R. W. Chuter

University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (15)50.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a new method to classify the broad band optical-NIR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies using three shape parameters (super-colours) based on a Principal Component Analysis of model SEDs. As well as providing a compact representation of the wide variety of SED shapes, the method allows for easy visualisation of information loss and biases caused by the incomplete sampling of the rest-frame SED as a function of redshift. We apply the method to galaxies in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey with 0.9<z<1.2, and confirm our classifications by stacking rest-frame optical spectra for a fraction of objects in each class. As well as cleanly separating a tight red-sequence from star-forming galaxies, three unusual populations are identifiable by their unique colours: very dusty star-forming galaxies with high metallicity and old mean stellar age; post-starburst galaxies which have formed greater than around 10% of their mass in a recent unsustained starburst event; and metal-poor quiescent dwarf galaxies. We find that quiescent galaxies account for 45% of galaxies with log(M*/Msol)>11, declining steadily to 13% at log(M*/Msol)=10. The properties and mass-function of the post-starburst galaxies are consistent with a scenario in which gas-rich mergers contribute to the growth of the low and intermediate mass range of the red sequence.
    01/2014; 440(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Dry mergers, i.e. gas-free mergers, are thought to be one of the major ways for the most massive galaxies to assemble their mass. However at high redshift it is still very challenging to detect, and to simplify the detection red pairs are usually assumed to be dry mergers. Making advantage of the unique combination of deep multi-wavelength data from the UKIDSS-Ultra Deep Survey, with our deep spectroscopic survey at z > 1 (UDSz), we investigate the properties of red mergers at z > 1. We demonstrate that red mergers are usually composed of two passive galaxy and with no indication of enhanced star-formation, globally assimilating them to dry mergers. However their morphology can present some perturbed features, and in some cases weak emission lines are detected in their spectra, demonstrating that red mergers at z > 1 are not totally gas free. Finally we demonstrated that “dry” mergers are major mergers, involving galaxies of similar masses, while “mixed” mergers are mainly minor mergers, with the “host” galaxy more massive.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence for a strong relationship between galaxy size and environment for the quiescent population in the redshift range 1 < z < 2. Environments were measured using projected galaxy overdensities on a scale of 400 kpc, as determined from ~ 96,000 K-band selected galaxies from the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS). Sizes were determined from ground-based K-band imaging, calibrated using space-based CANDELS HST observations in the centre of the UDS field, with photometric redshifts and stellar masses derived from 11-band photometric fitting. From the resulting size-mass relation, we confirm that quiescent galaxies at a given stellar mass were typically ~ 50 % smaller at z ~ 1.4 compared to the present day. At a given epoch, however, we find that passive galaxies in denser environments are on average significantly larger at a given stellar mass. The most massive quiescent galaxies (M_stellar > 2 x 10^11 M_sun) at z > 1 are typically 50 % larger in the highest density environments compared to those in the lowest density environments. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we reject the null hypothesis that the size-mass relation is independent of environment at a significance > 4.8 sigma for the redshift range 1 < z < 2. In contrast, the evidence for a relationship between size and environment is much weaker for star-forming galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 435(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate galactic-scale outflows in the redshift range 0.71 < z < 1.63, using 413 K-band selected galaxies observed in the spectroscopic follow-up of the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey (UDSz). The galaxies have an average stellar mass of ~10^9.5 solar masses and span a wide range in rest-frame colours, representing typical star-forming galaxies at this epoch. We stack the spectra by various galaxy properties, including stellar mass, [OII] equivalent width, star-formation rate, specific star-formation rate and rest-frame spectral indices. We find that outflows are present in virtually all spectral stacks, with velocities ranging from 100-1000 km s^-1, indicating that large-scale outflowing winds are a common property at these redshifts. The highest velocity outflows (>500 km s^-1) are found in galaxies with the highest stellar masses and the youngest stellar populations. Our findings suggest that high velocity galactic outflows are mostly driven by star-forming processes rather than AGN, with implied mass outflow rates comparable to the rates of star formation. Such behaviour is consistent with models required to reproduce the high-redshift mass-metallicity relation.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2013; 433(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many of the spectra presented here were obtained as part of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) programme P074.A-0333, undertaken using the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) instrument on UT3/Melipal, VIMOS. Several observational campaigns have obtained spectra of objects within the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and Paper II (Vardoulaki et al., 2008MNRAS.387..505V) presented spectra for 28 of the brightest 37 radio sources, obtained from a variety of sources. The near-infrared data used here come from the third data release (DR3) of the UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey. The optical data in the UDS come from the SXDF, which comprises five separate Suprime-Cam pointings. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 03/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the results of a comprehensive study of the relationship between galaxy size, stellar mass and specific star-formation rate (sSFR) at redshifts 1.3<z<1.5. Based on a mass complete (M_star >= 6x10^10 Msun), spectroscopic sample from the UKIDSS Ultra-deep Survey (UDS), with accurate stellar-mass measurements derived from spectro photometric fitting, we find that at z~1.4 the location of massive galaxies on the size-mass plane is determined primarily by their sSFR. At this epoch we find that massive galaxies which are passive (sSFR <= 0.1 Gyr^-1) follow a tight size-mass relation, with half-light radii a factor f=2.4+/-0.2 smaller than their local counterparts. Moreover, amongst the passive sub-sample we find no evidence that the off-set from the local size-mass relation is a function of stellar population age. Based on a sub-sample with dynamical mass estimates we also derive an independent estimate of f=2.3+/-0.3 for the typical growth in half-light radius between z~1.4 and the present day. Focusing on the passive sub-sample, we conclude that to produce the necessary evolution predominantly via major mergers would require an unfeasible number of merger events and over populate the high-mass end of the local stellar mass function. In contrast, we find that a scenario in which mass accretion is dominated by minor mergers can produce the necessary evolution, whereby an increase in stellar mass by a factor of ~2, accompanied by an increase in size by a factor of ~3.5, is sufficient to reconcile the size-mass relation at z~1.4 with that observed locally. Finally, we note that a significant fraction (44+/-12%) of the passive galaxies in our sample have a disk-like morphology, providing additional evidence that separate physical processes are responsible for the quenching of star-formation and the morphological transformation of massive galaxies (abridged).
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2012; 428(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new improved constraints on the Hubble parameter H(z) in the redshift range 0.15 < z < 1.1, obtained from the differential spectroscopic evolution of early-type galaxies as a function of redshift. We extract a large sample of early-type galaxies (\sim11000) from several spectroscopic surveys, spanning almost 8 billion years of cosmic lookback time (0.15 < z < 1.42). We select the most massive, red elliptical galaxies, passively evolving and without signature of ongoing star formation. Those galaxies can be used as standard cosmic chronometers, as firstly proposed by Jimenez & Loeb (2002), whose differential age evolution as a function of cosmic time directly probes H(z). We analyze the 4000 {\AA} break (D4000) as a function of redshift, use stellar population synthesis models to theoretically calibrate the dependence of the differential age evolution on the differential D4000, and estimate the Hubble parameter taking into account both statistical and systematical errors. We provide 8 new measurements of H(z) (see Tab. 4), and determine its change in H(z) to a precision of 5-12% mapping homogeneously the redshift range up to z \sim 1.1; for the first time, we place a constraint on H(z) at z \neq 0 with a precision comparable with the one achieved for the Hubble constant (about 5-6% at z \sim 0.2), and covered a redshift range (0.5 < z < 0.8) which is crucial to distinguish many different quintessence cosmologies. These measurements have been tested to best match a \Lambda CDM model, clearly providing a statistically robust indication that the Universe is undergoing an accelerated expansion. This method shows the potentiality to open a new avenue in constrain a variety of alternative cosmologies, especially when future surveys (e.g. Euclid) will open the possibility to extend it up to z \sim 2.
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 01/2012; 2012(08). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectroscopic confirmation of ten highly luminous (L >= 2L*) Lyman alpha emitters in the redshift range 6.01<z<6.49 (nine galaxies and one AGN), initially drawn from a sample of fourteen z_phot >= 6 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected from an area of 0.25 square degrees within the UKIDSS Ultra-deep Survey (UDS). Overall, our high rate of spectroscopic confirmation (>= 71%) and low rate of contamination provides a strong vindication of the photometric redshift analysis used to define the original sample. By considering star-formation rate estimates based on the Ly_alpha and UV continuum luminosity we conclude that our sample is consistent with a Ly_alpha escape fraction of ~25%. Moreover, after careful consideration of the potential uncertainties and biases, we find that 40%-50% of our sample of L >= 2L* galaxies at 6.0<z<6.5 display strong Ly_alpha emission (rest-frame equivalent width >= 25 Angs), a fraction which is a factor of ~2 higher than previously reported for L <= L* galaxies at z~6. Our results suggest that, as the epoch of reionization is approached, it is plausible that the Ly_alpha emitter fraction amongst luminous (L >=2 L*) LBGs shows a similarly sharp increase to that observed in their lower-luminosity (L <= L*) counterparts.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2011; 422(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the relation between star formation rates and local galaxy environment for a stellar mass selected galaxy sample in the redshift range 1.5 < z < 3. We use near-infra-red imaging from an extremely deep Hubble Space Telescope survey, the GOODS-NICMOS Survey (GNS) to measure local galaxy densities based on the nearest neighbour approach, while star-formation rates are estimated from rest-frame UV-fluxes. Due to our imaging depth we can examine galaxies down to a colour-independent stellar mass completeness limit of log M\ast = 9.5 M\odot at z ~ 3. We find a strong dependence of star formation activity on galaxy stellar mass over the whole redshift range, which does not depend on local environment. The average star formation rates are largely independent of local environment apart from in the highest relative over-densities. Galaxies in over-densities of a factor of > 5 have on average lower star formation rates by a factor of 2 - 3, but only up to redshifts of z ~ 2. We do not see any evidence for AGN activity influencing these relations. We also investigate the influence of the very local environment on star-formation activity by counting neighbours within 30 kpc radius. This shows that galaxies with two or more close neighbours have on average significantly lower star formation rates as well as lower specific star formation rates up to z ~ 2.5. We suggest that this might be due to star formation quenching induced by galaxy merging processes.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2011; 418. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the relationship between galaxy colour, stellar mass, and local galaxy density in a deep near-infrared imaging survey up to a redshift of z ∼ 3 using the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS). The GNS is a very deep, near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope survey imaging a total of 45 arcmin2 in the GOODS fields, reaching a stellar mass completeness limit of M  ∗  = 109. 5M ⊙ at z = 3. Using this data we measure galaxy local densities based on galaxy counts within a fixed aperture, as well as the distance to the third, fifth and seventh nearest neighbour. We find a strong correlation between colour and stellar mass at all redshifts up to z ∼ 3. We do not find a strong correlation between colour and local density, however, the highest overdensities might be populated by a higher fraction of blue galaxies than average or underdense areas, indicating a possible reversal of the colour-density relation at high redshift. Our data suggests that the possible higher blue fraction at extreme overdensities might be due to a lack of massive red galaxies at the highest local densities.
    07/2011: pages 189-194;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the environments of both X-ray and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) within the UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra-deep Survey (UDS) using deep infrared selection to sample the galaxy density field in the redshift range 1.0 ≤z≤ 1.5. Using angular cross-correlation techniques we find that both X-ray and radio-loud AGN preferentially reside in overdense environments. We also find that both types of AGN cluster more strongly with those galaxies classified as ‘passive’ rather than those that are actively star forming. We infer clustering scalelengths comparable to those of passive red galaxies, suggesting that typical AGN at these epochs reside in dark matter haloes of mass M≳ 1013 M⊙. A closer look at the small-scale environments of the AGN reveals that the neighbouring galaxies of radio-loud AGN have U−B colours more skewed towards the ‘green valley’ and the red sequence, whereas the neighbours of X-ray AGN show no difference to the general galaxy population. This suggests that although both AGN types live in overdense environments, the radio-loud AGN may be preferentially located in more evolved cluster cores, in a similar environment to low-powered radio AGN in the local Universe.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2011; 415(3):2626 - 2636. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relationship between galaxy colour, stellar mass and local galaxy density in a deep near-infrared imaging survey up to a redshift of z∼ 3 using the GOODS (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey) NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer) Survey (GNS). The GNS is a deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope survey imaging a total of 45 arcmin2 of the GOODS fields, reaching a stellar mass completeness limit of M*= 109.5 M⊙ at z= 3. Using these data, we measure galaxy local densities based on galaxy counts within a fixed aperture, as well as the distance to the third, fifth and seventh nearest neighbour. We compare the average rest-frame (U−B) colour and fraction of blue galaxies in different local densities and at different stellar masses. We find a strong correlation between colour and stellar mass at all redshifts up to z∼ 3. Massive red galaxies are already in place at z∼ 3 at the expected location of the red sequence in the colour–magnitude diagram, although they are star forming. We do not find a strong correlation between colour and local density; however, there may be evidence that the highest overdensities are populated by a higher fraction of blue galaxies than average or underdense areas. This could be indicating that the colour–density relation at high redshift is reversed with respect to lower redshifts (z < 1), where higher densities are found to have lower blue fractions. Our data suggest that the possible higher blue fraction at extreme overdensities might be due to a lack of massive red galaxies at the highest local densities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2011; 412(4):2361 - 2375. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the environments of both X-ray and radio-loud AGN within the UKIDSS Ultra-deep Survey (UDS) using deep infrared selection to sample the galaxy density field in the redshift range 1.0 <= z <= 1.5. Using angular cross-correlation techniques we find that both X-ray and radio-loud AGN preferentially reside in overdense environments. We also find that both types of AGN cluster more strongly with those galaxies classified as `passive' rather than those that are actively star-forming. We infer clustering scale lengths comparable to those of passive red galaxies, suggesting that typical AGN at these epochs reside in dark-matter halos of mass M >~ 10^13 M_sun. A closer look at the small-scale environments of the AGN reveals that the neighbouring galaxies of radio-loud AGN have U-B colours more skewed towards the `green-valley' and the red sequence, whereas the neighbours of X-ray AGN show no difference to the general galaxy population. This suggests that although both AGN types live in overdense environments, the radio-loud AGN may be preferentially located in more evolved cluster cores, in a similar environment to low-powered radio AGN in the local Universe.
    04/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of galaxy environments to z~2, based on a sample of over 33,000 K-band selected galaxies detected in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS). The combination of infrared depth and area in the UDS allows us to extend previous studies of galaxy environment to z>1 without the strong biases associated with optical galaxy selection. We study the environments of galaxies divided by rest frame (U-B) colours, in addition to `passive' and `star-forming' subsets based on template fitting. We find that galaxy colour is strongly correlated with galaxy overdensity on small scales (<1Mpc diameter), with red/passive galaxies residing in significantly denser environments than blue/star-forming galaxies to z~1.5. On smaller scales (<0.5Mpc diameter) we also find a relationship between galaxy luminosity and environment, with the most luminous blue galaxies at z~1 inhabiting environments comparable to red, passive systems at the same redshift. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that these conclusions are robust to the uncertainties introduced by photometric redshift errors.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2011; 413. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the relationship between galaxy colour, stellar mass, and local galaxy density in a deep near-infrared imaging survey up to a redshift of z~3 using the GOODS NICMOS Survey (GNS). The GNS is a very deep, near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope survey imaging a total of 45 arcmin^2 in the GOODS fields, reaching a stellar mass completeness limit of M* = 10^9.5 M_sun at z=3. Using this data we measure galaxy local densities based on galaxy counts within a fixed aperture, as well as the distance to the 3rd, 5th and 7th nearest neighbour. We find a strong correlation between colour and stellar mass at all redshifts up to z~3. We do not find a strong correlation between colour and local density, however, the highest overdensities might be populated by a higher fraction of blue galaxies than average or underdense areas, indicating a possible reversal of the colour-density relation at high redshift. Our data suggests that the possible higher blue fraction at extreme overdensities might be due to a lack of massive red galaxies at the highest local densities.
    09/2010;

Publication Stats

59 Citations
50.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France