Publications (2)0 Total impact
Article: [Estimation on the intangible cost and influencing factors for patients with hepatitis B-related diseases].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To estimate the intangible cost and associated factors on patients with hepatitis B-related diseases, so as to explore the differences of the three elicitation techniques on the 'willingness to pay approach' (WTP). Face-to-Face interviews were conducted to collect health economics-related information by trained investigators, using a structured questionnaire. WTP was employed to estimate the intangible cost while an open-ended question format, together with iterative bidding game and payment card were respectively used to elicit WTP for the hypothetical cure of hepatitis B-related diseases. A Multiple linear stepwise regression model was determined to identify those factors potentially affecting the intangible cost. A total of 564 subjects from 641 patients with hepatitis B-related diseases were identified for the inclusion of this study. The average annual intangible cost of patient with hepatitis B-related diseases was 54 320.4 Yuan (Ren Minbi). The intangible cost accounted for 53.0% of the total cost, which was much more than the proportions of the direct and indirect costs (38.5% and 8.5%, respectively). Among annual personal and the household income of the patient, proportions of intangible cost were 262.6% and 67.6% respectively, suggesting that the patients were under huge spiritual and psychological pressure. Response rate of the approach, combined open-ended questions with iterative bidding game, was the highest (76.6%) among the three elicitation formats. Considered the characteristics of data being gathered, the approach seemed to be more reasonable. Further studies were needed to examine the results yielded from other WTP elicitation formats. We also noticed that the progression of disease was associated with the increase of direct and indirect costs, but not with the intangible cost. Data from the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis indicated that the types of hospital and commercial medical insurance were significantly different in explaining the variation of the intangible cost. Measures should be taken to reduce the intangible cost of hepatitis B-related diseases. The approach regarding the combination of open-ended questions with iterative bidding game should be recommended when carrying our further WTP studies of this kind.Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 08/2011; 32(8):764-7.
Article: [Financial burden of hepatitis B-related diseases and factors influencing the costs in Shenzhen, China].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the direct, indirect and intangible costs due to hepatitis B-related diseases and to explore main factors associated with the costs in Shenzhen. Cluster sampling for cases collected consecutively during the study period was administrated. Subjects were selected from eligible hepatitis B-related patients. By pre-trained professional investigators, health economics-related information was collected, using a structured questionnaire. Hospitalization expenses were obtained through hospital records after the patients were discharged from hospital. Total economic burden of hepatitis B-related patients would involve direct, indirect and intangible costs. Direct costs were further divided into direct medical costs and direct nonmedical costs. Human Capital Approach was employed to measure the indirect costs both on patients and the caregivers in 1-year time span. Willing to pay method was used to estimate the intangible costs. Multiple linear stepwise regression models were conducted to determine the factors linked to the economic burden. On average, the total annual cost of per patient with hepatitis B-related diseases was 81 590.23 RMB Yuan. Among which, direct, indirect and intangible costs were 30 914.79 Yuan (account for 37.9%), 15 258.01 Yuan (18.7%), 35 417.43 Yuan (43.4%), respectively. The total annual costs per patient for hepatocellular carcinoma, severe hepatitis B, decompensated cirrhosis, compensated cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B and acute hepatitis B were 194 858.40 Yuan, 144 549.20 Yuan, 120 333.60 Yuan, 79 528.81 Yuan, 66 282.46 Yuan and 39 286.81 Yuan, respectively. The ratio of direct to indirect costs based on the base-case estimation foot add to 2.0:1, increased from hepato-cellular carcinoma (0.7:1) to compensated cirrhosis (3.5:1), followed by acute hepatitis B (3.3:1), severe hepatitis B (2.8:1), decompensate cirrhosis (2.3:1) and chronic hepatitis B (2.2:1). Direct medical costs were more than direct nonmedical. Ratio between the sum total was 16:1. The proportions of total annual cost per patient with hepatitis B-related diseases accounted for annual patient income were 285.3%, and 75.4% for annual household income. Furthermore, proportions of direct costs accounted for annual patient income and annual household income were 108.1% and 28.6%. The total annual indirect cost per person was 8123.38 Yuan for patients of all hepatitis B-related diseases, while 7134.63 Yuan for caregivers. Corresponding work-loss days were 55.74 days for patients and 19.83 days for caregivers. Based on multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age of patients was a common influencing factor to all kinds of costs. Other factors were as follows: complicated with other diseases, antiviral medication, monthly household income and self-medications. The economic burden of hepatitis B-related diseases was substantial for patients and their families. All costs tended to increase with the severity of disease. The direct costs were larger than the indirect costs. And the direct medical costs were more than the direct ones. Indirect costs based on patients were larger than the ones of caregivers.Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 12/2010; 31(12):1340-5.