Richard J Hayes

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (292)2173.3 Total impact

  • AIDS research and human retroviruses; 10/2014
  • AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 30 Suppl 1:A72-3. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-testing for HIV infection may contribute to early diagnosis of HIV, but without necessarily increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2014; 312(4):372-9. · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101221. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Do injectable and oral contraceptives increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in women?
    Human Reproduction 05/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa have mainly managed acute, infectious diseases. Few data exist for the preparedness of African health facilities to handle the growing epidemic of chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We assessed the burden of NCDs in health facilities in northwestern Tanzania and investigated the strengths of the health system and areas for improvement with regard to primary care management of selected NCDs. Between November, 2012, and May, 2013, we undertook a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 24 public and not-for-profit health facilities in urban and rural Tanzania (four hospitals, eight health centres, and 12 dispensaries). We did structured interviews of facility managers, inspected resources, and administered self-completed questionnaires to 335 health-care workers. We focused on hypertension, diabetes, and HIV (for comparison). Our key study outcomes related to service provision, availability of guidelines and supplies, management and training systems, and preparedness of human resources. Of adult outpatient visits to hospitals, 58% were for chronic diseases compared with 20% at health centres, and 13% at dispensaries. In many facilities, guidelines, diagnostic equipment, and first-line drug therapy for the primary care of NCDs were inadequate, and management, training, and reporting systems were weak. Services for HIV accounted for most chronic disease visits and seemed stronger than did services for NCDs. Ten (42%) facilities had guidelines for HIV whereas three (13%) facilities did for NCDs. 261 (78%) health workers showed fair knowledge of HIV, whereas 198 (59%) did for hypertension and 187 (56%) did for diabetes. Generally, health systems were weaker in lower-level facilities. Front-line health-care workers (such as non-medical-doctor clinicians and nurses) did not have knowledge and experience of NCDs. For example, only 74 (49%) of 150 nurses had at least fair knowledge of diabetes care compared with 85 (57%) of 150 for hyptertension and 119 (79%) of 150 for HIV, and only 31 (21%) of 150 had seen more than five patients with diabetes in the past 3 months compared with 50 (33%) of 150 for hypertension and 111 (74%) of 150 for HIV. Most outpatient services for NCDs in Tanzania are provided at hospitals, despite present policies stating that health centres and dispensaries should provide such services. We identified crucial weaknesses (and strengths) in health systems that should be considered to improve primary care for NCDs in Africa and identified ways that HIV programmes could serve as a model and structural platform for these improvements. UK Medical Research Council.
    The lancet global health. 05/2014; 2(5):e285-e292.
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut since they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries.Methods. Using attendance registers of randomly-selected primary schools in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, we enrolled girls aged 15-16 years who reported not having passed sexual debut. A face-to-face interview on sexual behaviour and intra-vaginal practices, and a nurse-assisted self-administered vaginal swab were performed. Swabs were tested for 13 high-risk and 24 low-risk HPV genotypes.Results. HPV was detected in 40/474 (8.4%;95%CI:5.9-11.0) girls. Ten different high-risk and 21 different low-risk genotypes were detected. High-risk genotypes were detected in 5.3% (95%CI:3.5-7.8). In multivariable analysis, only intra-vaginal cleansing (practiced by 20.9%) was associated with HPV detection (aOR=2.19,95%CI:1.09-4.39).Conclusion. This cohort of adolescent Tanzanian girls had a high HPV prevalence prior to self-reported sexual debut, and this was associated with intravaginal cleansing. This most likely reflects under-reporting of sexual activity, and it is possible that intravaginal cleansing is a marker for unreported sexual debut or non-penetrative sexual behaviours.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2014; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies have shown a strong association between Mycoplasma genitalium and HIV infections. We previously reported that in a cohort of female sex workers in Uganda, M genitalium infection at baseline was associated with HIV seroconversion. Here we examine the temporal association between the M genitalium infection status shortly before HIV seroconversion and HIV acquisition. A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of women at high risk for HIV in Kampala. Cases were those of women acquiring HIV within 2 years of enrolment. For each of the 42 cases, 3 controls were selected from women HIV negative at the visit when the corresponding case first tested HIV seropositive. The association between HIV acquisition and M genitalium infection immediately prior to HIV testing was analysed using conditional logistic regression. There was weak evidence of an association between M genitalium infection and HIV acquisition overall (crude OR=1.57; 95% CI 0.67 to 3.72, aOR=2.28: 95% CI 0.81 to 6.47). However, time of M genitalium testing affected the association (p value for effect-modification=0.004). For 29 case-control sets with endocervical samples tested 3 months prior to the first HIV-positive result, M genitalium infection increased the risk of HIV acquisition (crude OR=3.09; 95% CI 1.06 to 9.05, aOR=7.19; 95% CI 1.68 to 30.77), whereas there was little evidence of an association among the 13 case-control sets with samples tested at an earlier visit (crude OR=0.30: 95% CI 0.04 to 2.51; aOR=0.34; 95% CI 0.02 to 5.94). Our study showed evidence of a temporal relationship between M genitalium infection and HIV acquisition that suggests that M genitalium infection may be a co-factor in the acquisition of HIV infection.
    Sexually transmitted infections 03/2014; · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective interventions to reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed. Mathematical modelling and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial results suggest that universal HIV testing combined with immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) should substantially reduce incidence and may eliminate HIV as a public health problem. We describe the rationale and design of a trial to evaluate this hypothesis. A rigorously-designed trial of universal testing and treatment (UTT) interventions is needed because: i) it is unknown whether these interventions can be delivered to scale with adequate uptake; ii) there are many uncertainties in the models such that the population-level impact of these interventions is unknown; and ii) there are potential adverse effects including sexual risk disinhibition, HIV-related stigma, over-burdening of health systems, poor adherence, toxicity, and drug resistance.In the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial, 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population 1.2 m) will be randomly allocated to three arms. Arm A will receive the full PopART combination HIV prevention package including annual home-based HIV testing, promotion of medical male circumcision for HIV-negative men, and offer of immediate ART for those testing HIV-positive; Arm B will receive the full package except that ART initiation will follow current national guidelines; Arm C will receive standard of care. A Population Cohort of 2,500 adults will be randomly selected in each community and followed for 3 years to measure the primary outcome of HIV incidence. Based on model projections, the trial will be well-powered to detect predicted effects on HIV incidence and secondary outcomes. Trial results, combined with modelling and cost data, will provide short-term and long-term estimates of cost-effectiveness of UTT interventions. Importantly, the three-arm design will enable assessment of how much could be achieved by optimal delivery of current policies and the costs and benefits of extending this to UTT.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01900977.
    Trials 02/2014; 15(1):57. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    Journal of epidemiology and community health 02/2014; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 02/2014; 102:165-73. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the main results, among adults, of a cluster-randomised-trial of Well London, a community-engagement programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being in deprived neighbourhoods. The hypothesis was that benefits would be neighbourhood-wide, and not restricted to intervention participants. The trial was part of a multicomponent process/outcome evaluation which included non-experimental components (self-reported behaviour change amongst participants, case studies and evaluations of individual projects) which suggested health, well-being and social benefits to participants. Twenty matched pairs of neighbourhoods in London were randomised to intervention/control condition. Primary outcomes (five portions fruit/vegetables/day; 5×30 m of moderate intensity physical activity/week, abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 score and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score) were measured by postintervention questionnaire survey, among 3986 adults in a random sample of households across neighbourhoods. There was no evidence of impact on primary outcomes: healthy eating (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17); physical activity (RR:1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16); abnormal GHQ12 (RR:1.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.61); WEMWBS (mean difference [MD]: -1.52, 95% CI -3.93 to 0.88). There was evidence of impact on some secondary outcomes: reducing unhealthy eating-score (MD: -0.14, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.27) and increased perception that people in the neighbourhood pulled together (RR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.29). The trial findings do not provide evidence supporting the conclusion of non-experimental components of the evaluation that intervention improved health behaviours, well-being and social outcomes. Low participation rates and population churn likely compromised any impact of the intervention. Imprecise estimation of outcomes and sampling bias may also have influenced findings. There is a need for greater investment in refining such programmes before implementation; new methods to understand, longitudinally different pathways residents take through such interventions and their outcomes, and new theories of change that apply to each pathway.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 01/2014; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is epidemic among workers in South African gold mines. We evaluated an intervention to interrupt tuberculosis transmission by means of mass screening that was linked to treatment for active disease or latent infection. In a cluster-randomized study, we designated 15 clusters with 78,744 miners as either intervention clusters (40,981 miners in 8 clusters) or control clusters (37,763 miners in 7 clusters). In the intervention clusters, all miners were offered tuberculosis screening. If active tuberculosis was diagnosed, they were referred for treatment; if not, they were offered 9 months of isoniazid preventive therapy. The primary outcome was the cluster-level incidence of tuberculosis during the 12 months after the intervention ended. Secondary outcomes included tuberculosis prevalence at study completion. In the intervention clusters, 27,126 miners (66.2%) underwent screening. Of these miners, 23,659 (87.2%) started taking isoniazid, and isoniazid was dispensed for 6 months or more to 35 to 79% of miners, depending on the cluster. The intervention did not reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, with rates of 3.02 per 100 person-years in the intervention clusters and 2.95 per 100 person-years in the control clusters (rate ratio in the intervention clusters, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.34; P=0.98; adjusted rate ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.21; P=0.71), or the prevalence of tuberculosis (2.35% vs. 2.14%; adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.48; P=0.90). Analysis of the direct effect of isoniazid in 10,909 miners showed a reduced incidence of tuberculosis during treatment (1.10 cases per 100 person-years among miners receiving isoniazid vs. 2.91 cases per 100 person-years among controls; adjusted rate ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.88; P=0.03), but there was a subsequent rapid loss of protection. Mass screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis had no significant effect on tuberculosis control in South African gold mines, despite the successful use of isoniazid in preventing tuberculosis during treatment. (Funded by the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS TB Epidemic and others; Thibela TB Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN63327174.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2014; 370(4):301-10. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The HPTN 052 trial confirmed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) can nearly eliminate HIV transmission from successfully treated HIV-infected individuals within couples. Here, we present the mathematical modeling used to inform the design and monitoring of a new trial aiming to test whether widespread provision of ART is feasible and can substantially reduce population-level HIV incidence. Methods and Findings The HPTN 071 (PopART) trial is a three-arm cluster-randomized trial of 21 large population clusters in Zambia and South Africa, starting in 2013. A combination prevention package including home-based voluntary testing and counseling, and ART for HIV positive individuals, will be delivered in arms A and B, with ART offered universally in arm A and according to national guidelines in arm B. Arm C will be the control arm. The primary endpoint is the cumulative three-year HIV incidence. We developed a mathematical model of heterosexual HIV transmission, informed by recent data on HIV-1 natural history. We focused on realistically modeling the intervention package. Parameters were calibrated to data previously collected in these communities and national surveillance data. We predict that, if targets are reached, HIV incidence over three years will drop by >60% in arm A and >25% in arm B, relative to arm C. The considerable uncertainty in the predicted reduction in incidence justifies the need for a trial. The main drivers of this uncertainty are possible community-level behavioral changes associated with the intervention, uptake of testing and treatment, as well as ART retention and adherence. Conclusions The HPTN 071 (PopART) trial intervention could reduce HIV population-level incidence by >60% over three years. This intervention could serve as a paradigm for national or supra-national implementation. Our analysis highlights the role mathematical modeling can play in trial development and monitoring, and more widely in evaluating the impact of treatment as prevention.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23; AUDIT: aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56; AUDIT: aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18), in the past 3 months. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84447. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased understanding of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 is challenging but important in the development of an effective vaccine. We aimed to describe the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in northern Tanzania among women enrolled in studies preparing for HIV-1 prevention trials (hospitality facility-worker cohorts), and among men and women in an open cohort demographic surveillance system (Kisesa cohort). The polymerase encompassing partial reverse transcriptase was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed and subtype determined. Questionnaires documented demographic data. We examined factors associated with subtype using multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for study, age, and sex. Among 140 individuals (125 women and 15 men), subtype A1 predominated (54, 39%), followed by C (46, 33%), D (25, 18%) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) (15, 11%). There was weak evidence to suggest different subtype frequencies by study (for example, 18% URFs in the Kisesa cohort versus 5-9% in the hospitality facility-worker cohorts; adjusted relative-risk ratio (aRR) = 2.35 [95% CI 0.59,9.32]; global p = 0.09). Compared to men, women were less likely to have subtype D versus A (aRR = 0.12 [95% CI 0.02,0.76]; global p = 0.05). There was a trend to suggest lower relative risk of subtype D compared to A with older age (aRR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23,0.85] per 10 years; global p = 0.05). We observed multiple subtypes, confirming the complex genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in northern Tanzania, and found some differences between cohorts and by age and sex. This has important implications for vaccine design and development, providing opportunity to determine vaccine efficacy in diverse HIV-1 strains.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81848. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endemic malaria and helminth infections in sub-Saharan Africa can act as immunological modulators and impact responses to standard immunizations. We conducted a cohort study to measure the influence of malaria and helminth infections on the immunogenicity of the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine. We evaluated the association between malaria and helminth infections, and HPV-16/18 antibody responses among 298 Tanzanian females aged 10-25 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Malaria parasitaemia was diagnosed by examination of blood smears, and helminth infections were diagnosed by examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. Geometric mean antibody titres (GMT) against HPV-16/18 antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parasitic infections were common; one-third (30.4%) of participants had a helminth infection and 10.2% had malaria parasitaemia. Overall, the vaccine induced high HPV-16/18 GMTs, and there was no evidence of a reduction in HPV-16 or HPV-18 GMT at Month 7 or Month 12 follow-up visits among participants with helminths or malaria. There was some evidence that participants with malaria had increased GMTs compared to those without malaria. The data show high HPV immunogenicity regardless of the presence of malaria and helminth infections. The mechanism and significance for the increase in GMT in those with malaria is unknown.
    Vaccine 11/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a variant of a link-tracing design intended for generating unbiased estimates of the composition of hidden populations that typically involves giving participants several coupons to recruit their peers into the study. RDS may generate biased estimates if coupons are distributed non-randomly or if potential recruits present for interview non-randomly. We explore if biases detected in an RDS study were due to either of these mechanisms, and propose and apply weights to reduce bias due to non-random presentation for interview. Using data from the total population, and the population to whom recruiters offered their coupons, we explored how age and socioeconomic status were associated with being offered a coupon, and, if offered a coupon, with presenting for interview. Population proportions were estimated by weighting by the assumed inverse probabilities of being offered a coupon (as in existing RDS methods), and also of presentation for interview if offered a coupon by age and socioeconomic status group. Younger men were under-recruited primarily because they were less likely to be offered coupons. The under-recruitment of higher socioeconomic status men was due in part to them being less likely to present for interview. Consistent with these findings, weighting for non-random presentation for interview by age and socioeconomic status group greatly improved the estimate of the proportion of men in the lowest socioeconomic group, reducing the root-mean-squared error of RDS estimates of socioeconomic status by 38%, but had little effect on estimates for age. The weighting also improved estimates for tribe and religion (reducing root-mean-squared-errors by 19-29%), but had little effect for sexual activity or HIV status. Data collected from recruiters on the characteristics of men to whom they offered coupons may be used to reduce bias in RDS studies. Further evaluation of this new method is required.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78402. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM) influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting. This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode); a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i) ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii) ability to afford essential items; and iii) food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds. 96% (n = 1483) of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode. These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e74977. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
2,173.30 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
      • • Department of Global Health and Development
      • • Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health
      • • Department of Clinical Research
      • • Tropical Epidemiology Group (TEG)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Vanderbilt University
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
    • Durham University
      • School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2013
    • University of East London
      • Institute for Health and Human Development
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • MRC Clinical Trials Unit
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2011–2012
    • Medical Research Council / Uganda Virus Research Institute
      Entebbe, Central Region, Uganda
    • The Aurum Institute
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2010–2012
    • Mwanza Intervention Trials Unit
      Mwansa, Mwanza, Tanzania
    • CRESIB Barcelona Centre for International Health Research
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008–2011
    • University College London
      • Department of Infection and Population Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2010
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2009
    • Inštitut za vode Republike Slovenije
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 1996–2008
    • National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • 2006
    • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
    • Microbicide Trials Network
      Salisbury, Harare Province, Zimbabwe
  • 2005
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2002
    • Institute of Tropical Medicine
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
  • 1997–2001
    • Economic and Social Research Foundation, Tanzania
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • 1999
    • Uganda Virus Research Institute
      Entebbe, Central Region, Uganda
  • 1990
    • University of Zambia
      • School of Medicine
      Lusaka, Lusaka Province, Zambia