Ryoji Kushima

National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (188)554.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pathological response rate (pathRR) is a common endpoint used to assess the efficacy of preoperative therapy for gastric cancer. PathRR is estimated based on the percentage of the residual tumor area in the primary tumorous bed. Various cutoff definitions used in previous trials (e.g., 10, 33, 40, 50, 67 %) often impair the comparability of pathRRs between trials.
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    ABSTRACT: HER2 protein overexpression and gene amplification are important biomarkers for identifying gastric cancer patients who may respond to HER2-targeted therapy using trastuzumab. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between HER2 protein expression and gene amplification in both surgically resected tumors and matched biopsy specimens of gastric cancer. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 207 surgically resected tumors and 158 biopsy specimens from 207 cases of invasive intestinal-type gastric cancer were analyzed. Protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry and graded by the modified scoring criteria for gastric cancer. Gene amplification was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). HER2 overexpression was observed in 17 % of both surgically resected tumors (35/207) and biopsy specimens (26/158). HER2 gene amplification was detected in 31 % (61/200) of surgically resected tumors and 32 % (47/147) of biopsy specimens. Except for immunohistochemistry (IHC) equivocal (2+) cases, the concordance rates between IHC and FISH was 90.9 % in surgically resected tumors and 90.2 % in biopsy specimens. In IHC 2+ cases, the rate of HER2 gene amplification was 56 and 38 % in surgically resected tumors and biopsy specimens, respectively. IHC-FISH discordance was mainly due to intratumoral heterogeneity and low-level gene amplification. The concordance rate of IHC results between surgically resected specimens and the corresponding biopsy specimen was 57.0 % (κ = 0.224), and in discordant cases, HER2 positivity in biopsies and HER2 negativity in surgically resected tumors were most common. The concordance rate of FISH results between surgically resected tumors and biopsy specimens was 72.7 % (κ = 0.313). Polysomy 17 was detected in 5.5 and 7.5 % of surgically resected tumors and biopsy specimens and significantly correlated with IHC score, but polysomy 17 could explain one IHC score 3+ and FISH-negative tumor only. Although high concordance rates between HER2-protein expression and gene amplification were observed in both surgically resected tumors and biopsy specimens, the agreement levels were evaluated to be fair. Polysomy 17 was infrequent and seemed to have limited impact on gastric HER2 testing. Further investigations are required for an appropriate biopsy method to reduce false results of HER2 testing and to clarify the clinical significance of intratumoral heterogeneity in HER2 status.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 06/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsMalignant rhabdoid tumours (MRTs) and epithelioid sarcomas (ESs) are distinctive malignant neoplasms with characteristic clinicopathologic features. However, these 2 tumour types share some phenotypes such as epithelioid/rhabdoid cytology, expression of epithelial markers, and immunohistochemical loss of INI1. The distinction can be problematic in atypical clinical settings, and ancillary diagnostic tools are needed. The expression of CD34 is widely cited to favor the diagnosis of ESs, but no formal comparative study has been performed in the post-INI1 era. Here, we evaluated the utility of SALL4 for differentiating MRTs from ESs and compared its performance to that of CD34.Methods and resultsFifteen MRTs and 36 ESs were retrieved. All MRTs and ESs lacked INI1 reactivity, except for 1 MRT that lacked BRG1. A representative slide from each case was stained using antibodies against SALL4 and CD34. Ten (67%) of 15 MRTs expressed SALL4. In contrast, only 1 (3%) of the 36 ES cases was SALL4 positive. CD34 staining was observed in 9 (60%) of 15 MRTs and 29 (81%) of 36 ESs.Conclusions Despite moderate sensitivity, SALL4 expression may aid in distinguishing MRTs from ESs. CD34 was found to have questionable utility in making such distinctions.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Histopathology 05/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon fibroblastic neoplasm. Although histologic characteristics and frequent CD34 expression allow for an accurate diagnosis in the majority of SFT cases, a wide histologic spectrum and an occasional unexpected immunophenotype may pose diagnostic challenges. Molecular analyses have discovered that almost all SFTs harbor an NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene, which is considered specific to this tumor type. Recent studies have suggested that STAT6 immunohistochemistry is a reliable surrogate for detection of the fusion gene. Our aim was to validate these findings by examining a large number of SFT cases and a broad array of 30 different types of non-SFT tumors. A total of 49 SFTs with a range of histologic characteristics and 159 benign or malignant tumors that can mimic SFTs were retrieved and stained for STAT6. All 49 SFTs (100%) showed STAT6 expression that was restricted in the nucleus, mostly in a diffuse and strong manner, irrespective of the tumor sites and histologic patterns. The staining was uniform in most cases but was heterogenous in about 20% of the cases in which zonal staining attenuation was observed, likely reflecting variability in fixation or tissue ischemia. In contrast, only 4 non-SFT tumors (2.5%) exhibited weak nuclear STAT6 expression, whereas the remaining 155 cases showed no staining or often weak reactivity in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Therefore, nuclear STAT6 immunoreactivity is a highly sensitive and specific marker of SFTs and can be helpful when diagnosis is inconclusive by conventional methods.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 04/2014; 38(4):552-9. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accurate testing for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive status is now mandatory to identify gastric cancer patients that will respond to trastuzumab treatment. Immunohistochemistry testing is the primary method used in hospitals. We performed a study of diagnostic accuracy by assessing interobserver variability in immunohistochemistry scoring of HER2 and determined the effectiveness of an educational program for general pathologists that used full sections of gastric cancer specimens. A first ring study (Japanese gastric cancer [JGC] ring study) was performed by five expert pathologists, using 50 whole surgical sections selected by a coordinator, to confirm interobserver discrepancies. A second study (quality assurance/quality control program) involved administration of an educational program to 49 general pathologists that consisted of (i) comments and explanation for a set of pre-educational program cases, (ii) a lecture, and (iii) presentation of typical and special cases for discussion. Effectiveness was measured by comparing indices of the difference between scores before and after the program. The JGC ring study demonstrated good agreement in the interpretation of HER2-immunohistochemistry. Kappa coefficients among the five observers were 0.73 (substantial) and 0.84 (almost perfect) in 4 × 4 and 3 × 3 cross tests, respectively. In the second study, the concordance rate and kappa coefficients improved from pre-educational program levels of 78.6 % and 0.68, respectively, to post-educational program levels of 87.1 % and 0.79, respectively. The present results suggest that effective educational programs reduce interobserver differences between pathologists and provide optimal information regarding patient selection for treatment.
    Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 03/2014; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of gastric cancer associated with Lynch syndrome (LS) is highly variable, and the underlying histologic pathway or molecular mechanisms remain unclear. From 1995 to 2012, 15 patients had been treated for both gastric and colonic adenocarcinomas and diagnosed as LS. In all cases, pathologic review, immunohistochemical analysis for mismatch-repair proteins, and microsatellite instability (MSI) tests were performed. To confirm LS, germline mutation tests and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. All gastric and colonic carcinomas were MSI-high and lost expressions of MLH1/PMS2 in 11 (73%) cases and MSH2/MSH6 in 4 (27%) cases. Remarkably, in a patient with LS and germline mutation of MLH1 gene, pyloric gland adenoma (PGA) transformed to adenocarcinoma during follow-up. In 2 additional cases, PGA was found adjacent to advanced gastric cancers. All PGAs in LS patients were MSI-high and lost expression of mismatch-repair proteins (MLH1/PMS2 in 2 cases and MSH2/MSH6 in 1 case), whereas none of the 14 sporadic PGAs was MSI-high or had lost expression of mismatch-repair proteins. On the basis of these observations, although very rare, we suggest the possibility that PGA may be a precursor lesion to gastric adenocarcinoma in LS and that the mismatch-repair deficient pathway of carcinogenesis is involved early in the gastric carcinogenesis pathway.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 02/2014; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The profiles of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer-related pathways are considered to be useful for selection of patients likely to respond to specific drugs, including molecular-targeted and epigenetic drugs. In this study, we aimed to characterize such profiles in gastric cancers (GCs). Genetic alterations of 55 cancer-related genes were analyzed by a benchtop next-generation sequencer. DNA methylation statuses were analyzed by a bead array with 485,512 probes. The WNT pathway was activated by mutations of CTNNB1 in 2 GCs and potentially by aberrant methylation of its negative regulators, such as DKK3, NKD1, and SFRP1, in 49 GCs. The AKT/mTOR pathway was activated by mutations of PIK3CA and PTPN11 in 4 GCs. The MAPK pathway was activated by mutations and gene amplifications of ERBB2, FLT3, and KRAS in 11 GCs. Cell-cycle regulation was affected by aberrant methylation of CDKN2A and CHFR in 13 GCs. Mismatch repair was affected by a mutation of MLH1 in 1 GC and by aberrant methylation of MLH1 in 2 GCs. The p53 pathway was inactivated by mutations of TP53 in 19 GCs and potentially by aberrant methylation of its downstream genes in 38 GCs. Cell adhesion was affected by mutations of CDH1 in 2 GCs. Genes involved in cancer-related pathways were more frequently affected by epigenetic alterations than by genetic alterations. The profiles of genetic and epigenetic alterations are expected to be useful for selection of the patients who are likely to benefit from specific drugs.
    Gastric Cancer 02/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:To elucidate clinicopathological characteristics of non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cases carrying RET rearrangements causing oncogenic fusions to identify responders to therapy with RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors.Methods:We investigated 1874 patients with carcinomas, including 1620 adenocarcinomas (ADCs), 203 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 8 large cell carcinomas, and 43 sarcomatoid carcinomas (SACs). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and/or reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed to detect RET gene rearrangement.Results:In all, 22 cases (1.2%) showed RET rearrangements; all cases were of ADC histology. Of the 22 patients, 19 possessed KIF5B-RET fusion genes, whereas 3 possessed CCDC6-RET fusion genes. The RET-rearranged tumours were significantly more common in younger patients (P=0.038) and tended to occur in patients with no history of smoking (P=0.051). In addition, RET rearrangements were not associated with gender, occupational history (particularly radioactive exposure), tumour size, lymph node status, tumour stage, or patient survival. The predominant growth pattern in RET-rearranged ADCs was lepidic in 6 cases, papillary in 9 cases, acinar in 2 cases, micropapillary in 1 case, and solid in 4 cases. Cells with cytoplasmic mucin production were at least focally present in 12 of the 22 (54.5%) RET-rearranged ADC cases. Among the 21 analysed RET-rearranged tumours, RET immunopositivity was observed in 15 cases (71.4%), and was significantly associated with RET rearrangement (P<0.001).Conclusions:The RET rearrangements were observed in 1.2% of NSCLCs. All cases of RET rearrangement were ADCs. The RET rearrangements were more likely to be observed in younger patients. Although cytoplasmic mucin production was at least focally present in 54.5% of RET-rearranged ADCs, specific histological features were not detected.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 6 February 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.36 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: After noncurative endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for differentiated-type early gastric cancer (EGC), close observation is often preferred when a cancer-positive lateral margin is the only noncurative factor. However, sometimes recurrence is found during the observation period. This study aimed to examine risk factors for recurrent cancer based on the long-term clinical outcomes after noncurative ESD in which the only noncurative factor was a cancer-positive lateral margin. Patients and methods: Among 3784 EGCs (3316 patients) treated by ESD between 1997 and 2010, 77 noncurative differentiated-type EGCs (75 patients) were retrospectively analyzed after meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1) the only noncurative factor was a cancer-positive lateral margin; 2) close observation was selected after the ESD; and 3) > 1 year follow-up after ESD. Results: Locally recurrent cancer was found in 10 lesions within a median follow-up period of 59.8 months; no metastasis or gastric cancer-related death occurred. The cumulative incidence of local recurrence 5 years after ESD was 11.9 %. All locally recurrent cancers were mucosal differentiated-type adenocarcinomas. Multivariate analysis indicated that a cancer-positive lateral margin length of ≥ 6 mm was significantly associated with local recurrence (hazard ratio 20.8; 95 % confidence interval 5.2 % - 82.9 %; P < 0.001). The cut-off value of 6 mm was determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve; the sensitivity and specificity for 5-year risk of developing local recurrence were 66.7 % and 95.6 %, respectively. Conclusions: A cancer-positive lateral margin length of ≥ 6 mm was an independent risk factor for local recurrence, and this may be a useful criterion for selecting high-risk cases for stricter management.
    Endoscopy 02/2014; · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Currently in Japan, differentiated-type gastric submucosal invasive cancers <500 μm with negative lymphovascular involvement are included in expanded pathological criteria for curative endoscopic treatment. This categorization is based on a retrospective examination of surgical resection cases in which patients suitable for such expanded criteria were determined to have a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection on a 66-year-old man with early gastric cancer in June 2004, and pathology revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, 16 × 8 mm in size, minute submucosal invasion depth (100 μm), and negative lymphovascular invasion or ulceration as well as tumor-free margins, so the case was diagnosed as a curative resection. In this case, however, local recurrence and distant metastasis resulted in August 2011. The patient received systemic chemotherapy but died of gastric cancer 23 months after recurrence.
    Gastric Cancer 01/2014; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal villous adenoma is thought to be associated with a high risk of progression to adenocarcinoma. To better characterize the genetic alterations involved in colorectal carcinogenesis related to villous adenoma, we analyzed mutations in APC, BRAF, KRAS, TP53, and GNAS in 12 colorectal adenocarcinomas associated with villous adenomas. APC, KRAS, and BRAF mutations were identified in five, 11, and one lesion, respectively, and most of these mutations were shared between the villous adenoma and the adenocarcinoma components in the respective lesions, except in one lesion with APC mutations and in two lesions with KRAS mutations. TP53 mutations were observed exclusively in four adenocarcinoma components, consistent with their role in the progression from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Activating GNAS mutations were found in nine villous adenomas; however, unexpectedly, these mutations were shared only in three associated adenocarcinomas. Notably, all six adenocarcinomas with discordant GNAS mutation statuses were nonmucinous type, whereas all the other adenocarcinomas, including three adenocarcinomas associated with GNAS wild-type villous adenomas, were mucinous type. The current study suggests that GNAS-mutated villous adenomas may not necessarily be direct precursors of associated adenocarcinomas. At the same time, our observations support the role of activating GNAS mutations in increased mucin production in colorectal neoplasms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 01/2014; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been speculated that intraductal dissemination, via the pancreatic duct, bile duct, or mammary duct, is a unique form of cancer cell spread. However, clinical evidence to confirm this form of dissemination has been lacking. Here we report a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater in which retrograde dissemination to the pancreatic duct was strongly suggested. A 79-year-old woman underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for a 22 mm microinvasive papillary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla. Multiple carcinomas in situ were found in the pancreatic duct distant from the ampulla. Seven months later, she underwent a second operation for a recurrent papillary adenocarcinoma at the pancreato-jejunal anastomosis showing exophytic and expansive growth into the jejunal lumen that connected to an intraductal adenocarcinoma in the pancreatic body. None of these tumors showed invasive growth, or vascular or neural invasion, being separate from each other but sharing identical histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features; papillary growth, a pancreatobiliary phenotype, the same pattern of genomic loss of heterozygosity, and no mutation of the KRAS, TP53, and GNAS genes. These results imply that this papillary adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater had disseminated to the pancreatic duct in a retrograde manner and recurred in the remnant pancreas.
    Pathology International 01/2014; 64(1):39-44. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft tissue tumor characterized by pseudoalveolar growths associated with abundant sinusoidal vessels. It has a high proclivity to blood-borne metastasis, but the exact mechanism of spread has not been widely discussed, and detailed histological analysis of vascular involvement is still lacking. In this study, we histologically analyzed 32 surgically resected ASPSs, with particular attention to the mode of vascular involvement. Among 188 instances of unequivocal vascular involvement, 184 (98%) were in the form of variously sized cohesive clusters that were completely enveloped by endothelial cells, confirmed by CD31 immunostaining. Discohesive intravascular tumor cells without endothelial wrapping were rare (2%). The clinical relevance of vascular involvement was supported by survival analysis where the average number of vascular involvements per slide was an independent risk factor for shorter progression-free survival. Our findings suggest that ASPSs do not actively break through the vascular walls to initiate the metastatic process. They instead suggest that ASPSs almost exclusively follow the recently postulated "invasion-independent mechanism" for entry into circulation, in which cancer cells are shed into vessels, while being completely enveloped by endothelial cells, and are subsequently entrapped at recipient organs. Because the latter mechanism is reportedly dependent on tumor angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, our data provide a morphological rationale for the use of anti-angiogenic therapy to treat ASPSs.
    Human pathology 01/2014; 45(1):137-42. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lung adenocarcinoma with morule-like components is an unusual variant of lung adenocarcinoma, comprising uniform, tightly packed spindle-shaped cells, which fill the lumen of the glandular structures of the carcinoma. The aim of the study was to outline the clinicopathologic features of this variant. Patients and Methods We examined a series of 904 surgically resected adenocarcinomas. We defined morule like components as small buds of spindle-cell proliferation in the tumor lumen of the glandular structures of the carcinoma and calculated their proportion of total tumor mass. Targeted genotyping was performed for KRAS, EGFR, HER2, BRAF. ALK rearrangements were analyzed immunohistochemically. Immunopositive cases were confirmed using RT-PCR and/or FISH. Results We detected 17 cases of adenocarcinoma with morule-like components. This variant, representing only 1.9% was associated with unfavorable outcomes and a mutation in the EGFR. Histologic examination revealed adenocarcinoma with morule-like components accounting for 5−50% of tumors. Among the morule-like components, 10 (58.8%) of the 17 samples showed intracytoplasmic lumina formation containing eosinophilic mucinous material. The presence of micropapillary components in adenocarcinoma with morule-like components suggests that morule-like components could be merely excessive growth of the micropapillary pattern. However, our results indicated no statistical differences in the MIB-1 indices of the morule-like components and the adjacent tumor components or the micropapillary components. The univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a correlation between the presence of a morule-like components and an unfavorable outcome. Conclusions Our study clearly indicated that adenocarcinoma with morule-like components is distinct unfavorable prognostic and predictor for EGFR mutation.
    Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 01/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The histogenesis of the pattern of cancer spread along Auerbach’s plexus (myenteric spread: MS) remains unclear and its prognostic value in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods Pathology slides of 2845 pT2/pT3/pT4 CRCs stained with hematoxylin–eosin (H&E) were reviewed at 10 institutions. MS was classified into 2 groups depending on whether it was accompanied by the finding of perineural invasion (PN) within the lesion. In addition, immunohistochemical staining (D2-40, S100, CD56, synaptophysin) was performed for serially sectioned specimens from 50 CRCs diagnosed as having PN-negative MS. Results MS was observed in 504 patients (17.7 %); 360 patients were classified as having PN-positive MS and 144 as having PN-negative MS. The 5-year disease-free survival rate of patients with MS was lower than that of patients without MS (63.3 vs 82.7 %, P < 0.0001); however, there was no significant difference in survival outcome according to the presence or absence of intralesion PN in MS. Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic impact of MS was independent of conventional prognosticators including T and N stages, vascular invasion and extramural PN. In all the tumors having PN-negative MS, remnants of neural tissue were identified within or around cancer nests located at the leading edge of MS. Conclusions MS is an important prognostic factor for CRC. This feature is the result of cancer development with replacement of Auerbach’s plexus and can be classified as intramural PN. The clinical significance of “Pn1” in the UICC/AJCC TNM classification could be enhanced by individual assessment both intramurally and extramurally.
    Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2014; · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • The American journal of surgical pathology 01/2014; 38(1):144-145. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the HER2 amplification status and HER2 overexpression status in neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the stomach. We analyzed 51 gastric NECs, including 15 pure NECs and 36 NECs associated with adenocarcinoma and/or dysplasia, for HER2 amplification by dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization and for HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry. HER2 amplification was observed in 3 NECs (8%) and in 7 (19%) adenocarcinoma/dysplasia associated with NECs. Immunohistochemically, all the NECs, including those showing HER2 amplification, invariably lacked HER2 expression. On the other hand, 3+/positive and 2+/equivocal HER2 overexpression was observed in 3 (8%) and 6 (17%) adenocarcinoma/dysplasia associated with NEC, respectively. HER2 expression is consistently absent in gastric NECs, regardless of the HER2 amplification status or association with HER2-positive adenocarcinoma/dysplasia components. Accordingly, HER2 is unlikely to be a valid therapeutic target in gastric NECs. Also, the absence of HER2 expression in NECs could be one of the causes of intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 expression in gastric cancers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Histopathology 12/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and study aim: Endoscopic resection has been favored for the management of intramucosal adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEGJ) over standard treatment with surgical resection. Several previous studies have reported only short-term outcomes. The aim of the present study was to report the long-term follow-up and outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), a representative endoscopic resection method, for the management of superficial AEGJ. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study included 53 consecutive patients with superficial AEGJ who underwent ESD between 2001 and 2007 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Rates of overall survival, recurrence-free survival, and cause-specific survival of patients with AEGJ after endoscopic resection were analyzed. Results: The 5-year overall, recurrence-free, and cause-specific survival rates in the 53 patients were 94.2 %, 92.3 % and 96.1 %, respectively. The median follow-up was 6.1 years. En bloc, R0, and curative resection rates were 100 %, 79 %, 68 %, respectively. In 36 patients with curative resection, the cause-specific survival rate was 100 % and no recurrence or metastases were detected. In 17 patients with non-curative resection, recurrence was found in three patients (17 %); two of the three patients died of their disease whilst one patient received chemotherapy. Conclusions: Superficial AEGJ can be well controlled by ESD when curative resection is achieved.
    Endoscopy 12/2013; 45(12):992-6. · 5.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, driver tyrosine kinase gene mutations have been detected in malignant tumors, including lung tumors. Notwithstanding their attractiveness as targets for molecular therapy, limited information is available regarding BRAF-mutated lung carcinomas. BRAF mutation status was determined in 2001 surgically resected nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases using high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) followed by Sanger sequencing and/or deep sequencing using next generation sequencer. BRAF mutations were detected in 26 (1.3%) of 2001 NSCLC cases (25 adenocarcinomas and 1 squamous cell carcinoma). In the 26 cases, 13 mutation genotypes were identified, including V600E (8 of 26; 30.8%), G469A (6 of 26; 23.1%), K601E (4 of 26; 15.4%), and other residual mutations (1 of 26; 0.04%). Of the 13 genotypes, 4 genotypes (G464E, G596R, A598T, and G606R) had not been previously reported in lung cancer. The overall survival rate was not significantly different between patients with wild-type BRAF and those with V600E or non-V600E BRAF mutations (P = 0.49 and P = 0.15, respectively). Histomorphological analysis revealed that focal clear cell changes were present in 75% of V600E-mutated tumors. All V600E BRAF-mutated tumors were negative for other driver gene alterations including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene translocation, whereas five tumors with non-V600E BRAF mutations (four G469A and one G464E/G466R) showed concomitant EGFR mutations. The frequency of BRAF mutations in lung cancer was low in an Asian cohort. Furthermore, BRAF mutation status lacked prognostic significance in this patient population.
    Annals of Oncology 12/2013; · 7.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combination chemotherapy with trastuzumab and cisplatin plus capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil has been used as a standard regimen for HER2-positive gastric cancer (GC) since the Trastuzumab for Gastric Cancer (ToGA) trial. Before the ToGA trial, HER2-positive GC in Japan was treated with S-1 plus cisplatin (SP). The primary objective of this retrospective study was to explore the efficacy of SP in HER2-positive GC. We reviewed patients who had received SP as first-line chemotherapy at our institute between April 2007 and March 2011 and from whom we had enough samples to examine HER2 status. Seventy-seven patients fulfilled the selection criteria and were tested for HER2 status with immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The patients' backgrounds were investigated to evaluate the clinicopathologic features of their HER2-positive GC, including survival. Seven (9.1 %) of 77 patients were judged to be IHC3+, and all of these had predominantly differentiated histology. HER2 positivity was associated with differentiated histology (P = 0.016) and liver metastasis (P = 0.025). Median overall survival was 23.6 months [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-44.7] in HER2-positive GC and 12.9 months (95 % CI 8.3-17.5) in HER2-negative disease, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.615). In multivariate analysis, HER2 status was not associated with survival outcomes. Because of the retrospective nature of this study, we cannot conclude whether HER2 status influences the survival of patients who receive SP as first-line chemotherapy. Our study provides important historical data for prospective phase II studies of SP plus trastuzumab.
    International Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor

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1k Citations
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  • 2010–2014
    • National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2009–2014
    • National Cancer Center, Japan
      • Endoscopy Division
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2013
    • Hangzhou First People's Hospital
      Hang-hsien, Zhejiang Sheng, China
  • 2012
    • Catholic University of Korea
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2012
    • National Defense Medical College
      • Department of Surgery
      Tokorozawa, Saitama-ken, Japan
    • St. Luke's International Hospital
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2010
    • University of Bayreuth
      Bayreuth, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1989–2009
    • Shiga University of Medical Science
      • • Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Urology
      Ōtu, Shiga, Japan
  • 2008
    • National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center
      • Division of Pathology
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2007
    • National Sanatorium Hoshizuka-Keiaien
      Kanoya, Kagoshima, Japan
  • 2006
    • Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
      • Graduate School of Medical Science
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2003
    • Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg
      • Institute for Pathology
      Magdeburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
  • 1996
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Institut für Neuropathologie
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1991
    • Hikone Municipal Hospital
      Hikone, Shiga, Japan