Ravi J Chokshi

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States

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Publications (23)57.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Medical malpractice has become a rising concern for physicians, affecting the cost and delivery of health care. Colorectal procedures account for 24% of all general surgery cases, a high-risk specialty, with 15% of its physicians facing malpractice suit annually. The Westlaw legal database was used to identify colorectal malpractice cases. In all, 122 of 230 lawsuits were included in this study. A majority of 65.6% were physician verdicts, 19.7% plaintiff verdicts, and 14.8% reached a settlement. Plaintiff payments were found to be significantly higher than settlement awards. The most common cause of alleged malpractice was failure to recognize a complication in a timely manner (45.1%), followed by damage to surrounding tissues (36.1%). The most common cause of alleged malpractice was failure to recognize a complication in a timely manner, followed by damage to surrounding tissue. Plaintiff awards were significantly higher than settlement payments. It is important to understand the mechanism of malpractice allegations to better prevent litigation and improve patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Surgical Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.05.032 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Caudate lobe liver metastases occur commonly in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. It is unknown, however, how these lesions respond to regional therapy and how their presence impacts outcomes. We reviewed our experience treating these lesions using transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). We reviewed radiographic response to TACE in 86 patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors to the liver. We determined the impact of caudate lesions on outcomes in comparison to the cohort of patients without caudate lesions, as well as response of caudate lesions to TACE versus lesions elsewhere in the liver. Caudate lesions were identified in 45 (52%) patients. All patients had disease in other liver segments. Only seven caudate lesions (12.3%) had a radiographic response to TACE, whereas 82% of lesions elsewhere in the liver demonstrated a response. The presence or absence of a caudate lesion did not impact the overall radiographic (82.2% vs. 82.9%), symptomatic (64.4% vs. 56.1%), or biochemical (97.6% vs. 88.9%) response to TACE (P > 0.1 for all). However, median overall survival was reduced in those presenting with caudate lesions (87.1 vs. 45.6 months, P = 0.031). Metastatic neuroendocrine tumors to the caudate lobe respond poorly to TACE. Symptomatic or threatening caudate lobe lesions should be considered for palliative resection in spite of additional inoperable liver metastases.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 05/2015; 13(1):167. DOI:10.1186/s12957-015-0551-4 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary stricture without mass presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges because the poor sensitivity of the available tests and significant mortality and cost with operation. A decision model was developed to analyze costs and survival for 1) investigation first with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and fine needle aspiration, 2) investigation first with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and brushing, or 3) surgery on every patient. The average age of someone with a biliary stricture was found to be 62-y-old and the rate of cancer was 55%. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated based on the change in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs (US$) between the different options, with a threshold of $150,000 to determine the most cost-effective strategy. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic-sensitivity analysis were performed to validate the model. ERCP results in 9.05 QALYs and a cost of $34,685.11 for a cost-effectiveness ratio of $3832.33. EUS results in an incremental increase in 0.13 QALYs and $2773.69 for an ICER of $20,840.28 per QALY gained. Surgery resulted in a decrease of 1.37 QALYs and increased cost of $14,323.94 (ICER-$10,490.53). These trends remained within most sensitivity analyses; however, ERCP and EUS were dependent on the test sensitivity. In patients with a biliary stricture with no mass, the most cost-effective strategy is to investigate the patient before operation. The choice between EUS and ERCP should be institutionally dependent, with EUS being more cost-effective in our base case analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Surgical Research 12/2014; 195(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2014.12.037 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Joseph B. Oliver · Atuhani B. Burnett · Ravi J. Chokshi
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 10/2014; 219(4):e144. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.07.774 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge to differentiate benign disease from hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) malignancies. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography cytology is commonly performed in these patients; however, its sensitivity for diagnosis of HPB malignancy is poor (41.6%). Many adjunctive tests have been investigated to improve the sensitivity of HPB biopsies. To determine the best tests available, however, we reviewed the literature and performed a comparative analysis of all recently investigated tests and their sensitivities. Methods A PubMed search identified articles published between 2003 and 2014, describing alternate methods for diagnosing HPB malignancies, reported sensitivity, final pathology, and had data available online. Meta-analysis was conducted for tests with multiple articles. Tests with the highest sensitivity and specificities were reported. Results A total of 77 studies were identified. Meta-analysis was performed on the sensitivity of EUS-FNA (74.2%), fluorescence in situ hybridization (54.2%), immunostain of insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding Protein 3 (IMP3; 80.4%), IMP3 + cytology (86.4%), K homology domain containing protein overexpressed in cancer (KOC; 85.9%), S100P (77.8%), serum CA19-9 (69.3%), and K-ras mutations (47.0%) to detect malignancy. Ultimately, 12 tests were identified with superior sensitivity (85.3%–100%) and specificities (81.6%–100%) including stricture scrapping, brush sectioning, IMP3 stain + cytology, IMP3+S100A4, bile carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6 protein (±CA19-9), bile micro RNA (miRNA)-135b, serum miRNA-RNU2-1f, serum miRNA-21 (+CA19-9), peripheral blood mononuclear cells miRNA-27a-3p (+CA19-9), serum miRNA-16 + miRNA-196a (+CA19-9), peripheral blood mononuclear cells mRNAs h-TERT + CK20 + CEA + C-MET. Conclusions We recommend immunostaining with a panel of IMP3+KOC + S100A4 + cytology to achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity from HPB biopsies. One biliary protein (carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 6) and several RNAs (bile and blood) offer exceptional sensitivity and specificity and should be tested prospectively in larger populations. Overall, this review identifies several tests to improve the sensitivity of diagnostic algorithms to identify HPB malignancies.
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2014; 190(2):535–547. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    The American surgeon 06/2014; 80(6):179-181. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary strictures present a diagnostic challenge to differentiate benign disease from hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) malignancies. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography cytology is commonly performed in these patients; however, its sensitivity for diagnosis of HPB malignancy is poor (41.6%). Many adjunctive tests have been investigated to improve the sensitivity of HPB biopsies. To determine the best tests available, however, we reviewed the literature and performed a comparative analysis of all recently investigated tests and their sensitivities.
    Journal of Surgical Research 04/2014; 190(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2014.04.014 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • A. Burnett · J. Bailey · S. Ahlawat · R. Chokshi
    Journal of Surgical Research 02/2014; 186(2):502. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.11.169 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • The American surgeon 01/2014; 80(6). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    Advaith Bongu · Edward S Lee · Stephen R Peters · Ravi J Chokshi
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Sebaceous Carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignant tumor. We present a case report of a large truncal tumor with multicentricity and aggressive locoregional recurrence that required trapezius myocutaneous flap reconstruction. Examining patterns of multicentricity, metastasis, and recurrence of sebaceous carcinoma in the literature we sought to explore potential reasons behind the aggressive behavior. Methods: Retrospective chart review was used to analyze the case in detail. Preoperative workup, intraoperative details, pathology, and follow-up visits were reviewed. Selected literature was considered with series of 5 or more patients. Results: The recurrent tumor was resected with negative margins leaving a defect of 14 × 7 cm(2) that was covered with a trapezius myocutaneous flap. Postoperative hospital course was uneventful with no further local recurrence. On follow-up visits, tumors at other sites have been discovered. Reported rates of multicentricity, metastasis, and recurrence vary widely in the literature, but both subtypes of sebaceous carcinoma behave aggressively. Conclusions: A combination of genetic predisposition, delayed definitive care, and inherent tumor biology led to the aggressive locoregional disease in this case.
    Eplasty 08/2013; 13:e44.
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    ABSTRACT: General surgery is a "high-risk specialty" with respect to medical malpractice rates, and appendicitis is one of the most common diagnoses encountered by practitioners. Our objectives were to detail issues affecting malpractice litigation regarding appendicitis and appendectomies, including outcomes, awards, alleged causes of malpractice, and other factors instrumental in determining legal responsibility and increasing patient safety. Publically available federal and state court records were examined for pertinent jury verdict and settlement reports. Information from 234 pertinent cases was collected, including alleged causes of malpractice and outcomes. Of the 234 cases included in this study, the most common factor noted was an alleged delay in diagnosis (67.1 %), followed by intraoperative negligence (16.2 %). Alleged deficits in informed consent, although only specifically cited as a cause of malpractice in 1.3 % of cases, were found to be an important aspect of many cases. In total, 59.8 % of cases were ruled in favor of the physician, 23.7 % in favor of the plaintiff, and 5.5 % reached a settlement. The average plaintiff award was US$794,152, and the average settlement award was US$1,434,286. An important strategy to decrease liability in a physician's practice is prompt evaluation of an appendicitis patient. An integral part of this is efficient communication between physicians practicing a wide variety of specialties, especially including practitioners in emergency medicine and general surgery. Additionally, completing a thorough informed consent explaining all aspects of the procedure including the factors we outline will not only increase patient awareness of potential risks but also protect the physician in the face of litigation.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 08/2013; 17(10). DOI:10.1007/s11605-013-2248-8 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Atuhani S Burnett · Thomas J Calvert · Ravi J Chokshi
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary strictures present a unique diagnostic challenge to clinicians as they can be caused by both benign and malignant conditions. With the high mortalities associated with hepatopancreaticobiliary malignancies, accurate and rapid tissue diagnosis is imperative and typically done before initiation of treatment. However, the exact sensitivity of standard cytology from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to diagnose malignancy remains unclear because of wide distribution of reported values in the literature. Furthermore, the use of radical surgery to obtain tissue when cytology is indeterminate has led to questions about the role of ERCP in patients with biliary strictures. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms ERCP, cytology, and brushings. Articles reviewed were published between 2002 and 2012, had patient population with biliary stricture, and had ERCP brushing results and final pathology available for review. The cytology and pathology data were abstracted from each study, and the combined overall sensitivity was calculated. Sixteen studies were identified, with sensitivities ranging from 6%-64% and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) ranging from ±6% to ±32%. A combined total of 1556 patients were included, with positive ERCP cytology results in 358 cases. On final pathology, however, 861 patients were positive for malignancy. When the data were combined, we found an overall sensitivity of 41.6% ± 3.2% (99% CI) with a negative predictive value of 58.0% ± 3.2% (99% CI). ERCP brushings suffer from low sensitivity and negative predictive value. This study questions the utility of ERCP to change the surgical management of these diseases in patients with radiographic evidence of a neoplasm or high suspicion of a malignancy.
    Journal of Surgical Research 07/2013; 184(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.06.028 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Consequences accompanying esophageal perforation make this complication a prime litigation target. We characterize factors in jury verdicts and settlements regarding esophageal perforation, including operative procedure, patient demographics, alleged cause(s) of malpractice, outcome, and other factors. Pertinent court records were examined for the aforementioned factors. Gastroenterologists, general surgeons, and anesthesiologists were the most commonly named defendants. Two thirds of outcomes were for the defendant, and 11.9 % were settled (median-$650,000); 20.3 % resulted in awarded damages (median-$1.2 M). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was the most commonly litigated procedure, followed by intubation and Nissen fundoplication. Necessity of repair, delayed diagnosis, death, and inadequate consent were the most frequently cited factors in litigation. An understanding of the factors important in determining legal responsibility is of great interest for practitioners in multiple specialties. The requirement of surgical repair and a delay in diagnosis are two of the most common factors present in litigated cases resulting in a payment. The importance of explicitly listing esophageal perforation in the informed consent for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, abdominal surgery, and any patients at risk of intubation injury needs to be emphasized.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 06/2013; 17(10). DOI:10.1007/s11605-013-2261-y · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is often utilized for patients with inoperable neuroendocrine carcinoma liver metastases. Often, metastatic disease is not limited to the liver. The impact of extrahepatic disease (EHD) on outcomes and response after TACE has not been described. METHODS: We reviewed 192 patients who underwent TACE for large hepatic tumor burden, progression of liver metastases, or poorly controlled carcinoid syndrome due to neuroendocrine carcinoma. Demographics, clinicopathologic characteristics, response to TACE, complications, and survival were compared between patients with (n = 123) and without (n = 69) EHD. RESULTS: Demographics, histopathologic characteristics, and complications were similar between groups. As well, those with and without EHD had similar biochemical (85 vs. 88 %) and radiographic response (76 vs. 79 %) to TACE (all p = NS); however, symptomatic responses were improved in those with EHD (79 vs. 60 %, p = 0.01). The group without EHD had better overall survival compared to those with EHD disease at the time of TACE (median 62 vs. 28 months, p = 0.001). DISCUSSION: Although patients with EHD from neuroendocrine carcinoma experience shorter overall survival after TACE compared to those without EHD, they had similar symptomatic, biochemical, and radiographic response to TACE. Meaningful response to TACE is still possible in the presence of EHD and should be considered, particularly in those with carcinoid syndrome.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2013; 20(4). DOI:10.1245/s10434-012-2786-4 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Ravi J Chokshi · Maureen P Kuhrt · David Arrese · Edward W Martin
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) is reserved for patients with locally invasive and recurrent pelvic malignancies. Complications such as wound infections, dehiscence, hernias, abscesses, and fistulas are common after this procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tissue transfer to the pelvis after TPE decreases wound complications. METHODS: Fifty-three patients who underwent TPE between 2004 and 2010 were reviewed. Two groups were identified, those who underwent pelvic reconstruction with a vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap (n = 17) and those who underwent primary closure (n = 36). Demographics, clinicopathologic characteristics, and outcomes were compared. RESULTS: The 2 groups were similar in demographics and histopathologic characteristics. Preoperative and surgical factors including comorbidities, nutrition, radiation, surgical times, blood loss, length of stay, and complications were similar between the groups. Of the 17 patients undergoing vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap placement, complications were seen in 11 patients (65%), with most of them stemming from flap dehiscence (n = 7). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the transfer of tissue into the pelvis did not increase surgical times, blood loss, length of stay, or wound complications.
    American journal of surgery 07/2012; 205(1). DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.04.010 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    Maureen P Kuhrt · Ravi J Chokshi · David Arrese · Edward W Martin
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with locally advanced or recurrent pelvic malignancies, total pelvic exenteration (TPE) may be necessary for curative treatment. Despite improvements in mortality rates since TPE was first described, morbidity rates remain high due to the extensive resection and the aggressiveness of these tumors. We have studied the outcomes of TPE surgery performed at our institution. Fifty-three patients with various pelvic pathologies underwent TPE between 2004 and 2010. Patients were divided into two groups based on pathology: colorectal (n = 36) versus non-colorectal (n = 17) malignancies. Demographics, operative reports, pathology reports, periprocedural events, and outcomes were analyzed. Comparison of the two groups was performed using student's t-test and Fisher's exact test. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test. The colorectal and non-colorectal groups were similar in demographics, operative times, length of stay, estimated blood loss, and rates of preoperative and intraoperative radiation use. Chemotherapy use was increased in the colorectal group compared with the non-colorectal group (55.6% vs. 23.5%, P = 0.04). Complication rates were similar: 86% in the colorectal group and 76% in the non-colorectal group. In the colorectal group, 27.8% of patients developed perineal abscesses, whereas no patients developed these complications in the non-colorectal group (P = 0.02). No survival difference was seen in primary versus recurrent colorectal tumors; however, within the colorectal group there was a survival advantage when comparing R0 resection to R1 and R2 resection combined. Median survival rates were 27.3 months for R0 resection and 10.7 months for R1 and R2 resection combined. The median survival was 21.4 months for the colorectal group and 6.9 months for the non-colorectal group (P = 0.002). Patients undergoing TPE for colorectal tumors have improved survival when compared with patients undergoing exenteration for pelvic malignancies of other origins. Within the colorectal group, the extent of resection demonstrated a significant survival benefit of an R0 resection compared with R1 and R2 resections. Despite TPE carrying a high morbidity rate, mortality rates have improved and careful patient selection can optimize outcomes.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 06/2012; 10:110. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-10-110 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic fistula is a significant problem for patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy with fistula rates up to 61%. Fistulas lead to substantial morbidity. The study objective was to compare radiofrequency dissector closure with traditional stump closure for distal pancreatectomy. Sixty-two patients underwent distal pancreatectomy at our institution between 2002 and 2011. Thirty-three patients had traditional stump closure compared with 29 patients who had radiofrequency closure. Fistula rates, operative times, and blood loss were compared. The control patients underwent open operation in 20 (60%) cases and laparoscopic operation in the remaining 13 (40%). Of the patients that underwent radiofrequency closure, 10 (35%) underwent open operation, and the remaining 19 (65%) patients underwent laparoscopic operation. Fistula occurred in 12 of 33 (36%) patients with traditional stump closure compared to 3 of 29 (10%) patients with radiofrequency closure (p<0.02). Operative time (307 vs. 231 min [p<0.002]) and blood loss (364-200 mL [p<0.02]) were decreased in the radiofrequency closure group. Length of stay decreased from 7.8 to 6.6 days; however, this was not statistically significant. The use of radiofrequency dissector in distal pancreatectomy is effective with low rates of fistula formation. Radiofrequency closure should be studied further in prospective trials.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 12/2011; 16(3):524-8. DOI:10.1007/s11605-011-1794-1 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe in detail the technique of total pelvic exenteration. Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) was first described in 1948 by Brunschwig. Since its description, complications of the procedure and surgical innovations have changed the approach to this radical surgery. We have described our institutional approach and outcomes of TPE. Fifty-four patients underwent TPE between 2004 and 2010 by the Division of Surgical Oncology at the Ohio State University Medical Center. Fifty-three patients have complete medical records available for review. Outcomes are described and have shaped these techniques. Patients were divided into various groups based on their histology: colorectal (n = 36), gynecologic (n = 6), urologic (n = 5), squamous cell (n = 2), sarcomatous disease (n = 3), and severe infections (n = 1). These were divided into two groups-colorectal (n = 36) and noncolorectal (n = 17)-for analysis. Demographics, operative time, length of stay, and complication rates were similar between the two groups. The median survival was 21.4 months for the colorectal group and 6.9 months for the noncolorectal group. Total pelvic exenteration for colorectal tumors has improved survival when compared with patients undergoing exenteration for pelvic malignancies of other origins. Total pelvic exenteration continues to be associated with high morbidity; however, with appropriate patient selection and proper operative technique, a perioperative mortality of 0 per cent can be achieved.
    The American surgeon 12/2011; 77(12):1629-39. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare outcomes and feasibility of double-barreled wet colostomy and ileal conduit (IC) in patients undergoing total pelvic exenteration (TPE). Between 2004 and 2010, 54 patients underwent TPE for pelvic malignancies. Of those patients, 53 had complete records available for analysis. Two groups were identified based on the technique used for urinary diversion, either by way of an IC or a double-barreled wet colostomy (DBWC). Demographics, comorbidities, complications, length of stay, operative times, morbidity, and mortality were compared between the 2 groups. Forty-three patients (81%) underwent a DBWC and ten patients (19%) underwent an IC. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and comorbidities. Eighteen patients underwent an R0 resection (39%) and twenty-eight (61%) patients had a non-R0 resection. Seven patients (13%) had a complete response to therapy with no evidence of malignancy. A majority of the patients (68%) undergoing TPE had colorectal histology. Thirty-day morbidity directly related to complications of urinary or fecal diversion was 78% in the DBWC group and 58% in the IC group. There was no perioperative mortality in either group. DBWC is a safe and feasible alternative to the traditional IC for urinary diversion. This technique is easy to learn and is associated with similar operative times, length of stay, morbidity, and mortality compared with IC.
    Urology 08/2011; 78(4):856-62. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2011.06.030 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric bypass surgery is a highly effective therapy for long-term weight loss in severely obese patients, but carries significant perioperative risks including infection, wound dehiscence, and leaks from staple breakdown. Iron status can affect immune function and wound healing, thus may influence peri-operative complications. Common mutations in the HFE gene, the gene responsible for the iron overload disorder hereditary hemochromatosis, may impact iron status. We analyzed 1064 extremely obese Caucasian individuals who underwent open and laparoscopic Roux-n-Y gastric bypass surgery at the Geisinger Clinic. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and iron binding capacity were measured pre-operatively. All patients had intra-operative liver biopsies and were genotyped for the C282Y and H63D mutations in the HFE gene. Associations between surgical complications and serum iron measures, HFE gene status, and liver iron histology were determined. We found that increased serum iron and transferrin saturation were present in patients with any post-operative complication, and that increased serum ferritin was also increased in patients with major complications. Increased serum transferrin saturation was also associated with wound complications in open RYGB, and transferrin saturation and ferritin with prolonged lengths of stay. The presence of 2 or more HFE mutations was associated with overall complications as well as wound complications in open RYGB. No differences were found in complication rates between those with stainable liver iron and those without. Serum iron status and HFE genotype may be associated with complications following RYGB surgery in the extremely obese.
    Patient Safety in Surgery 01/2011; 5(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1754-9493-5-1