[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolism of anticancer drugs affects their antitumor effects. This study has investigated the associations of gene expression of enzymes metabolizing anticancer drugs with therapy response and survival of breast carcinoma patients.Gene expression of 13 aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), carbonyl reductase 1, and 10 cytochromes P450 (CYPs) was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in tumors and paired adjacent nonneoplastic tissues from 68 posttreatment breast carcinoma patients. Eleven candidate genes were then evaluated in an independent series of 50 pretreatment patients. Protein expression of the most significant genes was confirmed by immunoblotting.AKR1A1 was significantly overexpressed and AKR1C1-4, KCNAB1, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 downregulated in tumors compared with control nonneoplastic tissues after correction for multiple testing. Significant association of CYP2B6 transcript levels in tumors with expression of hormonal receptors was found in the posttreatment set and replicated in the pretreatment set of patients. Significantly higher intratumoral levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, or CYP2W1 were found in responders to neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with nonresponders. Patients with high AKR7A3 or CYP2B6 levels in the pretreatment set had significantly longer disease-free survival than patients with low levels. Protein products of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP3A4, and carbonyl reductase (CBR1) were found in tumors and those of AKR1C1, AKR7A3, and CBR1 correlated with their transcript levels. Small interfering RNA-directed knockdown of AKR1C2 or vector-mediated upregulation of CYP3A4 in MDA-MB-231 model cell line had no effect on cell proliferation after paclitaxel treatment in vitro.Prognostic and predictive roles of drug-metabolizing enzymes strikingly differ between posttreatment and pretreatment breast carcinoma patients. Mechanisms of action of AKR1C2, AKR7A3, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and CBR1 should continue to be further followed in breast carcinoma patients and models.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The clinical course and therapy of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are heterogeneous and often unsatisfactory. Prognostic factors are needed to stratify the patients. Microvessel density (MVD) has prognostic significance in some malignancies. There is little information about the vasculature of MCL, although some antiangiogenic drugs are in use. We studied MVD using systematic uniform random sampling and unbiased counting frames in immunohistochemical reactions with anti-CD34 antibody in pre-therapeutic extramedullary MCL samples of 177 patients. We analyzed the relationship of MVD to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as to proliferative activity (Ki-67), mantle cell lymphoma prognostic index (MIPI), morphological variant, pattern of growth, and localization. MVD varied widely: range 54.6-503.6 vessels/mm(2), median 158.2 vessels/mm(2). Higher MVD was associated with bone marrow infiltration at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.001). High MVD was associated with significantly worse OS (P = 0.04) only in patients treated with non-intensive (conventional) therapy. MVD correlated positively with MIPI scores but not with the proliferation, morphological variant, growth pattern, or localization. Univariate analysis identified a prognostic influence of morphological variant, MIPI, and proliferative activity on OS and PFS and a prognostic influence of bone marrow infiltration at the time of diagnosis on PFS. Multivariate analysis showed prognostic influence of MIPI and proliferative activity on OS and PFS only. In conclusion, this is the first clinicopathological study of MVD of MCL with long-term follow-up showing negative prognostic trends of high MVD in MCL and positive correlation of MVD and MIPI.
Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 07/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soft tissue tumors (SSTs) constitute a broad spectrum of neoplasms with diverse biological properties. Rare or unusual types are often difficult to classify. Recent studies show, that a significant subset of SSTs including many types of sarcomas are associated with specific genetic changes such as chromosomal translocations producing chimeric genes, which play a role in the pathogenesis of SSTs. Because SSTs represent a diagnostically challenging group of tumors, molecular-genetic techniques (FISH or PCR) are useful as supplementary and/or confirmatory diagnostic tools. In the present paper we demonstrate the usefulness of a combined diagnostic approach using the tools of classical histopathology and immunohistochemistry together with the molecular diagnostic approach in selected nosologic entites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Complex laboratory investigation is necessary for the diagnosis and relevant classification of lymphomas. The classical histopathological morphology and cytology investigation is essential, but further investigations such as immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization are necessary. It is also important to employ flow cytometry as a method of investigation running synchronously or preceding the histopathological approach. Last but not least, the investigation of nucleic acids in lymphoma by molecular approaches is necessary and has become an everyday practice. Communication between pathologists and clinical colleagues (oncologists, hematologists, internal medicine specialists and radiologists) is very important. We demonstrate the necessity of a complex diagnostic approach to lymphomas and an appropriate interpretation of all laboratory investigations giving examples of eight patients with various types of lymphomas. In some cases, it is impossible to properly diagnose a lymphoma without molecular investigation. Occasionally, the results of the molecular investigation may be misleading and/or may be inaccurately interpreted, leading to an incorrect conclusion. For that reason, it is very important to incorporate all specialized laboratories and their teams under one roof (preferably that of pathology departments), enabling tight and daily cooperation between the specialists. This is the way to reach a precise diagnosis in a majority of cases, as well as how to comply with clinical expectations of properly classified lymphomas for a targeted therapy of patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of active caspase-3 in neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) cells correlates with the treatment response and provides prognostic information on treatment outcome. In this retrospective study, we included 56 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma treated at the Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology between January 2000 and June 2005. Active caspase-3 was detected by immunohistochemistry in primary biopsy specimens. Seventeen patients (29.3%) were evaluated as caspase-3 positive and remained alive in the first complete remission. This stood in contrast to patients with less than 5% caspase-3 positive cells, five of whom experienced relapse and three patients died. Adequate treatment response was achieved in 11 patients (19.6%). Comparison of event-free survival with regard to the percentage of caspase-3 positive tumour cells showed a tendency for a better clinical outcome in patients with 5% or more active caspase-3 positive cells. Keywords: classical Hodgkin lymphoma - apoptosis - active caspase-3 - therapy response - clinical outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a membranously located metalloenzyme involved in pH homeostasis with influence on regulation of cell proliferation, oncogenesis and tumor progression. Much attention has been paid recently to carboanhydrases and their inhibitors as they offer an opportunity for both developing novel anticancer drugs, as well as diagnostic and prognostic tools. This study was designed to assess the expression of CAIX in malignant pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas, their benign counterparts, and in pleural effusions from patients with malignant mesothelioma, metastatic carcinoma or a benign disease. Tissue blocks from 51 malignant mesotheliomas of pleura (47 cases; 41 epithelioid, 2 biphasic, 4 sarcomatoid) and peritoneum (4 cases; all epithelioid), 14 cases with normal or reactive pleural tissue, and 19 cell blocks were analyzed. CAIX expression was determined using immunohistochemistry and its membranous immunoreactivity was semiquantitatively evaluated. Specimens were divided into five subgroups according to the staining pattern and intensity.Overall, 92.2% (47/51) of mesotheliomas expressed CAIX. All epithelioid mesotheliomas showed CAIX positivity, which was predominantly strong and diffuse (73.3%, 33/45). Sarcomatoid mesotheliomas and sarcomatoid areas in biphasic mesotheliomas were negative. A strong diffuse staining was observed in all cases of normal mesothelia. In pleural effusions, CAIX expression was observed in malignant cells as well as in benign mesothelial cells. In conclusion, CAIX is expressed virtually in all mesotheliomas except for sarcomatoid subtype, and in benign mesothelia. There are probably more mechanisms of CAIX overexpression than hypoxia-induced in malignant mesothelioma, with the influence of other tissue specific transcription or growth factors depending on the type of the cell lineage. CAIX immunoreactivity is not a reliable diagnostic marker for distinguishing malignant cells from benign mesothelia in pleural effusions. Nevertheless, our data support the potential use of therapeutics targeting CAIX in patients with advanced mesothelioma. Keywords: carbonic anhydrase IX, CAIX, malignant mesothelioma, pleura, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Although a prognostic model (MIPI=MCL International prognostic Index) for patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) was established, its clinical significance for daily practice in the rituximab era remains controversial. Data of 235 unselected MCL patients from the Czech Lymphoma Group Database were analysed. MIPI, simplified MIPI (s-MIPI) and Ki-67 proliferation index were assessed for all patients and for subgroup of 155 rituximab-treated (RT) patients. MIPI divided all patients into subgroups of low-risk (22%), intermediate-risk (29%) and high-risk (49%) with median overall survival: 105.8 vs. 54.1 vs. 24.6 months (p<0.001). S-MIPI revealed similar results. The validity of both indexes was confirmed in (RT) patients. We confirmed Ki-67 index to be a powerful single prognostic factor for overall survival (64.4 vs. 20.1 months, p<0.001) for all patients and for (RT) subset. Our results confirmed clinical relevance of MIPI, s-MIPI, and Ki-67 for risk stratification in MCL also in the rituximab era.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy regimens are standard treatment for advanced ovarian carcinoma. Expression levels of putative markers of taxane resistance in carcinoma tissues and paired peritoneal samples (n=55) and in 16 samples of ovaries without signs of carcinoma were compared with clinical data and the patients´ time to progression. KIF14, PRC1, CIT and ABCC1 genes were significantly overexpressed in carcinomas when compared with normal ovarian tissues, while ABCB1 and CASP9 expression was decreased. Associations of protein expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 with KIF14, PRC1, ABCB1 and CASP2 were found. Lastly, it was discovered that ABCB1 and CASP2 levels associated with FIGO stage and that the CIT level associated with the time to progression of ovarian carcinoma patients (P<0.0001). In conclusion, ABCB1, CASP2, KIF14, PRC1 and CIT genes seem to associate with surrogate markers of ovarian carcinoma progression and CIT gene associates with therapy outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: A role of caspase-2 in chemotherapy-induced apoptosis has been suggested. Our study aimed to evaluate the prognostic and predictive importance of caspase-2 isoforms in breast cancer patients. Materials & methods: Caspase-2L and -2S transcript levels were determined in paired tumor and non-malignant control tissues from 64 patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 100 pretreatment patients (general set) by real-time PCR with absolute quantification. Results: Low but statistically significant upregulation of caspase-2L in tumor versus control tissues was observed in both sets. Significant associations of the levels of caspase-2L, -2S or S/L ratio with clinical prognostic factors were observed. However, none of these associations were confirmed in both sets. Levels of caspase-2 isoforms or the S/L ratio did not significantly associate with progression-free survival in the general set or with chemotherapy response in the neoadjuvant set. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the role of caspase-2 isoforms in the progression of breast cancer may considerably differ between pre- and post-chemotherapy patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: I-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization on interphasic nuclei) represents a laboratory method linking morphological investigations (histological sections of formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded tissues) with molecular techniques (sequence specificity of nucleic acids bases for a certain locus). I-FISH is relatively undemanding for a laboratory workout, but offering a lot of important information about the investigated cells. Within a scope of pathology departments I-FISH is utilized mostly in diagnostics of neoplasms. I-FISH is helpful in detecting gene copy numbers (amplifications or deletions), and, importantly, in establishing copy numbers of individual chromosomes (polysomies or monosomies), chromosomal breaks and translocations. At present, I-FISH is used not only for diagnosis and estimation of prognosis, but also as a method to qualify a patient for a targeted biological therapy. Because demands on investigation of solid tumors keep raising I-FISH becomes a part of routine investigations. The aim of this paper is to summarize principles and the utility of I-FISH and to help the interested readers in finding a basic orientation in this laboratory method.Keywords: fluorescence in situ hybridization - histological section - fluorescence microscope - probe - interphasic nuclei - formaldehyde fixation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Czech Republic, rectal carcinoma does not only represent a medical problem, but also a socio-economic one. At our department, we treated totally 266 patients with rectal carcinoma in the years 1998 through 2006. Among our patients, neoadjuvant treatment led to a reduction in size of the tumour in 37.6 %, in 50.8 % the size did not change. In T3 tumours, the reduction in size was observed in 36.7 % of the patients and did not change in 56 %; in T4 tumours, the reduction in size was observed in 60% of the patients. In 88 % of the patients who underwent the operation, no residual tumour was found, in 9 % of patients, a residual tumour was detected. In 19 % of the patients, a local recurrence of the tumour was detected. A statistically significant relationship was proved between the appearance of the metastatic disease and the presence of angioinvasion and the size of the primary tumour according to the Duke's classification (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 20). Keywords: rectal carcinoma, neoadjuvant treatment, chemo-radiotherapy before surgery, angioinvasion.
Bratislavske lekarske listy 01/2013; 114(8):469-73. · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor - WT) is the most common solid tumor of kidney in children. We present treatment development of WT at the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Charles University in Prague, 2nd Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol (KDHO) in the Czech Republic over 30 years. Patients that were treated prior to access to the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols are considered to be the historical group, then we have patients treated according to SIOP 9, SIOP 93-01 and SIOP 2001 protocols as full participants of SIOP studies. Patients and Methods: Between January 1980 and April 2009, we treated 330 patients with WT at KDHO: 91 patients in historical group (1980-1988), 94 pts in SIOP 9 (1988-1993), 80 pts in SIOP 93-01 (1994-2001) and 65 pts in SIOP 2001 (2002-2009). Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier test.Results: The overall ten-year EFS was 81.2% and OS 87.6%. Fifty-eight patients from the 330 (17.6%) had metastases at diagnosis, EFS without metastatic process was 84.6% compared to 65.4% with metastasis presented at diagnosis (p = 0.0003), OS was 70.7% compared to 91.2% (p < 0.0001). One hundred and seventy patients (51.5%) were treated with preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, whereas 158 patients (47.5%) underwent primary nephrectomy; EFS and OS did not differ: neoadjuvant vs primary nephrectomy EFS was 81.2% vs 80.9% (p = 0.85), OS 89.4% vs 85.4% (p = 0.38). Sixty (18%) patients experienced disease recurrence; OS after relapse was 33%. In the historical group, EFS and OS were 85.7% and 91.2%. In patients treated according to the SIOP 9 protocol, EFS and OS were 68.1% and 74.5%, resp. In patients treated according to SIOP 93-01, it was 83.6% and 93.7%, resp. and in patients treated according to 87 SIOP 2001, it was 7% and 95.4% (p = 0.001 and p = 0.0008), resp.Conclusion: WT is a well treatable disease. The aim for the future is to maintain the current very good survival while minimizing the treatment intensity. Key words: nephroblastoma - Wilms tumor - treatment - prognosis This study was supported by project of the Czech Ministry of Health - DRO, University Hospital Motol No. 00064203. The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE "uniform requirements" for biomedical papers.Submitted: 29. 3. 2013Accepted: 23. 5. 2013.
Klinická onkologie: casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti 01/2013; 26(5):336-342.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis / Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (HNL/K-F) is being recognized with an increasing frequency not only in the East Asia but also on the American continents and in the Europe. Still the diagnostics of HNL/K-F is not easy and difficulties with its proper classification persist. In a group of 19 patients diagnosed primarily or as consults at our department there were 12 woman and 7 men. An average age at diagnosis was 28 years, median 25 years. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 18 patients. Bilateral lymphadenopathy was present in one patient, the remaining 17 were unilateral. Inguinal lymph node was affected in one patient. In one other patient there were enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes simultaneously with a cervical lymphadenopathy. The size of the lymph nodes varied between 5 mm to 32 mm. The subclassification showed the necrotizing type in 14 patients, in one there was a predominant xanthomatous tissue reaction around the necrotic areas (xanthomatous type), and in 4 patients the disease was recognized as the proliferative type without necrosis (in two with a variously intense apoptosis of the proliferating lymphocytes). Of 10 consult cases the tumor was primarily evaluated as B cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (1x), peripheral T cell lymphoma (1x), classical Hodgkin lymphoma of mixed cellularity (1x); two patients were submitted with a differential diagnosis between peripheral T cell lymphoma and HNL/K-F; in one diagnosis of probable EBV lymphadenitis and in one diagnosis HNL/K-F was made. There were no data submitted in the remaining three cases. The authors stress diagnostic features which should lead to the diagnosis of the disease and should prevent unnecessary oncological staging investigations and potential chemotherapy for a lymphoma. Among diagnostic features of HNL/K-F identification of the proliferating cells - CD8 activated lymphocytes with apoptotic decay prevail, there are frequent plasmacytoid monocytes and a striking reaction of macrophages which are CD68/myeloperoxidase positive. There are virtually no neutrophil granulocytes and there is a miminal participation of plasma cells. In case of necrotizing and xanthomatous type infectious causes are to be ruled out as well. In case we still need to distinguish HNL/K-F from a lymphoma PCR analysis of a rearrangement of the immunoreceptor gene in T cell population should be investigated. Keywords: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease - histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenopathy - immunohistochemistry - PCR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Nowadays, the prognosis of newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients relies mostly on the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) classification which is also a determining criterion for the indication of adjuvant oncological treatment. Currently, new prognostic and predictive biomarkers are sought after in order to more precisely define prognosis and better predict the benefits of adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer. Besides several molecular biomarkers, such as mutations in the proto-oncogene K-ras, analyses of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes have shown promising prognostic value. The aim of the study is to examine the correlations between K-ras mutational status and tumour-infiltrating immune cells in colon cancer patients with respect to colon cancer recurrence. Material and methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained from 44 patients with surgically resected colon cancer (R0 resection) treated between 2004 and 2009. K-ras mutational status was detected using PCR amplification of exon 1 followed by direct sequencing and K-ras StripAssay. Tumour-infiltrating immune cells were detected by immunofluorescence staining using monoclonal antibodies against CD3, CD8, FoxP3, CD1a and DC-LAMP. Results: All 44 patients in our cohort underwent radical resection of colon cancer. In 16 patients the tumour relapsed (36.4%). K-ras mutations were found in 45.5% (n=20) of the primary carcinomas: 65% in codon 12 and 35% in codon 13. Although codon 13 K-ras mutations were associated with disease relapse, they were present in both disease-free and relapsed patients. However, disease-free and relapsed patients differed markedly in their patterns of tumour-infiltrating immune cells. There was a trend towards decreased density of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes within the group of relapsed patients. In addition, relapsed patients with codon 13 mutations had markedly lower levels of tumour-infiltrating mature DC-LAMP+ dendritic cells and higher frequency of CD1a+ cells compared to disease-free patients. Conclusion: Colon cancer patients with low levels of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, a high CD1a+/DC-LAMP+ tumour-infiltrating DC ratio and a K-ras mutation in codon 13 are at a high risk of disease recurrence. Keywords: colorectal cancer- K-ras- tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Rozhledy v chirurgii: měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti 08/2012; 91(8):427-32.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: J Oral Pathol Med (2012) ABSTRACT: Galectins are potent effectors of cell adhesion and growth regulation. Their expression as comples network necessitates systematic study of each member of this family. Toward this aim, we here focus on the tandem-repeat-type galectin-9. Its presence is monitored in normal squamous epithelium of the head and neck, the surgical margin, and four types of squamous cell carcinoma. Lectin presence was detected in cells of the basal layer of the epithelium. All galectin-9-negative epithelia showed aberrant positivity for keratins 14 and 19. The surgical margin presented either a normal pattern of galectin-9 and keratin presence or a mosaic-like presence/absence of galectin-9 and aberrant expression of both keratins 14 and 19. All studied specimens of squamous cell carcinoma were negative for galectin-9. When biotinylated galectin-9, or its N-terminal domain, was tested, no significant tissue reactivity for both probes was observed. Neuraminidase treatment generated reactivity to the N-domain. In conclusion, galectin-9 is expressed in the majority of samples of normal epithelium, along with regular presence of keratins 14 or 19. This lectin can represent a potential marker of normality in the cases of the studied squamous cell epithelia.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 05/2012; · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Giant angiofibromas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are rare. OBJECTIVE: We sought to report two patients who had TSC with unusually large and disfiguring facial angiofibromas and to identify underlying histopathologic changes that may possibly explain the clinical features. METHODS: We performed a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic study using 42 lesional specimens and peripheral blood from one of the two patients. The immunohistochemical investigations were mainly focused on the vascular moiety of the lesions. TSC1 and TSC2 alterations were studied using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for large deletion/duplication mutations, whereas screening for small mutations was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of individual coding exons and exon-intron junctions of both genes followed by an analysis on denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Histopathologic examination revealed, in addition to findings typical of angiofibroma, several unusual features including multinucleated giant cells containing multiple intracytoplasmic vacuoles, Touton-like cells, emperipolesis, pagetoid dyskeratosis, vacuolar alteration at the dermoepidermal junction, Civatte bodies, and melanophages in the subjacent dermis. Numerous dilated lymphatic vessels were detected indicating localized lymphostasis, probably caused by secondary lymphedema. The lymphatic nature of the vessels was confirmed by immunohistochemical study. Genetic testing for TSC1 and TSC2 gene mutations revealed a substitution on position c.2251C>T resulting in a nonsense mutation R751X in fragment 20.2. LIMITATIONS: Histopathologic specimens and peripheral blood were available from only one patient. CONCLUSION: Localized lymphedema may contribute to the formation of large disfiguring angiofibromas in patients with TSC.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 04/2012; · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor stroma is an active part influencing the biological properties of malignancies via molecular cross-talk. Cancer-associated fibroblasts play a significant role in this interaction. These cells frequently express smooth muscle actin and can be classified as myofibroblasts. The adhesion/growth-regulatory lectin galectin-1 is an effector for their generation. In our study, we set the presence of smooth muscle actin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts in relation to this endogenous lectin and an in vivo competitor (galectin-3). In squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck, upregulation of galectin-1 presence was highly significantly correlated to presence of smooth muscle actin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts in the tumor (p = 4 × 10(-8) ). To pinpoint further correlations on the molecular level, we applied microarray analyses to the transcription profiles of the corresponding tumors. Significant correlations of several transcripts were detected with the protein level of galectin-1 in the cancer-associated fibroblasts. These activated genes (MAP3K2, TRIM23, PTPLAD1, FUSIP1, SLC25A40 and SPIN1) are related to known squamous-cell-carcinoma poor-prognosis factors, NF-κB upregulation and splicing downregulation. These results provide new insights into the significance of presence of myofibroblasts in squamous cell carcinoma.
International Journal of Cancer 03/2012; 131(11):2499-508. · 6.20 Impact Factor