[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cd36 is a small-molecular-weight integral membrane protein expressed in a diverse, but select, range of cell types. It has an equally diverse range of ligands and physiological functions, which has implicated Cd36 in a number of diseases including insulin resistance, diabetes, and, most notably, atherosclerosis. The protein is reported to reside in detergent-resistant microdomains within the plasma membrane and to form homo- and hetero-intermolecular interactions. These data suggest that this class B scavenger receptor may gain functionality for ligand binding, and/or ligand internalization, by formation of protein complexes at the cell surface. Here, we have overexpressed Cd36 in insect cells, purified the recombinant protein to homogeneity, and analyzed its stability and solubility in a variety of nonionic and zwitterionic detergents. Octylglucoside conferred the greatest degree of stability, and by analytical ultracentrifugation we show that the protein is monomeric. A solid-phase ligand-binding assay demonstrated that the purified monomeric protein retains high affinity for acetylated and oxidized low-density lipoproteins. Therefore, no accessory proteins are required for interaction with ligand, and binding is a property of the monomeric fold of the protein. Thus, the highly purified and functional Cd36 should be suitable for crystallization in octylglucoside, and the in vitro ligand-binding assay represents a promising screen for identification of bioactive molecules targeting atherogenesis at the level of ligand binding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in CD36 / fatty acid translocase (FAT) gene are responsible for insulin resistance in the rat but contribution to human Type 2 diabetes is unknown. A nominal evidence for linkage of familial T2D at the CD36 locus led us to identify a rare nonsense mutation c.1079T>G (p.L360X) in one Caucasian pedigree presenting with autosomal dominant diabetes. Adiponectin levels, as marker of insulin sensitivity, were found to be significantly lower in the p.L360X variant carriers compared to homozygous for wild type CD36. Furthermore, expression studies of the truncated protein showed a defective binding of acetylated-LDL. Thus, our findings suggest a possible role for CD36 in the pathogenesis of T2D associated with reduced insulin sensitivity.
Human Mutation 08/2004; 24(1):104. DOI:10.1002/humu.9256 · 5.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet CD36 (glycoprotein [GP] IV) deficiency occurs in 3 to 5 percent of persons of Asian or African ancestry. A subset of these individuals is at risk for immunization against CD36, but the magnitude of this problem and its significance in transfusion medicine have not yet been clarified.
Clinical and laboratory aspects of neonatal thrombocytopenia involving five infants born to four CD36- mothers were characterized. The CD36 gene was sequenced in three mothers. The literature concerning isoimmunization against CD36 was reviewed and summarized.
Isoantibodies reactive with CD36 on normal platelets and platelets from the fathers were identified in each of the four mothers. Two African-American mothers were homozygous for a 1264TG mutation in the CD36 gene. A mother of Italian ancestry was homozygous for a previously unidentified deletion of exons 1 through 3. Previously reported cases of isoimmunization against CD36 were reviewed and summarized.
Isoimmunization against CD36 can cause neonatal isoimmune thrombocytopenia (NITP), refractoriness to platelet transfusions, and post-transfusion purpura. Immunization against this glycoprotein (GP) should be considered in patients with apparent alloimmune platelet disorders not explained by immunization against recognized platelet-specific alloantigens, especially in persons of African, Asian, and, possibly, Mediterranean ancestry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a model of human essential hypertension. Increased blood pressure in SHR is associated with other risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. DNA microarray studies identified over 200 differentially expressed genes and ESTs between SHR and normotensive control rats. These clones represent candidate genes that may underlie previously detected QTLs in SHR. This study made use of the publication of two whole-genome maps to identify positional QTL candidates. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping was used to determine the chromosomal locations of 70 rat genes and ESTs from this dataset. Most of the locations are novel, but in five cases we identified a definitive map location for genes previously mapped by somatic cell hybrids and/or linkage analysis. Genes for which the mouse genome map location was already determined mapped to syntenic segments in the rat genome map, except for two rat genes whose map locations confirmed previous findings. Where synteny comparisons could be made only with the human, 74% of the genes mapped in this study lay in a conserved syntenic segment. Chromosomal localisation of these mouse and human orthologs to syntenic segments produces a high level of confidence in the data presented in this study. The data provide new map locations for rat genes and will aid efforts to advance the rat genome map. The data may also be used to prioritize candidate QTL genes in SHR and other rat strains on the basis of their map location.