Sheila Bingham

Mrc Harwell, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (377)2519.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.
    Nutrition and Cancer 11/2011; 63(8-8):1235-1250. DOI:10.1080/01635581.2011.617530 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-Rated Health (SRH) as assessed by a single-item measure is an independent predictor of health outcomes. However, it remains uncertain which elements of the subjective health experience it most strongly captures. In view of its ability to predict outcomes, elucidation of what determines SRH is potentially important in the provision of services. This study aimed to determine the extent to which dimensions of physical, mental and social functioning are associated with SRH. We studied 20,853 men and women aged 39-79 years from a population-based cohort study (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer study) who had completed an SRH (Short Form (SF)-1) measure and SF-36 questionnaire. SF-36 subscales were used to quantify dimensions of health best predicting poor or fair SRH within a logistic regression model. In multivariate models adjusting for age, gender, social class, medical conditions and depression, all subscales of the SF-36 were independently associated with SRH, with the Physical Functioning subscale more strongly associated with poor or fair compared with excellent, very good or good health (OR 3.7 (95% CI 3.3 to 4.1)) than Mental Health (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.5)) or Social Functioning subscales (OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.0)) for those below and above the median. This study confirms that physical functioning is more strongly associated with SRH than mental health and social functioning, even where the relative associations between each dimension and SRH may be expected to differ, such as in those with depression. It suggests that the way people take account of physical, mental and social dimensions of function when rating their health may be relatively stable across groups.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 09/2011; 65(9):800-6. DOI:10.1136/jech.2009.090845 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Finite mixture models posit the existence of a latent categorical variable and can be used for probabilistic classification. The authors illustrate the use of mixture models for dietary pattern analysis. An advantage of this approach is taking classification uncertainty into account. Participants were a random sample of women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer. Food consumption was measured using dietary questionnaires. Mixture models identified latent classes in food consumption data, which were interpreted as dietary patterns. Among various assumptions examined, models allowing the variance of foods to vary within and between classes fit better than alternatives assuming constant variance (the K-means method of cluster analysis also makes the latter assumption). An eight-class model was best fitting and five patterns validated well in a second random sample. Patterns with lower classification uncertainty tended to be better validated. One pattern showed low consumption of foods despite being associated with moderate body mass index. Mixture modelling for dietary pattern analysis has advantages over both factor and cluster analysis. In contrast to these other methods, it is easy to estimate pattern prevalence, to describe patterns and to use patterns to predict disease taking classification uncertainty into account. Owing to substantial error in food consumptions, any analysis will usually find some patterns that cannot be well validated. While knowledge of classification uncertainty may aid pattern evaluation, any method will better identify patterns from food consumptions measured with less error. Mixture models may be useful to identify individuals who under-report food consumption.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 08/2011; 66(1):89-94. DOI:10.1136/jech.2009.103408 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The food frequency questionnaire approach to dietary assessment is ubiquitous in nutritional epidemiology research. Food records and recalls provide approaches that may also be adaptable for use in large epidemiologic cohorts, if warranted by better measurement properties. The authors collected (2007-2009) a 4-day food record, three 24-hour dietary recalls, and a food frequency questionnaire from 450 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative prospective cohort study (enrollment, 1994-1998), along with biomarkers of energy and protein consumption. Through comparison with biomarkers, the food record is shown to provide a stronger estimate of energy and protein than does the food frequency questionnaire, with 24-hour recalls mostly intermediate. Differences were smaller and nonsignificant for protein density. Food frequencies, records, and recalls were, respectively, able to "explain" 3.8%, 7.8%, and 2.8% of biomarker variation for energy; 8.4%, 22.6%, and 16.2% of biomarker variation for protein; and 6.5%, 11.0%, and 7.0% of biomarker variation for protein density. However, calibration equations that include body mass index, age, and ethnicity substantially improve these numbers to 41.7%, 44.7%, and 42.1% for energy; 20.3%, 32.7%, and 28.4% for protein; and 8.7%, 14.4%, and 10.4% for protein density. Calibration equations using any of the assessment procedures may yield suitable consumption estimates for epidemiologic study purposes.
    American journal of epidemiology 07/2011; 174(5):591-603. DOI:10.1093/aje/kwr140 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A predictive biomarker for intake of total sugars was recently developed under controlled conditions. We used this biomarker to assess measurement error (ME) structure in self-reported intake of total sugars in free-living individuals. The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study involved 484 participants aged 40 to 69 years. Diet was assessed using two administrations of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDR). Two 24-hour urine samples checked for completeness were analyzed on sucrose and fructose. We applied the biomarker calibrated in a feeding study to OPEN data to assess the ME structure and the attenuation factors (AF) for intakes of absolute total sugars and sugars density for the FFQ and 24HDR. The AFs for absolute sugars were similar for a single FFQ and 24HDR, but attenuation decreased with repeated 24HDRs. For sugars density, the AFs for FFQ (men: 0.39; women: 0.33) were greater than for single 24HDR (men: 0.30; women: 0.24), and similar to two 24HDRs (men: 0.41; women: 0.35). The attenuation associated with both instruments was greater in women than in men. Both the FFQ and 24HDR were found to be biased; hence, incorporation of the sugars biomarker in calibration studies within the cohorts may be necessary to more reliably estimate associations of sugars and disease. In this article, we propose a new dietary reference instrument based on the recently defined class of predictive biomarkers. Using sugars biomarker, we quantify ME in the FFQ- and 24HDR-reported absolute total sugars and total sugars density.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 03/2011; 20(3):490-500. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0820 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent results for the association between red meat intake, nitrosamines [NDMA: N-nitrosodimethylamine, and ENOC (endogenous nitroso compounds)], and the risk of bladder cancer. We investigated the association between red meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines, and heme iron and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence were available for a total of 481,419 participants, recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and study center and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, lifetime intensity of smoking, duration of smoking, educational level, and BMI. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,001 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. We found no overall association between intake of red meat (log2 HR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99-1.13), nitrosamines (log2 HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92-1.30 and HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92-1.05 for ENOC and NDMA, respectively) or heme iron (log2 HR: 1.05; 95 CI: 0.99-1.12) and bladder cancer risk. The associations did not vary by sex, high- versus low-risk bladder cancers, smoking status, or occupation (high vs. low risk). Our findings do not support an effect of red meat intake, nitrosamines (endogenous or exogenous), or heme iron intake on bladder cancer risk.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 03/2011; 20(3):555-9. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0971 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is extensive evidence that increases in blood and tissue concentrations of steroid hormones and of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are associated with breast cancer risk. However, studies of common variation in genes involved in steroid hormone and IGF-I metabolism have yet to provide convincing evidence that such variants predict breast cancer risk. The Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) is a collaboration of large US and European cohorts. We genotyped 1416 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 steroid hormone metabolism genes and 24 IGF-I pathway genes in 6292 cases of breast cancer and 8135 controls, mostly Caucasian, postmenopausal women from the BPC3. We also imputed 3921 additional SNPs in the regions of interest. None of the SNPs tested was significantly associated with breast cancer risk, after correction for multiple comparisons. The results remained null when cases and controls were stratified by age at diagnosis/recruitment, advanced or nonadvanced disease, body mass index, with or without in situ cases; or restricted to Caucasians. Among 770 estrogen receptor-negative cases, an SNP located 3' of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was marginally associated with increased risk after correction for multiple testing (P(trend) = 1.5 × 10(-4)). We found no significant overall associations between breast cancer and common germline variation in 61 genes involved in steroid hormone and IGF-I metabolism in this large, comprehensive study. Although previous studies have shown that variations in these genes can influence endogenous hormone levels, the magnitude of the effect of single SNPs does not appear to be sufficient to alter breast cancer risk.
    Human Molecular Genetics 10/2010; 19(19):3873-84. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddq291 · 6.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: B-vitamins are essential for one-carbon metabolism and have been linked to colorectal cancer. Although associations with folate have frequently been studied, studies on other plasma vitamins B2, B6, and B12 and colorectal cancer are scarce or inconclusive. We carried out a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, including 1,365 incident colorectal cancer cases and 2,319 controls matched for study center, age, and sex. We measured the sum of B2 species riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide, and the sum of B6 species pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid as indicators for vitamin B2 and B6 status, as well as vitamin B12 in plasma samples collected at baseline. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks for colorectal cancer were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and intakes of fiber and red and processed meat. The relative risks comparing highest to lowest quintile were 0.71 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.56-0.91; P(trend) = 0.02] for vitamin B2, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.87; P(trend) <0.001) for vitamin B6, and 1.02 (95% CI, 0.80-1.29; P(trend) = 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed ≥30 g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with colorectal cancer. Higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk. This European population-based study is the first to indicate that vitamin B2 is inversely associated with colorectal cancer, and is in agreement with previously suggested inverse associations of vitamin B6 with colorectal cancer.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 10/2010; 19(10):2549-61. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0407 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Farming, printing and paper industry, wood processing, meat handling and processing, welding, shoe and leather manufacturing and teaching profession are among the categories that have been implicated in previous studies. The relationship between occupation and malignant lymphoma has been investigated in a large European prospective study. We investigated occupational risks for lymphomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The mean follow-up time for 348,555 subjects was 9 years (SD: 2 years). The analysis was based on 866 and 48 newly diagnosed cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). These were identified in the EPIC subcohorts with occupational data. Data on 52 occupations were collected through standardised questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between occupation and risk of malignant lymphoma. The following occupations were positively associated with malignant NHL after adjustment for study centre, age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), smoking and alcohol: butchers (HR=1.53, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.48, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.66, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma) and car repair workers (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.00, including multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma; HR=1.51, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.31, excluding multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma). HL was associated with gasoline station occupation (HR=4.59, 95% CI 1.08 to 19.6). The findings in this current study of a higher risk of NHL among car repair workers and butchers and a higher risk of HL among gasoline station workers suggest a possible role from occupationally related exposures, such as solvents and zoonotic viruses, as risk factors for malignant lymphoma.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 09/2010; 68(1):77-81. DOI:10.1136/oem.2009.048173 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the single nucleotide polymorphism (rs17238540) at the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase gene (HMGCR) on the relationship between serum lipids and dietary fat and fibre (NSP). FFQ and pyrosequencing were used to assess cross-sectional dietary intake and HMGCR genotype in a population study with data for serum lipids available. Genotype frequencies and allele distributions for 23 011 participants were: TT 95.65 %, TG 4.29 % and GG 0.06 %; T 97.8 % and G 2.2 %. In regression analyses, the TG+GG group showed a significant positive relationship between TAG and SFA intake (+0.11 (95 % CI 0.02, 0.20) mmol TAG/l; P = 0.017; per 3 % SFA energy increase) while the TT individuals showed no change in the TAG levels related to SFA intake ( - 0.0007 (95 % CI - 0.02, 0.02) mmol TAG/l; P = 0.99). TG+GG individuals showed an inverse relationship between TAG and fibre intake higher ( - 0.14 (95 % CI - 0.22, - 0.05) mmol TAG/l than the TT group ( - 0.04 (95 % CI - 0.06, - 0.02) mmol TAG/l). In both cases the respective coefficient regressions of TAG were different between the genotype groups (Z = 2.27, P = 0.023 for SFA intake; Z = 2.19, P = 0.029 for fibre intake). Individuals carrying the G allele may show a greater response in lower TAG levels with reduced SFA intake and increased fibre intake compared with those homozygous for the T allele. The effectiveness of different dietary interventions to control serum lipids may vary according to HMGCR genotype.
    The British journal of nutrition 09/2010; 104(5):765-72. DOI:10.1017/S0007114510001145 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoslot blot assays have been used for the analysis of many DNA adducts, but problems are frequently encountered in achieving reproducible results. Each step of the assay was examined systematically, and it was found that the major problems are in the DNA fragmentation step and the use of the manifold apparatus. Optimization was performed on both the malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine (M(1)dG) adduct and the O(6)-carboxymethyl-deoxyguanosine (O(6)CMdG) adduct to demonstrate the applicability to other DNA adducts. Blood samples from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC) study (n = 162) were analyzed for M(1)dG adducts, and the data showed no correlation with adduct levels in other tissues, indicating that the EPIC blood samples were not useful for studying M(1)dG adducts. Blood samples from a processed meat versus vegetarian diet intervention (n = 6) were analyzed for O(6)CMdG, and many were below the limit of detection. The reduction of background adduct levels in standard DNA was investigated using chemical and whole genome amplification approaches. The latter gave a sensitivity improvement of 2.6 adducts per 10(7) nucleotides for the analysis of O(6)CMdG. Subsequent reanalysis for O(6)CMdG showed a weakly significant increase in O(6)CMdG on the processed meat diet compared with the vegetarian diet, demonstrating that further studies are warranted.
    Analytical Biochemistry 08/2010; 403(1-2):67-73. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2010.04.015 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the prospective relationship between mastery, where limited mastery is defined as the inability to control negative emotions (and perceiving stressful experiences as beyond personal control), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality particularly among individuals at apparently low CVD risk. Prospective population-based study of 19,067 men and women, aged 41-80 years with no previous heart disease or stroke at baseline assessment. Primary outcome measure CVD mortality. A total of 791 CVD deaths were recorded up to June 2009 during a median 11.3 person-years of follow-up. Limited perceived mastery over life circumstances was associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality, independently of biological, lifestyle, and socioeconomic risk factors (hazard ratio 1.11 per SD decrease in mastery score, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.21). This association was more pronounced among those participants apparently at low CVD risk (p = .01 for test of interaction according to the number of CVD risk factors at baseline). Limited perceived control over life circumstances is associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality, independently of classical cardiovascular risk factors, and particularly among those at apparently low risk. Future attention should be given to this potentially modifiable personal characteristic, through the design of preliminary intervention studies, to reduce cardiovascular risk.
    Health Psychology 07/2010; 29(4):412-20. DOI:10.1037/a0019432 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Until recently, the study of nutrient patterns was hampered at an international level by a lack of standardization of both dietary methods and nutrient databases. We aimed to describe the diversity of nutrient patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study at population level as a starting point for future nutrient pattern analyses and their associations with chronic diseases in multi-center studies. In this cross-sectional study, 36,034 persons aged 35-74 y were administered a single, standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intake of 25 nutrients (excluding intake from dietary supplements) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database. We used a graphic presentation of mean nutrient intakes by region and sex relative to the overall EPIC means to contrast patterns within and between 10 European countries. In Mediterranean regions, including Greece, Italy, and the southern centers of Spain, the nutrient pattern was dominated by relatively high intakes of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas intakes of retinol and vitamin D were relatively low. In contrast, in Nordic countries, including Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, reported intake of these same nutrients resulted in almost the opposite pattern. Population groups in Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK shared a fatty acid pattern of relatively high intakes of PUFA and SFA and relatively low intakes of MUFA, in combination with a relatively high intake of sugar. We confirmed large variability in nutrient intakes across the EPIC study populations and identified 3 main region-specific patterns with a geographical gradient within and between European countries.
    Journal of Nutrition 07/2010; 140(7):1280-6. DOI:10.3945/jn.110.121152 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Pooled data were analyzed from the National Cancer Institute Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) to study the association between prediagnostic anthropometric measures and risk of pancreatic cancer. PanScan applied a nested case-control study design and included 2170 cases and 2209 control subjects. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for cohort-specific quartiles of body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]), weight, height, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio as well as conventional BMI categories (underweight, <18.5; normal weight, 18.5-24.9; overweight, 25.0-29.9; obese, 30.0-34.9; and severely obese, > or = 35.0). Models were adjusted for potential confounders. In all of the participants, a positive association between increasing BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer was observed (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest BMI quartile, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.12-1.58; P(trend) < .001). In men, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of BMI was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.04-1.69; P(trend) < .03), and in women it was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.05-1.70; P(trend) = .01). Increased waist to hip ratio was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest quartile, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.31-2.69; P(trend) = .003) but less so in men. These findings provide strong support for a positive association between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk. In addition, centralized fat distribution may increase pancreatic cancer risk, especially in women.
    Archives of internal medicine 05/2010; 170(9):791-802. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.63 · 17.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A potential dual role of folate in colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently subject to debate. We investigate the associations between plasma folate, several relevant folate-related polymorphisms, and CRC risk within the large European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. In this nested case-control study, 1,367 incident CRC cases were matched to 2,325 controls for study center, age, and sex. Risk ratios (RR) were estimated with conditional logistic regression and adjusted for smoking, education, physical activity, and intake of alcohol and fiber. Overall analyses did not reveal associations of plasma folate with CRC. The RR (95% confidence interval; Ptrend) for the fifth versus the first quintile of folate status was 0.94 (0.74-1.20; 0.44). The polymorphisms MTHFR677C-->T, MTHFR1298A-->C, MTR2756A-->G, MTRR66A-->G, and MTHFD11958G-->A were not associated with CRC risk. However, in individuals with the lowest plasma folate concentrations, the MTHFR 677TT genotype showed a statistically nonsignificant increased CRC risk [RR (95% CI; Ptrend) TT versus CC=1.39 (0.87-2.21); 0.12], whereas those with the highest folate concentrations showed a nonsignificant decreased CRC risk [RR TT versus CC=0.74 (0.39-1.37); 0.34]. The SLC19A180G-->A showed a positive association with CRC risk [RR AA versus GG 1.30 (1.06-1.59); <0.01]. This large European prospective multicenter study did not show an association of CRC risk with plasma folate status nor with MTHFR polymorphisms. Findings of the present study tend to weaken the evidence that folate plays an important role in CRC carcinogenesis. However, larger sample sizes are needed to adequately address potential gene-environment interactions.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 05/2010; 19(5):1328-40. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0841 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that shorter mean telomere length in lymphocytes was associated with increased susceptibility to common diseases of aging, and may be predictive of cancer risk. However, most analyses have examined retrospectively collected case-control studies. Mean telomere length was measured using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Blood for DNA extraction was collected after cancer diagnosis in the East Anglian SEARCH Breast (2,243 cases and 2,181 controls) and SEARCH Colorectal (2,249 cases and 2,161 controls) studies. Prospective case-control studies were conducted for breast cancer (199 cases) and colorectal cancer (185 cases), nested within the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Blood was collected at least 6 months prior to diagnosis, and was matched to DNA from two cancer-free controls per case. In the retrospective SEARCH studies, the age-adjusted odds ratios for shortest (Q4) versus longest (Q1) quartile of mean telomere length was 15.5 [95% confidence intervals (CI), 11.6-20.8; p-het = 5.7 x 10(-75)], with a "per quartile" P-trend = 2.1 x 10(-80) for breast cancer; and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.77-2.59; p-het = 7.3 x 10(-15)), with a per quartile P-trend = 1.8 x 10(-13) for colorectal cancer. In the prospective EPIC study, the comparable odds ratios (Q4 versus Q1) were 1.58 (95% CI, 0.75-3.31; p-het = 0.23) for breast cancer and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.54-2.36; p-het = 0.75) for colorectal cancer risk. Mean telomere length was shorter in retrospectively collected cases than in controls but the equivalent association was markedly weaker in the prospective studies. This suggests that telomere shortening largely occurs after diagnosis, and therefore, might not be of value in cancer prediction.
    Cancer Research 04/2010; 70(8):3170-6. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4595 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.
    Journal of the National Cancer Institute 04/2010; 102(8):529-37. DOI:10.1093/jnci/djq072 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is characterized by use of different constituents, regimens and routes of administration. We investigated the association between the use of different types of MHT and breast cancer risk in the EPIC cohort study. The analysis is based on data from 133,744 postmenopausal women. Approximately 133,744 postmenopausal women contributed to this analysis. Information on MHT was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires with a single baseline assessment. Incident breast cancers were identified through population cancer registries or by active follow-up (mean: 8.6 yr). Overall relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from country-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimates. A total of 4312 primary breast cancers were diagnosed during 1,153,747 person-years of follow-up. Compared with MHT never users, breast cancer risk was higher among current users of estrogen only (RR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.23-1.64) and higher still among current users of combined MHT (RR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.40-2.24; p = 0.02 for combined vs. estrogen-only). Continuous combined regimens conferred a 43% (95% CI: 19-72%) greater risk compared with sequential regimens. There was no significant difference between progesterone and testosterone derivatives in sequential regimens. There was no significant variation in risk linked to the estrogenic component of MHT, neither for oral vs. cutaneous administration nor for estradiol compounds vs. conjugated equine estrogens. Estrogen-only and combined MHT uses were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Continuous combined preparations were associated with the highest risk. Further studies are needed to disentangle the effects of the regimen and the progestin component.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/2010; 128(1):144-56. DOI:10.1002/ijc.25314 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between physical activity, potential intermediate biomarkers and lung cancer risk was investigated in a study of 230 cases and 648 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition. Data on white blood cell aromatic-DNA adducts by (32)P-post-labelling and glutathione (GSH) in red blood cells were available from a subset of cases and controls. Compared with the first quartile, the fourth quartile of recreational physical activity was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (odds ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.90), higher GSH levels (+1.87 micromol GSH g(-1) haemoglobin, p = 0.04) but not with the presence of high levels of adducts (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.38-2.86). Despite being associated with recreational physical activity, in these small-scale pilot analyses GSH levels were not associated with lung cancer risk (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.84-1.07 per unit increase in GSH levels). Household and occupational activity was not associated with lung cancer risk or biomarker levels.
    Biomarkers 02/2010; 15(1):20-30. DOI:10.3109/13547500903186452 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is believed to protect against cancer, although evidence from cohort studies that have examined particular cancer sites is limited. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association between adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) and incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. DESIGN: The study included 485,044 subjects (144,577 men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries. At recruitment, dietary and lifestyle information was collected. An 18-unit rMED score, incorporating 9 key components of the Mediterranean diet, was used to estimate rMED adherence. The association between rMED and GC with respect to anatomic location (cardia and noncardia) and histologic types (diffuse and intestinal) was investigated. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement error. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.9 y, 449 validated incident GC cases were identified and used in the analysis. After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized cancer risk factors, high compared with low rMED adherence was associated with a significant reduction in GC risk (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). A 1-unit increase in the rMED score was associated with a decreased risk of GC of 5% (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between different anatomic locations or histologic types. The calibrated results showed similar trends (overall hazard ratio for GC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99). CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to an rMED is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of incident GC. Some authors are partners of ECNIS, a network of excellence of the EC (6FP contract 513943).
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2010; 91(2). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28209 · 6.77 Impact Factor

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  • 2008-2011
    • Mrc Harwell
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of East Anglia
      • Norwich Medical School
      Norwich, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004-2011
    • University of Oxford
      • Cancer Epidemiology Unit
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1997-2011
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Public Health and Primary Care
      • • Cambridge Institute of Public Health
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006-2009
    • Wellcome Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
    • Universitetet i Tromsø
      • Department of Community Medicine
      Tromsø, Troms Fylke, Norway
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2004-2009
    • Cambridge Health Alliance
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2007
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • University Medical Center Utrecht
      • Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004-2005
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1981-2004
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • MRC Human Nutrition Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • University of Leicester
      • Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Epic
      Verona, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1996
    • Universidad del País Vasco / Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea
      Leioa, Basque Country, Spain
  • 1992
    • International Agency for Research on Cancer
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1990
    • MRC Clinical Sciences Centre
      London Borough of Harrow, England, United Kingdom