S Canil

Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Piedmont, Italy

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Publications (5)25.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the patatin-like phospholipase-3 (PNPLA3)/adiponutrin gene (rs738409 C>G) is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; to our knowledge, no data are available on the impact of this PNPLA3 SNP on liver and metabolic outcomes during pregnancy in patients with gestational diabetes (GD). Objective: We evaluated the impact of the PNPLA3 rs738409 SNP on liver enzymes, metabolic indexes, and maternal and neonatal outcomes in 200 GD patients enrolled in a lifestyle intervention. Design: In a randomized trial with a 2 X 2 factorial design, exercise significantly improved maternal and neonatal outcomes in GD patients. Effects of the G allele on metabolic and liver indexes and maternal and neonatal outcomes were evaluated in these patients. Results: At the end of the trial, fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly lower and liver enzymes significantly higher in PNPLA3 G-allele carriers. In a multiple regression model, the G allele was associated directly with aspartate aminotransferase (beta = 2.60; 95% CI: 0.99, 4.20), alanine aminotransferase (beta = 3.70; 95% CI: 1.78, 5.62), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (beta= 3.70; 95% CI: 0.80, 6.60) and inversely with insulin (beta = -2.01; 95% CI: -3.24, -0.78) and HOMA-IR (beta = -0.39; -0.64, -0.14) values at the end of the trial. In a multiple logistic regression model, the G allele was associated directly with risk of developing liver enzyme elevation during pregnancy (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.78, 9.97) and inversely with the birth of large-for-gestational-age newborns (OR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.62). No diet X genotype or exercise X genotype interaction was shown. Conclusion: The PNPLA3 SNP rs738409 G allele was associated with risk of mildly elevated transaminases in GD independent of a lifestyle intervention and despite a significant reduction in insulin resistance and risk of macrosomic offspring.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 02/2015; 101(2):310-8. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.095125 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The benefits of exercise and behavioural recommendations in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are controversial. In a randomized trial with a 2x2 factorial design, we examined the effect of exercise and behavioural recommendations on metabolic variables, and maternal/neonatal outcomes in 200 GDM patients.All women were given the same diet: group D received dietary recommendations only; group E was advised to briskly walk 20-minutes/day; group B received behavioural dietary recommendations; group BE was prescribed the same as B + E.Dietary habits improved in all groups. In a multivariable regression model, fasting glucose did not change. Exercise, but not behavioural recommendations, was associated with the reduction of postprandial glucose (p < 0001), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.02), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.001) and reduced any maternal/neonatal complications (OR=0.50; 95%CI 0.28 0.89;p = 0.02).In GDM patients a simple exercise program reduced maternal postprandial glucose, Hba1c, CRP, triglycerides and any maternal/neonatal complications, but not fasting glucose values.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 03/2014; 16(10). DOI:10.1111/dom.12289 · 6.36 Impact Factor
  • S Bo · L Gentile · A Castiglione · V Prandi · S Canil · E Ghigo · G Ciccone ·
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    ABSTRACT: C-peptide, a cleavage product of insulin, exerts biological effects in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, but its role in type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial. Our aim was to examine the associations between fasting C-peptide levels and all-cause mortality, specific-cause mortality and the incidence of chronic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. Retrospective cohort study with a median follow-up of 14 years. A representative cohort of 2113 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a subgroup of 931 individuals from this cohort without chronic complications at baseline from a diabetic clinic were studied. Patients with higher C-peptide levels had higher baseline BMI and triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol values. During the follow-up, 46.1% of the patients died. In a Cox proportional hazard model, after multiple adjustments, no significant association was found between the C-peptide tertiles and all-cause mortality or mortality due to cancer, diabetes or cardiovascular diseases. In the subgroup of 931 patients without chronic complications at baseline, the incidence of microvascular complications decreased from the first to the third C-peptide level tertile, while the incidence of cardiovascular disease did not differ. The risks for incident retinopathy (hazard ratio (HR)=0.33; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.47), nephropathy (HR=0.27; 95% CI 0.18-0.38) and neuropathy (HR=0.39; 95% CI 0.25-0.61) were negatively associated with the highest C-peptide tertile, after adjusting for multiple confounders. Higher baseline C-peptide levels were associated with a reduced risk of incident microvascular complications but imparted no survival benefit to patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    European Journal of Endocrinology 05/2012; 167(2):173-80. DOI:10.1530/EJE-12-0085 · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies have shown that chronic sub-clinical inflammation is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), but results are conflicting. We investigated the association between baseline LVH and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) values, both cross-sectionally and after a six-year-follow-up, in a population-based cohort (n = 1564) and a subgroup from this cohort (n = 515), without obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome or any drugs. ECG tracings at baseline were interpreted according to the Cornell voltage-duration product criteria: 166/1564 subjects (10.6%) showed LVH. Patients with baseline LVH showed increased BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, and a worse metabolic pattern. Their CRP values both at baseline and at follow-up were almost two-fold higher than in patients without LVH. Similar results were found in the healthier sub-sample. In a multiple regression model, CRP at follow-up was directly associated with baseline LVH (expressed as Cornell voltage-duration product) in the whole cohort (β = 0.0003; 95%CI 0.0002-0.0006; p < 0.001) and in the sub-sample (β = 0.0003; 0.0002-0.0004; p < 0.001), after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, smoking, exercise levels, blood pressure and baseline CRP values. Baseline LVH, which is associated with systemic inflammation, predicts increased CRP values at follow-up, independently of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, both in a population-based cohort and a healthier sub-sample. The inflammatory consequences of LVH might be an intriguing subject for further researches.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 03/2011; 22(8):668-76. DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2010.11.004 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively unexplored contributors to the obesity and diabetes epidemics may include sleep restriction, increased house temperature (HT), television watching (TW), consumption of restaurant meals (RMs), use of air conditioning (AC) and use of antidepressant/antipsychotic drugs (ADs). In a population-based cohort (n=1597), we investigated the possible association among these conditions, and obesity or hyperglycemia incidence at 6-year follow-up. Subjects with obesity (n=315) or hyperglycemia (n=618) at baseline were excluded, respectively, 1282 and 979 individuals were therefore analyzed. At follow-up, 103/1282 became obese; these subjects showed significantly higher body mass index, waist circumference, saturated fat intake, RM frequency, TW hours, HT, AC and AD use, and lower fiber intake, metabolic equivalent of activity in h per week (METS) and sleep hours at baseline. In a multiple logistic regression model, METS (odds ratio=0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.98), RMs (odds ratio=1.47 per meal per week; 1.21-1.79), being in the third tertile of HT (odds ratio=2.06; 1.02-4.16) and hours of sleep (odds ratio=0.70 per h; 0.57-0.86) were associated with incident obesity. Subjects who developed hyperglycemia (n=174/979; 17.8%) had higher saturated fat intake, RM frequency, TW hours, HT, AC and AD use at baseline and lower METS and fiber intake. In a multiple logistic regression model, fiber intake (odds ratio=0.97 for each g per day; 0.95-0.99), RM (1.49 per meal per week; 1.26-1.75) and being in the third tertile of HT (odds ratio=1.95; 1.17-3.26) were independently associated with incident hyperglycemia. Lifestyle contributors to the obesity and hyperglycemia epidemics may be regular consumption of RM, sleep restriction and higher HT, suggesting potential adjunctive non-pharmacological preventive strategies for the obesity and hyperglycemia epidemics.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 02/2011; 35(11):1442-9. DOI:10.1038/ijo.2011.5 · 5.00 Impact Factor