[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic genomes are replicated from multiple DNA replication origins. We present complementary deep sequencing approaches to measure origin location and activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Measuring the increase in DNA copy number during a synchronous S-phase allowed the precise determination of genome replication. To map origin locations, replication forks were stalled close to their initiation sites; therefore, copy number enrichment was limited to origins. Replication timing profiles were generated from asynchronous cultures using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Applying this technique we show that the replication profiles of haploid and diploid cells are indistinguishable, indicating that both cell types use the same cohort of origins with the same activities. Finally, increasing sequencing depth allowed the direct measure of replication dynamics from an exponentially growing culture. This is the first time this approach, called marker frequency analysis, has been successfully applied to a eukaryote. These data provide a high-resolution resource and methodological framework for studying genome biology.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymineless death (TLD) is the rapid loss of colony-forming ability in bacterial, yeast and human cells starved for thymine, and is the mechanism of action of common chemotherapeutic drugs. In Escherichia coli, significant loss of viability during TLD requires the SOS replication-stress/DNA-damage response, specifically its role in inducing the inhibitor of cell division, SulA. An independent RecQ- and RecJ-dependent TLD pathway accounts for a similarly large additional component of TLD, and a third SOS- and RecQ/J-independent TLD pathway has also been observed. Although two groups have implicated the SOS-response in TLD, an SOS-deficient mutant strain from an earlier study was found to be sensitive to thymine deprivation. We performed whole-genome resequencing on that SOS-deficient strain and find that, compared with the SOS-proficient control strain, it contains five mutations in addition to the SOS-blocking lexA(Ind(-)) mutation. One of the additional mutations, csrA, confers TLD sensitivity specifically in SOS-defective strains. We find that CsrA, a carbon storage regulator, reduces TLD in SOS- or SulA-defective cells, and that the increased TLD that occurs in csrA(-) SOS-defective cells is dependent on RecQ. We consider a hypothesis in which the modulation of nucleotide pools by CsrA might inhibit TLD specifically in SOS-deficient (SulA-deficient) cells.