ABSTRACT: The study was undertaken to examine the effects of berberine (BBR) on serum homocysteine, lipids and the aortic lesion in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed with a long-term high-fat diet (HFD).
Healthy male SD rats weighing 190-210 g received randomly standard diet or a high-fat diet for 24 weeks. After 8 weeks of feeding, rats fed with HFD were randomized to receive berberine (200 mg · kg-1· day-1) or vehicle by gavage for 16 weeks. After overnight fasting, all rats were sacrificed and total blood samples were also collected for determinant of fasting serum homocysteine (Hcy), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels. The aorta was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Sudan Ш to evaluate aortic lesion. The livers were dissected out and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for hepatic TC content and molecular analysis. 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), Lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins gene expression in the liver were determined by real-time PCR.
Intragastrical administration with berberine for 16 weeks lowered serum Hcy in rats fed with a high-fat diet. In parallel, it also decreased body weight and improved serum TC and LDL-c. Berberine also tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol. Consistently, berberine also upregulated LDL receptor (LDLR) mRNA level and suppressed HMGR gene expression. Meanwhile, upon berberine-treated rats, there was a significant increase in apolipoprotein E (apoE) mRNA, but no change in apoAI and scavenger receptor (SR) mRNA in the liver. Further, no atherosclerotic lesions were developed in berberine-treated rats for 16 weeks.
Berberine can counteract HFD-elicited hyperhomocysteinemia and hyperlipidemia partially via upregulating LDLR and apoE mRNA levels and suppressing HMGR gene expression.
Lipids in Health and Disease 07/2012; 11:86. · 2.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula Qing Huo Yi Hao (QHYH) and its components on hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) production in vitro and the activity of QHYH against free radicals in cultured endothelial cells induced by high glucose.
Hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)) were generated through Fenton reactions in vitro, and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was used as a spin trap to form DMPO/HO(•) adducts detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Immortalized mouse cerebral microvascular endothelial (bEnd.3) cells were treated with high glucose (35 mmol/L). The free radical scavenging ability of QHYH in the cells was evaluated using EPR. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was used to identify the free radicals scavenged by QHYH in the cells.
QHYH and its 8 components concentration-dependently reduced DMPO/HO(•) signaling. The DMPO/HO(•) adduct scavenging ability of QHYH was 82.2%, which was higher than each individual component. The free radical scavenging ability of 1% QHYH in high glucose-treated bEnd.3 cells was approximately 70%. In these cells, the free radicals were also specifically reduced by SOD (400 U/mL), implying that the free radicals were primarily superoxide anions.
The results demonstrate that the QHYH formula is potent antioxidant acting as scavenge of superoxide anions in high glucose-treated endothelial cells.
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 03/2012; 33(4):496-502. · 1.95 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients isolated from a Chinese herbal prescription, possesses protective effects against oxidative stress caused by high glucose in endothelial cells. In this study, the role of TMP in preventing muscle cells from palmitate-induced oxidative damage was investigated and the possible mechanisms of action elucidated.
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured in C2C12 myotubes, a palmitate-induced oxidative stress cell model, with or without TMP. Both mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and oxygen consumption were assessed in conjunction with quantification of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 α (PGC1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III as an index of mitochondrial function was evaluated by immunoblotting, and glucose transport into the C2C12 myotube examined by analyzing 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose uptake.
TMP significantly alleviated palmitate-induced mitochondrial ROS production, mitigated mitochondrial dysfunction and increased D-loop mRNA expression as compared with the control. This was accompanied by a marked reversal of palmitate-induced down-regulation in the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-related factors (PGC1α, NRF1 and Tfam) and decreased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. As a result, cell respiration, as reflected by the elevated expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III and oxygen consumption, was enhanced.
TMP is capable of protecting C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, and improving glucose uptake in muscle cells partially through the up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
Life sciences 03/2011; 88(17-18):803-9. · 2.56 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts growth factor 21 (FGF21), a liver-secreted endocrine factor involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism, has been shown to be elevated in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to evaluate the quantitative correlation between serum FGF21 level and hepatic fat content.
A total of 138 subjects (72 male and 66 female) aged from 18 to 65 years with abnormal glucose metabolism and B-ultrasonography diagnosed fatty liver were enrolled in the study. Serum FGF21 levels were determined by an in-house chemiluminescence immunoassay and hepatic fat contents were measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Serum FGF21 increased progressively with the increase of hepatic fat content, but when hepatic fat content increased to the fourth quartile, FGF21 tended to decline. Serum FGF21 concentrations were positively correlated with hepatic fat content especially in subjects with mild/moderate hepatic steatosis (r = 0.276, p = 0.009). Within the range of hepatic steatosis from the first to third quartile, FGF21 was superior to any other traditional clinical markers including ALT to reflect hepatic fat content. When the patients with severe hepatic steatosis (the fourth quartile) were included, the quantitative correlation between FGF21 and hepatic fat content was weakened.
Serum FGF21 was a potential biomarker to reflect the hepatic fat content in patients with mild or moderate NAFLD. In severe NAFLD patients, FGF21 concentration might decrease due to liver inflammation or injury.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(9):e24895. · 4.09 Impact Factor