Polly A Marchbanks

Michigan Public Health Institute, Okemos, Michigan, United States

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Publications (144)726.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To examine the associations between prenatal and postpartum contraceptive counseling and postpartum contraceptive use.
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To calculate incidence of postpartum venous thromboembolism by week after delivery and to examine potential risk factors for venous thromboembolism overall and at different times during the postpartum period. A deidentified health care claims information database from employers, health plans, hospitals, and Medicaid programs across the United States was used to identify delivery hospitalizations among women aged 15-44 years during the years 2005-2011. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify instances of venous thromboembolism and associated characteristics and conditions among women with recent delivery. Incidence proportions of venous thromboembolism by week postpartum through week 12 were calculated per 10,000 deliveries. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for selected risk factors among women with postpartum venous thromboembolism and among women with venous thromboembolism during the early or later postpartum periods. The incidence proportion of postpartum venous thromboembolism was highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery, dropping from nine per 10,000 during the first week to one per 10,000 at 4 weeks after delivery and decreasing steadily through the 12th week. Certain obstetric procedures and complications such as cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, hemorrhage, and postpartum infection conferred an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 6.4), which persisted over the 12-week period compared with women without these risk factors. Risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism is highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery. Women with obstetric complications are at highest risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism, and this risk remains elevated throughout the first 12 weeks after delivery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 05/2014; 123(5):987-996. · 4.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Health care providers should assess pregnancy in women seeking contraceptive services. Although urine pregnancy tests are available in most U.S. settings, their accuracy varies based on timing relative to missed menses, recent intercourse, or recent pregnancy. We examined the performance of a checklist based on criteria recommended in family planning guidance documents to assist health care providers in assessing pregnancy in a sample of U.S. teenagers and young women. Study participants were a convenience sample of sexually active black females aged 14-19 years seeking care in an urban family planning clinic. Each participant provided a urine sample for pregnancy testing and was then administered the checklist in two formats, audio computer-assisted self-interview and in-person interview. We estimated measures of the checklist performance compared with urine pregnancy test as the reference standard, including negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. Of 350 participants, 31 (8.9%) had a positive urine pregnancy test. The audio computer-assisted self-interview checklist indicated pregnancy was unlikely for 250 participants, of whom 241 had a negative urine pregnancy test (negative predictive value=96.4%). The sensitivity of the audio computer-assisted self-interview checklist was 71%, the specificity was 75.6%, and the positive predictive value was 22%. The in-person checklist yielded similar results. The checklist may be a valuable tool to assist in assessing pregnancy in teenagers and young women. Appropriate use of the checklist by family planning providers in combination with discussion and clinically indicated use of urine pregnancy tests may reduce unnecessary barriers to contraception in this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2014; 123(4):777-784. · 4.80 Impact Factor
  • Naomi K Tepper, Polly A Marchbanks, Kathryn M Curtis
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Unintended pregnancy rates remain high in the United States and these pregnancies may carry increased risks for negative health outcomes. Lack of contraceptive use and inconsistent use are important contributors to the high rate of unintended pregnancies. Women may face certain barriers to starting contraception and using it effectively. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recently developed the U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013, which provides guidance for common yet sometimes complex issues in contraceptive management. This guidance aims to reduce barriers to contraceptive use by providing clear recommendations for providers to assist women in initiating and using contraceptive methods to maximize effectiveness and decrease risk of unintended pregnancy.
    Journal of Women s Health 10/2013; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association of breast cancer patients' mortality with estrogen receptor (ER) status (ER+ versus ER-) has been well studied. However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between the quantitative measures of ER expression and mortality. We evaluated the association between semi-quantitative, immunohistochemical staining of ER in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas and breast cancer-specific mortality risk in an observational cohort of invasive breast cancer in 681 white women and 523 black women ages 35-64 years at first diagnosis of invasive breast cancer, who were followed for a median of 10 years. The quantitative measures of ER examined here included the percentage of tumor cell nuclei positively stained for ER, ER Histo (H)-score, and a score based on an adaptation of an equation presented by Cuzick and colleagues, which combines weighted values of ER H-score, percentage of tumor cell nuclei positively stained for the progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) results. This is referred to as the ER/PR/HER2 score. After controlling for age at diagnosis, race, study site, tumor stage, and histologic grade in multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models, both percentage of tumor cell nuclei positively stained for ER (Ptrend=0.0003) and the ER H-score (Ptrend= 0.0004) were inversely associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk. The ER/PR/HER2 score was positively associated with breast cancer-specific mortality risk in women with ER+ tumor (Ptrend=0.001). Analyses by race revealed that ER positivity was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in white women and black women. The two quantitative measures for ER alone provided additional discrimination in breast cancer-specific mortality risk only among white women with ER+ tumors (both Ptrend<=0.01) while the ER/PR/HER2 score provided additional discrimination for both white women (Ptrend=0.01) and black women (Ptrend=0.03) with ER+ tumors. Our data support quantitative immunohistochemical measures of ER, especially the ER/PR/HER2 score, as a more precise predictor for breast cancer-specific mortality risk than a simple determination of ER positivity.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 09/2013; 15(5):R90. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with dual method use (i.e., condom with hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device) among adolescents and young women in the United States. We used 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth data from 2,093 unmarried females aged 15-24 years and at risk for unintended pregnancy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the associations between dual method use at last sex and sociodemographic, behavioral, reproductive history, and sexual behavior factors. At last sex, 20.7% of adolescents and young women used dual methods, 34.4% used condoms alone, 29.1% used hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device alone, and 15.8% used another method or no method. Factors associated with decreased odds of dual method use versus dual method nonuse included having a previous pregnancy (aOR = .44, 95% CI .27-.69), not having health insurance coverage over the past 12 months (aOR = .41, 95% CI .19-.91), and having sex prior to age 16 (aOR = .49, 95% CI .30-.78). The prevalence of dual method use is low among adolescents and young women. Adolescents and young women who may have a higher risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (e.g., those with a previous pregnancy) were less likely to use dual methods at last sex. Interventions are needed to increase the correct and consistent use of dual methods among adolescents and young women who may be at greater risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 09/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Black women are more likely than white women to have an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is associated with higher mortality and this may contribute to the observed black-white difference in mortality. However, few studies have investigated the black-white disparity in mortality risk stratified by breast cancer subtype, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Furthermore, it is not known whether additional consideration of p53 protein status influences black-white differences in mortality risk observed when considering subtypes defined by ER, PR and HER2 status. METHODS: Four biomarkers were assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast tumor tissue from 1,204 (523 black, 681 white) women with invasive breast cancer, aged 35--64 years at diagnosis, who accrued a median of 10 years' follow-up. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to assess subtype-specific black-white differences in mortality risk. RESULTS: No black-white differences in mortality risk were observed for women with triple negative (ER-negative [ER-], PR-, and HER2-) subtype. However, older (50--64 years) black women had greater overall mortality risk than older white women if they had been diagnosed with luminal A (ER-positive [ER+] or PR+ plus HER2-) breast cancer (all-cause hazard ratio, HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.99; breast cancer-specific, HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.83 to 2.74). This black-white difference among older women was further confined to those with luminal A/p53- tumors (all-cause HR, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.30 to 3.79; breast cancer-specific HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.93 to 3.86). Tests for homogeneity of race-specific HRs comparing luminal A to triple negative subtype and luminal A/p53- to luminal A/p53+ subtype did not achieve statistical significance, although statistical power was limited. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the subtype-specific black-white difference in mortality risk occurs mainly among older women diagnosed with luminal A/p53- breast cancer, which is most likely treatable. These results further suggest that factors other than subtype may be relatively more important in explaining the increased mortality risk seen in older black women.
    BMC Cancer 05/2013; 13(1):225. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the magnitude and consequences of violence against children for those living outside family care. We sought to estimate the frequency of childhood abuse and examine its association with lifetime pregnancy involvement (LPI) and past year suicide ideation among orphaned youth. METHODS: We analyzed data collected via cross-sectional interviewer-administered surveys completed by 293 orphaned youth aged 16-23 years living outside of family care in St. Petersburg, Russia. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of LPI and past year suicide ideation associated with childhood physical and sexual abuse. Other risk factors were also examined (e.g., social vulnerability, sexual and substance use behaviors), and characteristics of orphaned youth with LPI and past year suicide ideation were described. RESULTS: The prevalence of childhood abuse was higher among females than among males (23.3% versus 15.6% for physical abuse, and 20.3% versus 5.6% for sexual abuse), as was the prevalence of LPI and past year suicide ideation among those with histories of abuse. Experiences of childhood abuse were strong risk factors for both LPI and past year suicide ideation, with significant variation by gender. While both types of abuse were significantly associated with LPI and past year suicide ideation among females, physical abuse was significantly associated with LPI and sexual abuse was associated with suicide ideation for males. Of the other characteristics examined, strong modifiable risk factors included having no one to turn to for help and no involvement in activities outside of class. Among those with LPI (n=36), nearly 20% had been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant ≥2 times, most (61.8%) reported at least one induced abortion, and current use of effective contraception was nearly non-existent. Among those with past year suicide ideation (n=30), nearly half (44.8%) reported attempting suicide. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need for interventions to prevent and mitigate the negative influence of childhood abuse experiences. Programs providing services to orphaned youth should increase access to sexual education, effective contraceptives, and mental health counseling.
    Child abuse & neglect 01/2013; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: After a woman initiates certain methods of contraception [e.g., hormonal methods, intrauterine devices (IUDs)], she is generally asked to return at some interval for a follow-up visit; however, is it unclear whether follow up is needed, what an appropriate follow-up schedule is and what should be done at follow-up visits. METHODS: We conducted four separate searches in the PubMed database for all peer-reviewed articles in any language published from database inception through April 2012 that examined the following health outcomes for combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs), IUDs or medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA): (a) incidence of hypertension among women who began using a CHC compared to women not using a CHC; (b) incidence of migraine among women who began using a CHC compared to women not using a CHC; (c) incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among women who began using an IUD compared to women who started another form or used no method of contraception or examined incidence of PID at two or more time periods after IUD insertion and (d) whether initial weight gain predicts future weight gain among women who began using DMPA. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies met our inclusion criteria: 5 examined hypertension and combined oral contraceptive (COC) use, 7 examined PID and IUD use and 3 examined weight gain after DMPA initiation. No studies that examined migraine after CHC initiation met our inclusion criteria. Few women developed hypertension after initiating COCs, and studies examining increases in blood pressure after COC initiation found mixed results (Level I, fair to II-2, fair). Among women who had a copper IUD inserted, there was little difference in incidence of PID, or IUD removal for PID, compared with women who initiated DMPA, a hormone-releasing IUD, or COCs (Level I, good to Level II-2, fair). Studies that examined when women were diagnosed with PID after IUD insertion found mixed results. The study with the largest sample size found a much greater incidence of PID in the first 20 days after insertion, with very low rates of PID up to 8 years postinsertion (Level I, good to Level II-3, poor). Studies that examined weight gain after DMPA initiation found that weight gain >5% of baseline weight at 6 months was associated with greater mean change in weight and greater mean change in body mass index at follow-up times ranging from 12 to 36 months (Level II-2, fair to Level II-3, fair). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on select adverse events associated with initiation of contraceptive use is limited but does not suggest increased risk of hypertension among COC users or increased risk of PID among IUD users. DMPA users who gain >5% of baseline body weight may be at increased risk of future weight gain.
    Contraception 11/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. RESULTS: The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review to assess whether follow-up visits or contacts after a woman begins using contraception improve method continuation and correct use. STUDY DESIGN: We searched the PubMed database for all peer-reviewed articles in any language published from database inception through May 2012 that examined the effect of a structured follow-up schedule of visits or contacts on contraceptive use. We included studies that compared women who initiated a method of contraception with a certain follow-up schedule compared to women with a different follow-up schedule or no follow-up at all. To be included, studies must have compared groups on a measure of contraceptive use (e.g., pregnancy, correct use, consistent use, method discontinuation including expulsion). Though not ideally suited to answer our review question, studies in which women used a variety of contraceptive methods but results were not stratified by method type were included. RESULTS: Four studies met our inclusion criteria (Level I, poor to II-2, poor). Two studies examined the effect of a specific follow-up visit schedule on intrauterine device (IUD) continuation: one examining frequency of visits and one examining the timing of the first follow-up visit. Women with more frequent follow-up visits did not have a statistically significant difference in proportion of removals for medical reasons compared with women who had fewer follow-up visits; among women who had their IUDs removed for medical reasons, those who had more frequent follow-up visits had a longer mean time of use prior to removal. The other study found more removals and shorter continuation among women with a follow-up visit at 1 week compared to women with a follow-up visit at 1 month after IUD insertion (no statistical tests reported). Two studies examined the effect of follow-up phone calls compared to no follow-up phone calls after an initial family planning visit among adolescents initiating a variety of contraceptive methods. Neither of the two studies found any differences in method continuation or correct use between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: It is difficult to determine what effect, if any, follow-up visits or contacts have on contraceptive method continuation or correct use. Few studies were identified, and those that were identified were mostly of poor quality, were not method specific and had either poor patient compliance with follow-up visits or poor phone contact completion rates.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) are popular methods of reversible contraception in the United States, but adherence remains an issue as reflected in their lower rates of typical use effectiveness. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence on the effect of missed CHCs on pregnancy rates as well as surrogate measures of contraceptive effectiveness (e.g., ovulation, follicular development, changes in hormone levels, cervical mucus quality). STUDY DESIGN: We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles published in any language from database inception through April 2012. We included studies that examined measures of contraceptive effectiveness during cycles with extended hormone-free intervals or nonadherence (e.g., omission of pills, delayed patch replacement) on days not adjacent to the hormone-free interval. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: The search strategy identified 1387 articles, of which 26 met our study selection criteria. There is wide variability in the amount of follicular development and risk of ovulation among women who extended the pill-free interval to 8-14 days; in general, the risk of ovulation was low, and among women who did ovulate, cycles were usually abnormal (i.e., low progesterone levels, small follicles and/or poor cervical mucus) (Level I, good, indirect to Level II-3, fair, indirect). Studies of women who missed one to four consecutive pills or 1-3 consecutive days of delay before patch replacement at times other than adjacent to the hormone-free interval reported little follicular activity and low risk of ovulation (Level I, fair, indirect to Level II-3, poor, indirect). Studies comparing 30 mcg versus 20 mcg mc ethinyl estradiol pills showed more follicular activity when 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol pills were missed (Level I, good, indirect). CONCLUSION: Most of the studies in this evidence base relied on surrogate measures of pregnancy risk and ranged in quality. For studies providing indirect evidence on the effects of missed CHCs, it is unclear how differences in surrogate measures correspond to pregnancy risk. Fewer studies examined the transdermal patch and vaginal ring than combined oral contraceptives.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Women with hypertension who use hormonal methods of contraception may have an increased risk for cardiovascular events. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding whether blood pressure should be measured prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning blood pressure measurement prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. Articles were included if they reported on women with and without blood pressure measurement prior to current hormonal contraceptive usage and assessed cardiovascular outcomes. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. RESULTS: Six fair-quality articles from three studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Three case-control studies showed that women who did not have blood pressure measurement prior to initiating combined oral contraceptives (COCs) had a higher risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than women who did have blood pressure measurement. Two case-control studies showed that women who did not have blood pressure measurement prior to initiating COCs had a higher risk for ischemic stroke than women who did have blood pressure measurement. One case-control study showed no difference in the risk for hemorrhagic stroke among women who initiated COCs based on whether or not blood pressure was measured. CONCLUSIONS: Fair-quality evidence from five reports showed that women who did not have blood pressure measurement prior to COC initiation had a higher risk for AMI and ischemic stroke than women who did have blood pressure measurement. One fair-quality study showed no increased risk for hemorrhagic stroke based on whether or not blood pressure was measured. Studies that examined hormonal contraceptive methods other than COCs were not identified.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The review was conducted to examine studies that assess whether the number of pill packs dispensed, or prescribed, affects method continuation and other measures of use. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed database was searched from inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles, in any language, that examined the effect of the number of oral contraceptive pill packs dispensed on method continuation, and other measures of use. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. RESULTS: Four studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Studies that compared 1 vs. 12, 1 vs. 12-13, or 3 vs. 7 packs found increased method continuation. However, one study that examined the difference between providing one and then three packs versus providing four packs all at once did not find a difference in continuation. In addition to continuation, evidence from the individual studies included found that a greater number of pill packs was associated with fewer pregnancy tests, fewer pregnancies and less cost per client. A greater number of pill packs was, however, also associated with increased pill wastage. CONCLUSIONS: A small body of evidence suggests that dispensing a greater number of oral contraceptive pill packs may increase continuation of use.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Women using copper intrauterine devices (IUDs) frequently experience bleeding abnormalities. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding whether hemoglobin levels should be measured prior to copper IUD insertion. STUDY DESIGN: The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning hemoglobin changes among women with anemia who have copper IUDs inserted. Articles were included if they reported changes in hemoglobin among anemic women over a specified period of time following copper IUD insertion. Articles were excluded in which there were no women with anemia at baseline or outcomes among women with anemia were not reported separately. For indirect evidence, articles were included which addressed hemoglobin changes among women without anemia who had copper IUDs inserted. The quality of each direct study was assessed using the US Preventive Services Task Force grading system. RESULTS: Four level I to II-2 studies of fair quality met inclusion criteria as direct evidence. Evidence from one randomized trial and one prospective cohort study showed no statistically significant changes in hemoglobin among copper IUD users with anemia, while two prospective cohort studies showed a statistically significant, but clinically small, mean decrease in hemoglobin levels over 12 months of follow-up. We also identified 21 studies examining changes in hemoglobin among healthy women using copper IUDs as indirect evidence; this body of evidence was not graded. These studies generally showed no clinically significant changes in hemoglobin levels with up to 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Limited fair-quality evidence was mixed but generally showed no clinically significant changes in hemoglobin among women with anemia who used copper IUDs for up to 12 months. Indirect evidence among healthy women using copper IUDs did not show clinically significant changes in hemoglobin levels when followed for up to 5 years of use.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Female sterilization is the second most commonly used form of contraception in the United States. Newer approaches to female sterilization, including hysteroscopic methods, have been approved for use in the United States since 2002. Little is known about the occurrence and timing of pregnancies after these procedures. STUDY DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review was to identify evidence that assesses when and how often pregnancies occur following hysteroscopic sterilization. The PubMed database was searched for all studies published from database inception through March 2012 that reported whether or not pregnancies occurred following hysteroscopic sterilization. RESULTS: Twenty-four original research articles of fair quality met the inclusion criteria: 22 studies of women who underwent Essure® placement and 2 studies of women who underwent Adiana® placement. Eleven articles that documented bilateral tubal occlusion with hysterosalpingogram (HSG) or placement with X-ray or ultrasound following Essure® placement did not report any pregnancies with follow-up ranging from 7 months to 7 years. The remaining 11 articles identified 102 reported pregnancies. Eighteen of these pregnancies occurred prior to the 3-month period required before imaging for contraceptive reliability. Two articles did not report what follow-up imaging was performed among women after Essure® placement; one of these articles reported three pregnancies. Two reports from the same study of women who underwent Adiana® placement reported six pregnancies during the first year of follow-up, three pregnancies during the second year of follow-up and no pregnancies during the third year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Fair-quality evidence suggests that among women who were followed beyond 3 months after hysteroscopic sterilization, pregnancies were rare and generally occurred among women who had no imaging follow-up or had inadequate confirmation of placement or occlusion. Few pregnancies occurred in women with documented bilateral tubal occlusion by HSG or correct placement at 3 months by ultrasound or X-ray. Only one study reported follow-up past 5 years. Further studies are needed to address the long-term effectiveness of hysteroscopic sterilization.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently adapted global guidance on contraceptive use from the World Health Organization (WHO) to create the US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use (US SPR). The WHO guidance includes evidence-based recommendations on common, yet sometimes complex, contraceptive management questions. STUDY DESIGN: We determined the need and scope for the adaptation, conducted 30 systematic reviews of the scientific evidence and convened a meeting of health care professionals to discuss translation of the evidence into recommendations. RESULTS: The US SPR provides recommendations on contraceptive management issues such as how to initiate contraceptive methods, what regular follow-up is needed, and how to address problems, including missed pills and side effects such as unscheduled bleeding. CONCLUSION: The US SPR is intended to serve as a source of clinical guidance for providers in assisting women and men to initiate and successfully use contraception to prevent unintended pregnancy.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Certain contraceptive methods may increase the risk of adverse events for women with certain medical conditions, including some women with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, liver disease, cervical cancer, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding health outcomes among women with and without laboratory testing to identify certain medical conditions prior to initiating contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN: The PubMed database was searched from database inception through April 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language evaluating health outcomes among women who initiated certain contraceptive methods and who had or had not received glucose, lipid, liver enzyme, cervical cytology, STI or HIV screening. RESULTS: The systematic review did not identify any relevant direct evidence. CONCLUSIONS: While certain methods of hormonal contraception may not be safe for use by some women with diabetes, hyperlipidemia or liver disease, there is little value in screening for these conditions in asymptomatic women prior to initiation of contraceptive methods due to the low prevalence of these conditions among women of reproductive age. Although intrauterine devices (IUDs) and cervical caps should not be initiated in women with cervical cancer, the high rates of cervical screening and low incidence of cervical cancer in the United States make this scenario unlikely. Although some women at risk for, or infected with, STIs or HIV should not undergo IUD insertion, if women have been screened for STIs or HIV according to guidelines, additional screening at the time of IUD insertion is not warranted. Requiring unnecessary laboratory screening prior to initiation of contraceptive methods may impose barriers to contraceptive access, and efforts to remove such barriers are critical in reducing unintended pregnancy.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Instructions on what to do after pills are missed are critical to reducing unintended pregnancies resulting from patient non-adherence to oral contraceptive (OC) regimens. Missed pill instructions have previously been criticized for being too complex, lacking a definition of what is meant by "missed pills," and for being confusing to women who may not know the estrogen content of their formulation. To help inform the development of missed pill guidance to be included in the forthcoming US Selected Practice Recommendations, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on patient understanding of missed pill instructions. STUDY DESIGN: We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles that examined patient understanding of OC pill instructions that were published in any language from inception of the database through March 2012. We included studies that examined women's knowledge and understanding of missed pill instructions after exposure to some written material (e.g., patient package insert, brochure), as well as studies that compared different types of missed pill instructions on women's comprehension. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. RESULTS: From 1620 articles, nine studies met our inclusion criteria. Evidence from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 1 pill than after missing 2 or 3 pills (Level I, good, to Level II-3, poor), and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 2 pills than after missing 3 pills (Level II-3, fair). Data from two descriptive studies documented the difficulty women have understanding missed pill instructions contained in patient package inserts (Level II-3, poor), and evidence from two RCTs found that providing written brochures with information on missed pill instructions in addition to contraceptive counseling significantly improved knowledge of how to manage missed pills for up to three months compared to contraceptive counseling alone (Level I, fair). Evidence from one RCT found that graphic-based missed pill instructions were better than text-only instructions (Level I, good), and data from two RCTs found that less information resulted in improved comprehension (Level I, good to fair). Evidence from one descriptive study found that many women missing pills did not intend to follow recommended actions per missed pill instructions despite understanding the guidance (Level II-3, poor). CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variability in the percent of women having correct knowledge on what to do when pills are missed after exposure to written missed pills instructions, with more women knowing what to do after missing 1 pill than after missing 2 or 3 pills. Women have difficulty understanding missed pill instructions contained in patient package inserts. Providing written brochures with information on missed pill instructions in addition to contraceptive counseling may improve knowledge of how to manage missed pills. Graphic-based missed pill instructions and those containing less information may result in improved comprehension. Even with clear instructions, many women missing pills may choose not to follow the recommended actions.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Women using intrauterine devices (IUDs) are not protected against acquiring pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). If a woman has an IUD in place when she is diagnosed with PID, there is a theoretical concern that presence of an IUD might impact the course of treatment. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding whether an IUD should be retained or removed if a woman develops PID. STUDY DESIGN: The PubMed database was searched from database inception through April 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning PID in women using IUDs. Articles were included if they examined women with IUDs who developed PID and compared the clinical course of women in whom the IUD was retained versus women in whom the IUD was removed. Articles were excluded if the infection was diagnosed before or at the time of IUD insertion. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. RESULTS: Four fair-quality studies met inclusion criteria for this review. One randomized controlled trial showed that women with IUDs removed had longer hospitalizations than those with IUD retention (15% versus 4%, p<.01), although there were no differences in PID recurrences or subsequent pregnancies. Another randomized controlled trial showed no differences in laboratory parameters among women who retained the IUD when compared with women in whom the IUD was removed. One prospective cohort study showed that there were no differences in clinical or laboratory parameters during hospitalization; however, the IUD removal group had a higher proportion hospitalized for more than 2 weeks compared with the IUD retention group (33% versus 19%, p<.05). One randomized controlled trial showed that women who had the IUD removed experienced improved recovery in most clinical signs and symptoms compared with women who retained the IUD. CONCLUSIONS: Three fair-quality studies showed no difference in clinical or laboratory outcomes among women who retained IUDs when compared with women who had IUDs removed, and two of these studies showed that women who had IUDs removed had longer hospitalizations. In contrast, one fair quality study showed improved clinical signs and symptoms among women who had IUDs removed. Overall, women who retained their IUDs had similar or better outcomes than women who had their IUDs removed.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
726.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Michigan Public Health Institute
      Okemos, Michigan, United States
  • 1990–2013
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Reproductive Health
      • • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
      • • Epidemiology and Analysis Program Office
      • • Division of Diabetes Translation
      Atlanta, MI, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Emory University
      • • Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      • • Department of Global Health
      Atlanta, GA, United States
    • Beckman Research Institute
      Duarte, California, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • City of Hope National Medical Center
      • Department of Population Sciences
      Duarte, CA, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2003–2010
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • • Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology
      • • Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2002–2009
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2008
    • Secretaría de Salud
      Ciudad de México, The Federal District, Mexico
  • 2003–2008
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2003–2005
    • Karmanos Cancer Institute
      • Division of Hematology and Oncology
      Detroit, MI, United States
  • 1999
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      • Epidemiology Branch
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 1988
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States