Ryan S Turley

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (56)224.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Rectourethral fistulas are an uncommon, yet devastating occurrence after treatment for prostate cancer or trauma, and their surgical management has historically been nonstandardized. Anecdotally, irradiated rectourethral fistulas portend a worse prognosis.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 09/2014; 57(9):1105-1112. DOI:10.1097/DCR.0000000000000175 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although, targeting the V600E activating mutation in the BRAF gene, the most common genetic abnormality in melanoma, has shown clinical efficacy in melanoma patients, response is, invariably, short-lived. To better understand mechanisms underlying this acquisition of resistance to BRAF-targeted therapy in previously responsive melanomas, we induced vemurafenib-resistance in two V600E BRAF+ve melanoma cell lines, A375 and DM443, by serial in vitro vemurafenib exposure. The resulting, approximately, 10-fold more vemurafenib-resistant cell lines, A375rVem and D443rVem, had higher growth rates, and showed differential collateral resistance to cisplatin, melphalan and temozolomide. The acquisition of vemurafenib resistance was associated with significantly increased NRAS levels in A375rVem and D443rVem, increased activation of the prosurvival protein, AKT, and the MAP kinases, ERK, JNK, and P38, which correlated with decreased levels of the MAPK inhibitor protein, GSTP1. Despite the increased NRAS, whole exome sequencing showed no NRAS gene mutations. Inhibition of all three MAPKs and siRNA-mediated NRAS suppression, both reversed vemurafenib resistance significantly in A375rVem and DM443rVem. Together, the results indicate a mechanism of acquired vemurafenib resistance in V600E BRAF+ve melanoma cells that involves increased activation of all three human MAP kinases and the PI3K pathway, as well as increased NRAS expression, which, contrary to previous reports, was not associated mutations in the NRAS gene. The data highlight the complexity of the acquired vemurafenib resistance phenotype and the challenge of optimizing BRAF-targeted therapy in this disease. They also suggest that targeting the MAPKs and/or NRAS may provide a strategy to mitigate such resistance in V600E BRAF+ve melanoma.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2014; 289(40). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.532432 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular malformations comprise a diverse and rare group of lesions which generally pose a formidable treatment challenge. Requisite for optimal surgical planning are imaging modalities capable of delineating involved anatomy and malformation flow characteristics. In this regard, we and others have purported the advantages of contrast-enhanced MRI. Here, we review the current body of literature regarding the emerging of role of contrast enhanced MRI for the management of vascular malformations.
    Future Cardiology 07/2014; 10(4):479-86. DOI:10.2217/fca.14.34
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Controversy exists over how long trials of nonoperative management should be pursued in patients with uncomplicated adhesive small bowel obstructions (ASBOs) before deciding to proceed with surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of incremental delays in surgery on the 30-day postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing surgery for uncomplicated ASBO. Methods: American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2011 data were used to identify patients with uncomplicated ASBO in whom a trial of nonoperative management was attempted. Multivariate logistic or linear regression model was created to determine the independent association between the length of preoperative hospitalization and 30-day postoperative outcomes after adjustment for patient- and procedure-related factors. Results: A total of 9,297 patients were included in the study. The 30-day postoperative mortality and overall morbidity rates of the entire cohort were 4.4% and 29.6%, respectively. The median postoperative length of hospitalization was 7 days (interquartile range, 5-11 days). After risk adjustment, there was no association between preoperative length of hospitalization and 30-day postoperative mortality. In contrast, increased 30-day overall morbidity was observed in patients who received their operation after a preoperative length of hospitalization of 3 days compared with earlier in their hospitalization. Furthermore, an increased postoperative length of hospitalization was found in patients who were operated on after a preoperative length of hospitalization of 4 days. Conclusion: Trials of nonoperative management for uncomplicated ASBO exceeding 3 days are associated with increased morbidity and postoperative length of hospitalization. These trials should therefore generally not extend beyond this time point. Level of evidence: Therapeutic study, level IV.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 06/2014; 76(6):1367-72. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000246 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between tumor size and survival in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) undergoing surgical resection is controversial. We sought to define the incidence of major and microscopic vascular invasion relative to ICC tumor size, and identify predictors of microscopic vascular invasion in patients with ICC ≥5 cm. A total of 443 patients undergoing surgical resection for ICC between 1973 and 2011 at one of 11 participating institutions were identified. Clinical and pathologic data were evaluated using uni- and multivariate analyses. As tumor sized increased, the incidence of microscopic vascular invasion increased: <3 cm, 3.6 %; 3-5 cm, 24.7 %; 5-7 cm, 38.3 %; 7-15 cm, 32.9 %, ≥15 cm, 55.6 %; (p < 0.001). Increasing tumor size was also found to be associated with worsening tumor grade. The incidence of poorly differentiated tumors increased with increasing ICC tumor size: <3 cm, 9.7 %; 3-5 cm, 19.8 %; 5-7 cm, 24.2 %; 7-15 cm, 21.1 %; >15 cm, 31.6 % (p = 0.04). The presence of perineural invasion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.98) and regional lymph node metastasis (OR = 4.43) were independently associated with an increased risk of microscopic vascular invasion in tumors ≥5 cm (both p < 0.05). Risk of microscopic vascular invasion and worse tumor grade increased with tumor size. Large tumors likely harbor worse pathologic features; this information should be considered when determining therapy and prognosis of patients with large ICC.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 05/2014; 18(7). DOI:10.1007/s11605-014-2533-1 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic thrombus in the absence of atherosclerotic plaque or aneurysm is rare, and its optimal management remains unclear. Although atypical aortic thrombus (AAT) has been historically managed operatively, successful non-operative strategies have been recently reported. Here, we report our experience in treating patients with AAT that has evolved from a primarily operative approach to a first-line, non-operative strategy. Records of patients treated for AAT between 2008 and 2011 at our institution were reviewed. Ten female and three male patients with ages ranging from 27 to 69 were identified. Seven were treated operatively and six non-operatively. Initial presentation was variable and included limb thromboembolic events (n=6), visceral ischemia (n=5), and stroke (n=1). Associated risk factors included hypercoagulability (76%; n=10,) and hyperlipidemia (38%, n=5). In the non-operative group, complete thrombus resolution was obtained via anticoagulation (n=5) or systemic thrombolysis (n=1). Complete thrombus extraction was achieved in all operative patients, There were 11 significant complications in 5 of the 7 patients (71%) in the operative group; including intraoperative lower extremity embolism, pericardial effusion, stroke, and one death. There was one complication in the patients treated non-operatively. The median hospital length of stay was 9 days (range 3-49) for those treated non-operatively and 30 ( days (range 4-115) for those undergoing operative thrombectomy. Although AAT has traditionally been treated operatively, non-operative management of AAT with anticoagulation or thrombolysis is feasible in selected patients and may lessen morbidity and length of hospitalization in those patients for whom it is appropriate.
    Annals of Vascular Surgery 04/2014; 28(7). DOI:10.1016/j.avsg.2014.03.028 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite the rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), challenges and controversy persist in optimizing treatment. As recent randomized trials suggest that ablation may have oncologic equivalence compared to resection for early HCC, the relative morbidity of the two approaches is a central issue in treatment decisions. Although excellent contemporary perioperative outcomes have been reported by a few HPB units, it is not clear that they can be replicated in broader practice. Our objective was to help inform this treatment dilemma by defining perioperative outcomes in a broader set of patients as represented in NSQIP-participating institutions. Study Design Mortality and morbidity data were extracted from the 2005-10 NSQIP user files based on CPT (hepatectomy and ablation) and ICD-9 (HCC). Perioperative outcomes were reviewed, and factors associated with morbidity and mortality were identified with multivariable logistic regression. Results 837 (52%) underwent minor hepatectomy, 444 (28%) underwent major hepatectomy, and 323 (20%) underwent surgical ablation.Mortality rates were 3.4% for minor hepatectomy, 3.7% for ablation, and 8.3% for major hepatectomy (p < 0.01). Major complication rates were 21.3% for minor hepatectomy, 9.3% for ablation, and 35.1% for major hepatectomy (p < 0.01). When controlling for confounders, ablation was associated with decreased mortality (AOR 0.20, 95% CI 0.04-0.97, p=0.046) and major complications (AOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.22-0.52, p<0.001). Conclusions Exceedingly high complication rates following major hepatectomy for HCC exist in the broader NSQIP treatment environment. These data strongly support the use of parenchymal-sparing minor resections or ablation over major hepatectomy for early HCC when feasible.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 04/2014; 218(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.12.036 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the mechanism through which N-cadherin disruption alters the effectiveness of regional chemotherapy for locally advanced melanoma. N-cadherin antagonism during regional chemotherapy has demonstrated variable treatment effects. Isolated limb infusion (ILI) with melphalan (LPAM) or temozolomide (TMZ) was performed on rats bearing melanoma xenografts after systemic administration of the N-cadherin antagonist, ADH-1, or saline. Permeability studies were performed using Evans blue dye as the infusate, and interstitial fluid pressure was measured. Immunohistochemistry of LPAM-DNA adducts and damage was performed as surrogates for LPAM and TMZ delivery. Tumor signaling was studied by Western blotting and reverse-phase protein array analysis. Systemic ADH-1 was associated with increased growth and activation of the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase)-AKT pathway in A375 but not DM443 xenografts. ADH-1 in combination with LPAM ILI improved antitumor responses compared with LPAM alone in both cell lines. Combination of ADH-1 with TMZ ILI did not improve tumor response in A375 tumors. ADH-1 increased vascular permeability without effecting tumor interstitial fluid pressure, leading to increased delivery of LPAM but not TMZ. ADH-1 improved responses to regional LPAM but had variable effects on tumors regionally treated with TMZ. N-cadherin-targeting agents may lead to differential effects on the AKT signaling axis that can augment growth of some tumors. The vascular targeting actions of N-cadherin antagonism may not augment some regionally delivered alkylating agents, leading to a net increase in tumor size with this type of combination treatment strategy.
    Annals of surgery 03/2014; 261(2). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000635 · 8.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined the current status of ureteral stent use or the indications for stenting, particularly in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. This study examines current national trends and predictors of ureteral stenting in patients undergoing major colorectal operations and the subsequent effects on perioperative outcomes. The 2005-2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement participant user files were used to identify patients undergoing laparoscopic segmental colectomy, low anterior resection, or proctectomy. Trends in stent use were assessed across procedure types. To estimate the predictors of stent utilization, a forward-stepwise logistic regression model was used. A 3:1 nearest neighbor propensity match with subsequent multivariable adjustment was then used to estimate the impact of stents. A total of 42,311 cases were identified, of which 1795 (4.2%) underwent ureteral stent placement. Predictors of stent utilization included diverticular disease, need for radical resection (versus segmental colectomy), recent radiotherapy, and more recent calendar year. After adjustment, ureteral stenting appeared to be associated with a small increase in median operative time (44 min) and a trivial increase in length of stay (5.4%, P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in morbidity or mortality. We describe the clinical predictors of ureteral stent usage in this patient population and report that while stenting adds to operative time, it is not associated with significantly increased morbidity or mortality after adjusting for diagnosis and comorbidities. Focused institutional studies are necessary in the future to address the utility of ureteral stents in the identification and possible prevention of iatrogenic injury.
    Journal of Surgical Research 02/2014; 190(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2014.02.025 · 1.94 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Surgical Research 02/2014; 186(2):496. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.11.040 · 1.94 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Surgical Research 02/2014; 186(2):499. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.11.125 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is often considered a contraindication to hepatectomy despite a lack of data to support this practice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of CAD on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing hepatectomy. A total of 1,206 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy from August 1995 to June 2009 were included. Propensity matching was performed to identify differences in morbidity and mortality between patients with and without CAD. Subgroup analyses were performed to stratify patients based on the severity of CAD and the interval between coronary intervention and hepatectomy. Of all patients, 138 (11.4 %) had a diagnosis of CAD and were more likely to have a malignant diagnosis and other comorbid conditions including renal insufficiency, COPD, and diabetes. Matched patients with CAD had no significant differences in complication rates, with 2.2 and 5.8 % of CAD patients experiencing a postoperative myocardial infarction or arrhythmia, respectively. Propensity matching failed to identify differences in mortality or morbidity. Subgroup analysis revealed similar rates of mortality and complications regardless of the severity of CAD or the time interval between coronary intervention and hepatectomy. Despite the increased prevalence of major medical comorbidities, selected patients with CAD can safely undergo hepatectomy with acceptable rates of postoperative morbidity and mortality.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2014; 18(4). DOI:10.1007/s11605-014-2451-2 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Src kinase inhibition has been shown to augment the efficacy of chemotherapy. Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of CML, is under investigation as monotherapy for tumors with abnormal Src signaling, such as melanoma. The goal of this study was to determine if Src kinase inhibition using dasatinib could enhance the efficacy of regionally administered melphalan in advanced extremity melanoma. The mutational status of c-kit and patterns of gene expression predictive of dysregulated Src kinase signaling were evaluated in a panel of 26 human melanoma cell lines. The effectiveness of dasatinib was measured by quantifying protein expression and activation of Src kinase, focal adhesion kinase, and Crk-associated substrate (p130(CAS)), in conjunction with in vitro cell viability assays using seven melanoma cell lines. Utilizing a rat model of regional chemotherapy, we evaluated the effectiveness of systemic dasatinib in conjunction with regional melphalan against the human melanoma cell line, DM443, grown as a xenograft. Only the WM3211 cell line harbored a c-kit mutation. Significant correlation was observed between Src-predicted dysregulation by gene expression and sensitivity to dasatinib in vitro. Tumor doubling time for DM443 xenografts treated with systemic dasatinib in combination with regional melphalan (44.8 days) was significantly longer (p = 0.007) than either dasatinib (21.3 days) or melphalan alone (24.7 days). Systemic dasatinib prior to melphalan-based regional chemotherapy markedly improves the efficacy of this alkylating agent in this melanoma xenograft model. Validation of this concept should be considered in the context of a regional therapy clinical trial.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 11/2013; 21(3). DOI:10.1245/s10434-013-3387-6 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the relationship between psychoactive substance use and injury is known, evidence remains conflicting on the impact of substance use on clinical outcomes after injury. We hypothesized that preinjury substance use would negatively impact clinical outcomes. National Trauma Registry American College of Surgeons identified patients (n = 9793) presenting to Duke Hospital from 2006 to 2010. Logistic regression models assessed potential predictors of receiving substance screening, mortality, length of stay, ventilator requirement, intensive care admission, or emergency department disposition. Forty-seven percent (4607/9793) of patients received blood alcohol screen (BAS) and 31% (3017/9793) received urine drug screen (UDS). Men were more likely to receive both BASs (P < 0.001) and UDSs (P = 0.001) than women after controlling for potential confounders. There was no significant difference between men and women over the legal limit for alcohol (OLLA; 27.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.7%-28.8% versus 24.8%, 95% CI: 22.3%-27.5%). Similarly, younger patients more likely received both BASs (P < 0.001) and UDSs (P < 0.001) compared with older patients. The proportion of patients aged ≤45 y OLLA (26.5 %, 95% CI: 24.9%-28.2%) was similar to those aged >45 y OLLA (26.8%, 95% CI: 24.5%-29.3%). After controlling for potential confounders neither alcohol, nor tetrahydrocannabinol, nor cocaine was predictive of mortality, ventilator requirement, length of stay, or emergency department disposition, but a higher alcohol level (P = 0.0174) predicted intensive care admission. Females and those aged >45 y are less likely to receive BASs and UDSs. Differential screening that is biased may place patients at risk for receiving inadequate care.
    Journal of Surgical Research 11/2013; 188(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.11.1103 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although pelvic exenteration (PE) remains an important treatment for advanced pelvic malignancies, it has historically been associated with high morbidity and mortality with unclear long-term benefits. The objectives of this study were (1) estimate complication and mortality rates, (2) determine predictors of complications, and (3) estimate overall survival after PE for patients with locally advanced colorectal and bladder tumors. A total of 377 patients were retrospectively identified from the 2005-2010 NSQIP PUF and an additional 1,111 from the 2004-2010 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database with T4M0 colorectal or bladder cancers. A logistic regression model was fitted to estimate early morbidity and mortality. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival after PE compared to nonoperative management. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a complication, but 30-day mortality was only 2 %. Patients with preoperative dyspnea and higher ASA class had the highest risk of morbidity. PE for the treatment of T4M0 rectal and bladder cancer was associated with significantly improved long-term survival compared to nonoperative therapy. PE is associated with a high complication rate but low 30-day mortality. The results of this study provide strong evidence to support PE as a viable treatment option for locally advanced rectal and bladder malignancies in appropriately selected patients.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 11/2013; 18(4). DOI:10.1007/s11605-013-2400-5 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Various predictors of perioperative risk for patients with rectal cancer undergoing radical resection have been well described, but no simple scoring system for surgeons to estimate this risk currently exists. The objective of this study was to develop a system for more accurate preoperative evaluations of competing risks and more informed shared decision-making with patients diagnosed with rectal cancer. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Participant Use Data File for 2005-2011 was used to retrospectively identify patients undergoing radical resection for rectal cancer. A forward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression model was used to create a dynamic scoring system to preoperatively estimate a patient's risk of major complications. A total of 6,847 patients met study inclusion criteria. Thirteen risk factors were identified, and using these predictive variables, a scoring system was derived to stratify major complication risk after radical resection. The risk of a major complication after radical resection for rectal cancer is dependent on multiple preoperative variables. This study provides surgeons with a simple but effective tool for estimating major complication risk in rectal cancer patients prior to radical resection. This risk-stratification score serves as a patient-centered resource for discussing perioperative risks and assisting with the shared decision-making of operative planning.
    Techniques in Coloproctology 10/2013; 18(5). DOI:10.1007/s10151-013-1076-x · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Although approximately 30% to 50% of patients experience a complete response after regional chemotherapy for in-transit melanoma, a subset of patients will develop rapidly progressive disease. In the current era of an expanding armamentarium, including both regional and systemic options for treating advanced melanoma, identifying perioperative factors that predict disease progression may obviate unnecessary morbidity associated with regional therapy and avoid delays in systemic therapy. OBJECTIVE To identify patient-related clinical and pathological variables, as well as procedural factors, that correlate with disease progression. DESIGN Using a prospectively maintained database, we identified patients who either underwent first-time melphalan-based isolated limb infusion (ILI) or first-time hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) for in-transit melanoma. Response was defined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors for cutaneous disease at 3 months after treatment. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, with the differences in survival curves compared using a log-rank test. Potential preoperative and procedural predictors of in-field progressive disease were analyzed using logistic regression. PARTICIPANTS Of the 258 patients included in the database, 215 were identified as having undergone first-time regional therapy. Of these 215 patients, 134 underwent ILI, and 81 underwent HILP. EXPOSURE Regional therapy (ILI or HILP). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Complete response or progressive disease. RESULTS Of 134 patients who underwent ILI, 43 (32.1%) experienced in-field progressive disease. Of 81 patients who underwent HILP, 9 (11.1%) experienced in-field progressive disease. The median survival for patients with in-field progressive disease was 20.3 months for the ILI cohort and 15.0 months for the HILP cohort. In general, patients with progressive disease were younger, with advanced-stage melanoma and increased tumor burden. Compared with patients who experienced a complete response, patients with in-field progressive disease after ILI were younger (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.90-0.98]; P = .002). For patients who underwent HILP, no clinically relevant preoperative predictors of in-field progressive disease were identified. Procedural variables, including chemotherapeutic dosing, degree of acidosis or base deficit achieved, and peak temperature attained, were not predictors of in-field progressive disease after ILI or HILP. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Patient, clinical, and procedural factors are unreliable predictors of in-field progressive disease after regional therapy in patients with in-transit melanoma. Defining the potential utility of molecular markers in predicting response or failure of regional therapy should be the focus of future research efforts.
    JAMA SURGERY 04/2013; 148(6):1-6. DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.695 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although the perioperative mortality from hepatic resection has improved considerably, this procedure is still associated with substantial morbidity and resource use. The goal of this investigation was to characterize the incidence, patterns, and risk factors for early reoperation and readmission after hepatectomy. Study design: Perioperative outcomes of 1,281 patients undergoing hepatic resection at an academic center from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. The indications for early reoperation and readmission (90 days) were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine variables associated with reoperation and readmission. A scoring system was generated to predict the need for readmission after hepatectomy. Results: Eighty-seven patients (6.8%) required reoperation. The perioperative mortality in patients requiring reoperation was significantly higher than for those not requiring reoperation (23.0% vs 3.4%; p < 0.001). Variables associated with reoperation included male sex, performance of concomitant major nonhepatic procedures, and greater intraoperative blood loss. One hundred and eighty-four patients (14.4%) required readmission. Variables associated with readmission included major hepatectomy, development of major postoperative complications, and index hospitalization >7 days. A Readmission Prediction Score ranging from 0 to 4 was generated and directly correlated with need for readmission. Conclusions: In the current era of hepatic surgery, early reoperation and readmission remain relatively frequent. As we care for patients who are increasingly receiving regionalized care far from home, we must be mindful of patients at increased risk for readmission. The development of strategies to minimize the complications that necessitate reoperation and readmission is critical to improving patient care.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2013; 216(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.01.008 · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Data on recurrence after operation for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are limited. We sought to investigate rates and patterns of recurrence in patients after operative intervention for ICC. Methods: We identified 301 patients who underwent operation for ICC between 1990 and 2011 from an international, multi-institutional database. Clinicopathologic data, recurrence patterns, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed. Results: During the median follow up duration of 31 months (range 1-208), 53.5% developed a recurrence. Median RFS was 20.2 months and 5-year actuarial disease-free survival, 32.1%. The most common site for initial recurrence after operation of ICC was intrahepatic (n = 98; 60.9%), followed by simultaneous intra- and extrahepatic disease (n = 30; 18.6%); 33 (21.0%) patients developed extrahepatic recurrence only as the first site of recurrence. Macrovascular invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.21; P < .001), nodal metastasis (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.45; P = .04), unknown nodal status (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.10-2.25; P = .04), and tumor size ≥ 5 cm (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28-2.65; P < .001) were independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. Patients were assigned a clinical score from 0 to 3 according to the presence of these risk factors. The 5-year RFS for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 61.8%, 36.2%, 19.5%, and 9.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Recurrence after operative intervention for ICC was common. Disease recurred both at intra- and extrahepatic sites with roughly the same frequency. Factors such as lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and vascular invasion predict highest risk of recurrence.
    Surgery 03/2013; 153(6). DOI:10.1016/j.surg.2012.12.005 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Rapid-response extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (RR-ECMO) has been implemented at select centers to expedite cannulation for patients placed on ECMO during extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). In 2008, we established such a program and used it for all pediatric venoarterial ECMO initiations. This study was designed to compare outcomes before and after program implementation. Methods: Between 2003 and 2011, 144 pediatric patients were placed on venoarterial ECMO. Records of patients placed on ECMO before (17 ECPR and 62 non-ECPR) or after (14 ECPR and 51 non-ECPR) RR-ECMO program implementation were retrospectively compared. Results: The peak performance of the ECMO team was assessed by measuring ECMO initiation times for the ECPR patient subgroup (n = 31). There was a shift toward more ECPR initiations achieved in less than 40 minutes (24% pre-RR-ECMO versus 43% RR-ECMO; p = 0.25) and fewer requiring more than 60 minutes (47% pre-RR-ECMO versus 21% RR-ECMO; p = 0.14) after program implementation, although these changes did not reach statistical significance. After multivariable risk adjustment, RR-ECMO was associated with a 52% reduction in neurologic complications for all patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.23 to 0.98; p = 0.04), but the risk of in-hospital death remained unchanged (adjusted odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.99; p = 0.99). Conclusions: Implementation of a pediatric RR-ECMO program for venoarterial ECMO initiation was associated with reduced neurologic complications but not improved survival during the first 3 years of program implementation. These data suggest that development of a coordinated system for rapid ECMO deployment may benefit both ECPR and non-ECPR patients, but further efforts are required to improve survival.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2013; 95(6). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.01.050 · 3.85 Impact Factor