibodies, to recognize and monitor DNA damage and repair.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85896. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085896 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of DNA to ultraviolet light produces harmful crosslinks between adjacent pyrimidine bases, to form cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine(6-4)pyrimidone photoproducts. The CPD is frequently formed, and its repair mechanisms have been exclusively studied by using a CPD formed at a TT site. On the other hand, biochemical analyses using CPDs formed within cytosine-containing sequence contexts are practically difficult, because saturated cytosine easily undergoes hydrolytic deamination. Here, we found that N-alkylation of the exocyclic amino group of 2'-deoxycytidine prevents hydrolysis in CPD formation, and an N-methylated cytosine-containing CPD was stable enough to be derivatized into its phosphoramidite building block and incorporated into oligonucleotides. Kinetic studies of the CPD-containing oligonucleotide indicated that its lifetime under physiological conditions is relatively long (∼7 days). In biochemical analyses using human DNA polymerase η, incorporation of TMP opposite the N-methylcytosine moiety of the CPD was clearly detected, in addition to dGMP incorporation, and the incorrect TMP incorporation blocked DNA synthesis. The thermodynamic parameters confirmed the formation of this unusual base pair.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; 42(3). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt1039 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deamination of DNA bases can create missense mutations predisposing humans to cancer and also interfere with other basic molecular genetic processes; this deamination generates deoxyinosine from deoxyadenosine. In Escherichia coli, the highly conserved endonuclease V is involved in alternative excision repair that removes deoxyinosine from DNA. However, its exact activities and roles in humans are unknown. Here we characterize the FLJ35220 protein, the human homologue of E. coli endonuclease V, hEndoV as a ribonuclease specific for inosine-containing RNA. hEndoV preferentially binds to RNA and efficiently hydrolyses the second phosphodiester bond located 3' to the inosine in unpaired inosine-containing ssRNA regions in dsRNA. It localizes to the cytoplasm in cells. The ribonuclease activity is promoted by Tudor staphylococcal nuclease and detected on inosine-containing dsRNA created by the action of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA. These results demonstrate that hEndoV controls the fate of inosine-containing RNA in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It takes two (photons) to tango: Single-turnover flash experiments showed that the flavoenzyme (6-4) photolyase uses a successive two-photon mechanism to repair the UV-induced T(6-4)T lesion in DNA. The intermediate (X) formed by the first photoreaction is likely to be the oxetane-bridged dimer T(ox)T. The enzyme could stabilize the normally short-lived T(ox)T, allowing repair to be completed by the second photoreaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously developed a molecular beacon-type probe to detect the strand scission in cellular base excision repair, and found that the phosphodiester linkages in the fluorophore/quencher linkers were cleaved. This reaction was applied to a transfection reporter, which contained the unmodified phosphodiester in the linker to another type of fluorophore. After co-transfection of cells with the probe and the reporter, the signals were used to detect the incision and to confirm the proper transfection, respectively. This method will contribute to the prevention of false-negative results in experiments using molecular beacon-type probes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The (6-4) photoproduct is one of the major UV-induced lesions in DNA. We previously showed that hydrolytic ring opening of the 5' base and subsequent hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond of the 3' component occurred when this photoproduct was treated with aqueous NaOH. In this study, we found that another product was obtained when the (6-4) photoproduct was heated at 90 °C for 6 h, in a 0.1 M solution of N,N'-dimethyl-1,2-ethanediamine adjusted to pH 7.4 with acetic acid. An analysis of the chemical structure of this product revealed that the 5' base was intact, whereas the glycosidic bond at the 3' component was hydrolyzed in the same manner. The strand break was detected for a 30-mer oligonucleotide containing the (6-4) photoproduct upon treatment with the above solution or other pH 7.4 solutions containing biogenic amines, such as spermidine and spermine. In the case of spermidine, the rate constant was calculated to be 1.4 × 10(-8) s(-1) at 37 °C. The strand break occurred even when the oligonucleotide was heated at 90 °C in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), although this treatment produced several types of 5' fragments. The Dewar valence isomer was inert to this reaction. The product obtained from the (6-4) photoproduct-containing 30-mer was used to investigate the enzymatic processing of the 3' end bearing the damaged base and a phosphate. The ERCC1-XPF complex removed several nucleotides containing the damaged base, in the presence of replication protein A.