Richard J Hayes

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States

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Publications (305)2247.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A recent major cluster randomized trial of screening, active disease treatment, and mass isoniazid preventive therapy for 9 months during 2006-2011 among South African gold miners showed reduced individual-level tuberculosis incidence but no detectable population-level impact. We fitted a dynamic mathematical model to trial data and explored 1) factors contributing to the lack of population-level impact, 2) the best-achievable impact if all implementation characteristics were increased to the highest level achieved during the trial ("optimized intervention"), and 3) how tuberculosis might be better controlled with additional interventions (improving diagnostics, reducing treatment delay, providing isoniazid preventive therapy continuously to human immunodeficiency virus-positive people, or scaling up antiretroviral treatment coverage) individually and in combination. We found the following: 1) The model suggests that a small proportion of latent infections among human immunodeficiency virus-positive people were cured, which could have been a key factor explaining the lack of detectable population-level impact. 2) The optimized implementation increased impact by only 10%. 3) Implementing additional interventions individually and in combination led to up to 30% and 75% reductions, respectively, in tuberculosis incidence after 10 years. Tuberculosis control requires a combination prevention approach, including health systems strengthening to minimize treatment delay, improving diagnostics, increased antiretroviral treatment coverage, and effective preventive treatment regimens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    American journal of epidemiology 03/2015; 181(8). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu320 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reflecting on a Policy Forum article by Till Bärnighausen and colleagues, the HPTN 071 (PopART) Study Team consider ethical and study power concerns and the importance of the trial's future findings.
    PLoS Medicine 03/2015; 12(3):e1001800. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001800 · 14.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies of a putative association between hormonal contraception (HC) and HIV acquisition have produced conflicting results. We conducted an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of studies from sub-Saharan Africa to compare the incidence of HIV infection in women using combined oral contraceptives (COCs) or the injectable progestins depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) with women not using HC. Eligible studies measured HC exposure and incident HIV infection prospectively using standardized measures, enrolled women aged 15-49 y, recorded ≥15 incident HIV infections, and measured prespecified covariates. Our primary analysis estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) using two-stage random effects meta-analysis, controlling for region, marital status, age, number of sex partners, and condom use. We included 18 studies, including 37,124 women (43,613 woman-years) and 1,830 incident HIV infections. Relative to no HC use, the aHR for HIV acquisition was 1.50 (95% CI 1.24-1.83) for DMPA use, 1.24 (95% CI 0.84-1.82) for NET-EN use, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.88-1.20) for COC use. Between-study heterogeneity was mild (I2 < 50%). DMPA use was associated with increased HIV acquisition compared with COC use (aHR 1.43, 95% CI 1.23-1.67) and NET-EN use (aHR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61). Effect estimates were attenuated for studies at lower risk of methodological bias (compared with no HC use, aHR for DMPA use 1.22, 95% CI 0.99-1.50; for NET-EN use 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96; and for COC use 0.91, 95% CI 0.73-1.41) compared to those at higher risk of bias (pinteraction = 0.003). Neither age nor herpes simplex virus type 2 infection status modified the HC-HIV relationship. This IPD meta-analysis found no evidence that COC or NET-EN use increases women's risk of HIV but adds to the evidence that DMPA may increase HIV risk, underscoring the need for additional safe and effective contraceptive options for women at high HIV risk. A randomized controlled trial would provide more definitive evidence about the effects of hormonal contraception, particularly DMPA, on HIV risk.
    PLoS Medicine 01/2015; 12(1). DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001778 · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18-22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7-8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9-12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should be developed and evaluated alongside behaviour and biomedical interventions, as a component of HIV prevention programming and policy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0115290. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115290 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 10/2014; 30 Suppl 1:A72-3. DOI:10.1089/aid.2014.5134.abstract · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • AIDS research and human retroviruses; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Self-testing for HIV infection may contribute to early diagnosis of HIV, but without necessarily increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2014; 312(4):372-9. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.6493 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Curable, non-viral pathogens account for a significant burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and there is established evidence that STIs increase both HIV acquisition and transmission. We investigated the prevalence, trends, and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and Treponema pallidum, and the performance of syndromic management, among a cohort of women working in bars, hotels, and other food and recreational facilities near large-scale mines in northwestern Tanzania. Methods HIV-negative women aged 18–44 years (N = 966) were enrolled and followed for 12 months in a microbicides feasibility study. We collected sociodemographic and behavioural data, performed clinical examinations, and tested for STIs, at enrolment and 3-monthly. Risk factors for STIs were investigated using logistic regression models with random effects. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of syndromic management were calculated. Results At enrolment, the prevalences of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, T. vaginalis, and high-titre active syphilis were 111/956 (12%), 42/955 (4%), 184/945 (19%) and 46/965 (5%), respectively. There were significant decreases over time for C. trachomatis and T. vaginalis (OR trend per month: 0.94 [95% CI 0.91, 0.97]; and 0.95 [0.93, 0.98], respectively; both p<0.001). The majority of these infections were not diagnosed by the corresponding syndrome; therefore, most participants were not treated at the diagnosis visit. Syndromic management was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed infections. We identified a number of risk factors for STIs, including low educational level, some sexual behaviours, and ever having been pregnant. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that the prevalences of curable STIs are high among women who work in food and recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania. Most of these infections are missed by syndromic management. Accurate and affordable rapid-point-of-care tests and innovative interventions are needed to reduce the burden of STIs in this population which is at increased risk for HIV.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101221. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101221 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Do injectable and oral contraceptives increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in women?
    Human Reproduction 05/2014; 29(8). DOI:10.1093/humrep/deu113 · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa have mainly managed acute, infectious diseases. Few data exist for the preparedness of African health facilities to handle the growing epidemic of chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We assessed the burden of NCDs in health facilities in northwestern Tanzania and investigated the strengths of the health system and areas for improvement with regard to primary care management of selected NCDs. Between November, 2012, and May, 2013, we undertook a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 24 public and not-for-profit health facilities in urban and rural Tanzania (four hospitals, eight health centres, and 12 dispensaries). We did structured interviews of facility managers, inspected resources, and administered self-completed questionnaires to 335 health-care workers. We focused on hypertension, diabetes, and HIV (for comparison). Our key study outcomes related to service provision, availability of guidelines and supplies, management and training systems, and preparedness of human resources. Of adult outpatient visits to hospitals, 58% were for chronic diseases compared with 20% at health centres, and 13% at dispensaries. In many facilities, guidelines, diagnostic equipment, and first-line drug therapy for the primary care of NCDs were inadequate, and management, training, and reporting systems were weak. Services for HIV accounted for most chronic disease visits and seemed stronger than did services for NCDs. Ten (42%) facilities had guidelines for HIV whereas three (13%) facilities did for NCDs. 261 (78%) health workers showed fair knowledge of HIV, whereas 198 (59%) did for hypertension and 187 (56%) did for diabetes. Generally, health systems were weaker in lower-level facilities. Front-line health-care workers (such as non-medical-doctor clinicians and nurses) did not have knowledge and experience of NCDs. For example, only 74 (49%) of 150 nurses had at least fair knowledge of diabetes care compared with 85 (57%) of 150 for hyptertension and 119 (79%) of 150 for HIV, and only 31 (21%) of 150 had seen more than five patients with diabetes in the past 3 months compared with 50 (33%) of 150 for hypertension and 111 (74%) of 150 for HIV. Most outpatient services for NCDs in Tanzania are provided at hospitals, despite present policies stating that health centres and dispensaries should provide such services. We identified crucial weaknesses (and strengths) in health systems that should be considered to improve primary care for NCDs in Africa and identified ways that HIV programmes could serve as a model and structural platform for these improvements. UK Medical Research Council.
    The Lancet Global Health 05/2014; 2(5):e285-e292. DOI:10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70033-6
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut since they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries.Methods. Using attendance registers of randomly-selected primary schools in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, we enrolled girls aged 15-16 years who reported not having passed sexual debut. A face-to-face interview on sexual behaviour and intra-vaginal practices, and a nurse-assisted self-administered vaginal swab were performed. Swabs were tested for 13 high-risk and 24 low-risk HPV genotypes.Results. HPV was detected in 40/474 (8.4%;95%CI:5.9-11.0) girls. Ten different high-risk and 21 different low-risk genotypes were detected. High-risk genotypes were detected in 5.3% (95%CI:3.5-7.8). In multivariable analysis, only intra-vaginal cleansing (practiced by 20.9%) was associated with HPV detection (aOR=2.19,95%CI:1.09-4.39).Conclusion. This cohort of adolescent Tanzanian girls had a high HPV prevalence prior to self-reported sexual debut, and this was associated with intravaginal cleansing. This most likely reflects under-reporting of sexual activity, and it is possible that intravaginal cleansing is a marker for unreported sexual debut or non-penetrative sexual behaviours.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2014; 210(6). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu202 · 5.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional studies have shown a strong association between Mycoplasma genitalium and HIV infections. We previously reported that in a cohort of female sex workers in Uganda, M genitalium infection at baseline was associated with HIV seroconversion. Here we examine the temporal association between the M genitalium infection status shortly before HIV seroconversion and HIV acquisition. A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of women at high risk for HIV in Kampala. Cases were those of women acquiring HIV within 2 years of enrolment. For each of the 42 cases, 3 controls were selected from women HIV negative at the visit when the corresponding case first tested HIV seropositive. The association between HIV acquisition and M genitalium infection immediately prior to HIV testing was analysed using conditional logistic regression. There was weak evidence of an association between M genitalium infection and HIV acquisition overall (crude OR=1.57; 95% CI 0.67 to 3.72, aOR=2.28: 95% CI 0.81 to 6.47). However, time of M genitalium testing affected the association (p value for effect-modification=0.004). For 29 case-control sets with endocervical samples tested 3 months prior to the first HIV-positive result, M genitalium infection increased the risk of HIV acquisition (crude OR=3.09; 95% CI 1.06 to 9.05, aOR=7.19; 95% CI 1.68 to 30.77), whereas there was little evidence of an association among the 13 case-control sets with samples tested at an earlier visit (crude OR=0.30: 95% CI 0.04 to 2.51; aOR=0.34; 95% CI 0.02 to 5.94). Our study showed evidence of a temporal relationship between M genitalium infection and HIV acquisition that suggests that M genitalium infection may be a co-factor in the acquisition of HIV infection.
    Sexually transmitted infections 03/2014; 90(7). DOI:10.1136/sextrans-2013-051467 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Effective interventions to reduce HIV incidence in sub-Saharan Africa are urgently needed. Mathematical modelling and the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial results suggest that universal HIV testing combined with immediate antiretroviral treatment (ART) should substantially reduce incidence and may eliminate HIV as a public health problem. We describe the rationale and design of a trial to evaluate this hypothesis. A rigorously-designed trial of universal testing and treatment (UTT) interventions is needed because: i) it is unknown whether these interventions can be delivered to scale with adequate uptake; ii) there are many uncertainties in the models such that the population-level impact of these interventions is unknown; and ii) there are potential adverse effects including sexual risk disinhibition, HIV-related stigma, over-burdening of health systems, poor adherence, toxicity, and drug resistance.In the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial, 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa (total population 1.2 m) will be randomly allocated to three arms. Arm A will receive the full PopART combination HIV prevention package including annual home-based HIV testing, promotion of medical male circumcision for HIV-negative men, and offer of immediate ART for those testing HIV-positive; Arm B will receive the full package except that ART initiation will follow current national guidelines; Arm C will receive standard of care. A Population Cohort of 2,500 adults will be randomly selected in each community and followed for 3 years to measure the primary outcome of HIV incidence. Based on model projections, the trial will be well-powered to detect predicted effects on HIV incidence and secondary outcomes. Trial results, combined with modelling and cost data, will provide short-term and long-term estimates of cost-effectiveness of UTT interventions. Importantly, the three-arm design will enable assessment of how much could be achieved by optimal delivery of current policies and the costs and benefits of extending this to UTT.Trial registration: NCT01900977.
    Trials 02/2014; 15(1):57. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-57 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    Journal of epidemiology and community health 02/2014; 68(7). DOI:10.1136/jech-2013-202507 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 02/2014; 102(100):165-73. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.12.005 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the main results, among adults, of a cluster-randomised-trial of Well London, a community-engagement programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and mental well-being in deprived neighbourhoods. The hypothesis was that benefits would be neighbourhood-wide, and not restricted to intervention participants. The trial was part of a multicomponent process/outcome evaluation which included non-experimental components (self-reported behaviour change amongst participants, case studies and evaluations of individual projects) which suggested health, well-being and social benefits to participants. Twenty matched pairs of neighbourhoods in London were randomised to intervention/control condition. Primary outcomes (five portions fruit/vegetables/day; 5×30 m of moderate intensity physical activity/week, abnormal General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 score and Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) score) were measured by postintervention questionnaire survey, among 3986 adults in a random sample of households across neighbourhoods. There was no evidence of impact on primary outcomes: healthy eating (relative risk [RR] 1.04, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.17); physical activity (RR:1.01, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.16); abnormal GHQ12 (RR:1.15, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.61); WEMWBS (mean difference [MD]: -1.52, 95% CI -3.93 to 0.88). There was evidence of impact on some secondary outcomes: reducing unhealthy eating-score (MD: -0.14, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.27) and increased perception that people in the neighbourhood pulled together (RR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.29). The trial findings do not provide evidence supporting the conclusion of non-experimental components of the evaluation that intervention improved health behaviours, well-being and social outcomes. Low participation rates and population churn likely compromised any impact of the intervention. Imprecise estimation of outcomes and sampling bias may also have influenced findings. There is a need for greater investment in refining such programmes before implementation; new methods to understand, longitudinally different pathways residents take through such interventions and their outcomes, and new theories of change that apply to each pathway.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 01/2014; 68(7). DOI:10.1136/jech-2013-202505 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is epidemic among workers in South African gold mines. We evaluated an intervention to interrupt tuberculosis transmission by means of mass screening that was linked to treatment for active disease or latent infection. In a cluster-randomized study, we designated 15 clusters with 78,744 miners as either intervention clusters (40,981 miners in 8 clusters) or control clusters (37,763 miners in 7 clusters). In the intervention clusters, all miners were offered tuberculosis screening. If active tuberculosis was diagnosed, they were referred for treatment; if not, they were offered 9 months of isoniazid preventive therapy. The primary outcome was the cluster-level incidence of tuberculosis during the 12 months after the intervention ended. Secondary outcomes included tuberculosis prevalence at study completion. In the intervention clusters, 27,126 miners (66.2%) underwent screening. Of these miners, 23,659 (87.2%) started taking isoniazid, and isoniazid was dispensed for 6 months or more to 35 to 79% of miners, depending on the cluster. The intervention did not reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, with rates of 3.02 per 100 person-years in the intervention clusters and 2.95 per 100 person-years in the control clusters (rate ratio in the intervention clusters, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.34; P=0.98; adjusted rate ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.21; P=0.71), or the prevalence of tuberculosis (2.35% vs. 2.14%; adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.48; P=0.90). Analysis of the direct effect of isoniazid in 10,909 miners showed a reduced incidence of tuberculosis during treatment (1.10 cases per 100 person-years among miners receiving isoniazid vs. 2.91 cases per 100 person-years among controls; adjusted rate ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.88; P=0.03), but there was a subsequent rapid loss of protection. Mass screening and treatment for latent tuberculosis had no significant effect on tuberculosis control in South African gold mines, despite the successful use of isoniazid in preventing tuberculosis during treatment. (Funded by the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS TB Epidemic and others; Thibela TB Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN63327174.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2014; 370(4):301-10. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1214289 · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The HPTN 052 trial confirmed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) can nearly eliminate HIV transmission from successfully treated HIV-infected individuals within couples. Here, we present the mathematical modeling used to inform the design and monitoring of a new trial aiming to test whether widespread provision of ART is feasible and can substantially reduce population-level HIV incidence. Methods and Findings The HPTN 071 (PopART) trial is a three-arm cluster-randomized trial of 21 large population clusters in Zambia and South Africa, starting in 2013. A combination prevention package including home-based voluntary testing and counseling, and ART for HIV positive individuals, will be delivered in arms A and B, with ART offered universally in arm A and according to national guidelines in arm B. Arm C will be the control arm. The primary endpoint is the cumulative three-year HIV incidence. We developed a mathematical model of heterosexual HIV transmission, informed by recent data on HIV-1 natural history. We focused on realistically modeling the intervention package. Parameters were calibrated to data previously collected in these communities and national surveillance data. We predict that, if targets are reached, HIV incidence over three years will drop by >60% in arm A and >25% in arm B, relative to arm C. The considerable uncertainty in the predicted reduction in incidence justifies the need for a trial. The main drivers of this uncertainty are possible community-level behavioral changes associated with the intervention, uptake of testing and treatment, as well as ART retention and adherence. Conclusions The HPTN 071 (PopART) trial intervention could reduce HIV population-level incidence by >60% over three years. This intervention could serve as a paradigm for national or supra-national implementation. Our analysis highlights the role mathematical modeling can play in trial development and monitoring, and more widely in evaluating the impact of treatment as prevention.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084511 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of HIV infection. To determine factors associated with problem drinking, we analyzed data collected in two prospective cohorts of at-risk female food and recreational facility workers in northern Tanzania. We enrolled HIV seronegative women aged 18-44 years and employed in the towns of Geita, Kahama, Moshi, and Shinyanga. At enrolment, women were interviewed to obtain information about alcohol use, using CAGE and AUDIT screening scales, and risk factors for HIV infection. Blood and genital samples were collected for detection of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We characterized alcohol use, concordance, and agreement of the scales, and examined the associations between characteristics of participants and problem drinking as defined by both scales using logistic regression. Lastly, we assessed problem drinking as a risk factor for recent sexual behavior and prevalent STIs. Among enrollees, 68% women reported ever drinking alcohol; of these 76% reported drinking alcohol in the past 12 months. The prevalence of problem drinking was 20% using CAGE and 13% using AUDIT. Overall concordance between the scales was 75.0% with a Kappa statistic of 0.58. After adjusting for age, independent factors associated with problem drinking, on both scales, were marital status, occupation, facility type, increasing number of lifetime sexual partners, and transactional sex in the past 12 months. In addition, women who were problem drinkers on either scale were more likely to report having ≥1 sexual partner (CAGE: aOR = 1.56, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.10-2.23; AUDIT: aOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.34-3.00) and transactional sex (CAGE: aOR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56; AUDIT: aOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.04-2.18), in the past 3 months. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem drinking in this population may reduce high-risk sexual behaviors and contribute in lowering the risk of HIV infection.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84447. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084447 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
2,247.11 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 1994–2015
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      • • Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health
      • • Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
      • • Department of Clinical Research
      • • Tropical Epidemiology Group (TEG)
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2014
    • University of East London
      • Institute for Health and Human Development
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Medical Research Council / Uganda Virus Research Institute
      Entebbe, Central Region, Uganda
  • 2010
    • University College London
      • Department of Infection and Population Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Mwanza Intervention Trials Unit
      Mwansa, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • 1996–2010
    • National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR)
      Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • 2009
    • The Aurum Institute
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2007
    • University of Glasgow
      • MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Public Health (MGZ)
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Ljubljana
      • Institute of Microbiology and Immunology
      Lubliano, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 2002–2006
    • University of Zimbabwe
      Salisbury, Harare, Zimbabwe
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
    • Bugando Medical Centre
      Mwansa, Mwanza, Tanzania
  • 2003
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1999
    • Uganda Virus Research Institute
      Entebbe, Central Region, Uganda
  • 1992
    • Kenyatta National Hospital
      Nairoba, Nairobi Area, Kenya
  • 1990
    • University of Zambia
      • School of Medicine
      Lusaka, Lusaka Province, Zambia