ABSTRACT: A performance study of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was applied for the monitoring of the labile fraction of metals Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn, in Sant Joan Despí Drinking Water Treatment Plant located in the South of Barcelona's Metropolitan Area (Spain). The DWTP monitoring protocol was optimized by working for 1 day of deployment (24 h) with the DGT device in contact with both treated and river water matrixes. Additionally, it was demonstrated that an increase in the deployment time of 1 week did not decrease the evaluated concentrations of the studied metals. The quality parameters of the DGT device and ICP-OES determination, such as limit of quantification, accuracy expressed as relative error (%) and reproducibility expressed as relative standard deviation, were evaluated. Good results were obtained for all the metals in ultrapure water; limits of quantification ranged from 1.5 μg L( - 1) for cadmium to 28 μg L( - 1) for zinc when deployment time of 24 h was used and from 0.2 μg L( - 1) for cadmium to 4 μg L( - 1) for zinc when this time was increased by 1 week. Accuracy and precisions lower than or equal to 10% were obtained at a parametric concentration value of the metals regulated in the European Drinking Water Guidelines (98/83/EC). DGT deployment was tested in river and treated water, and good results were obtained for Cd, Ni, Co and Zn, whereas for the other metals, a continuous control of their metallic labile fractions was monitored. Therefore, DGT device allows the continuous monitoring of the labile metal species in a drinking water treatment plant.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 03/2011; 184(1):539-48. · 1.40 Impact Factor