[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been believed for a long time to be a selective inhibitor of voltage-gated fast Na(+) channels in excitable tissues, including mammalian myocardium. Recently TTX has been shown to block cardiac L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa,L). Furthermore, this inhibition was ascribed to binding of TTX to the outer pore of the Ca(2+) channel, contributing to the selectivity filter region. In this study the TTX-sensitivity of Cav1.2 channels, expressed in HEK cells, was tested using the whole cell version of the patch clamp technique and compared to the TTX-sensitivity of native canine ICa,L. Cav1.2 channels mediate Ca(2+) current in ventricular myocardium of various mammalian species. Surprisingly, TTX failed to inhibit Cav1.2 current up to the concentration of 100 μM - in contrast to ICa,L - in spite of the fact that the kinetic properties of the ICa,L and Cav1.2 currents were similar. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Present results may question the suitability of a single pore-forming channel subunit, expressed in a transfection system, for electrophysiological or pharmacological studies.
Journal of physiology and pharmacology: an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society 12/2013; 64(6):807-10. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The species-specific determinants of repolarization are poorly understood. This study compared the contribution of various currents to cardiac repolarization in canine and human ventricle. Conventional microelectrode, whole-cell patch-clamp, molecular biological and mathematical-modelling techniques were used. Selective IKr-block (50 100 nmol/L dofetilide) lengthened APD90>3-fold more in human than dog, suggesting smaller repolarization-reserve in humans. Selective IK1-block (10-µmol/L BaCl2) and IKs block (1-μmol/L HMR-1556) increased APD90 more in canine than human right-ventricular papillary muscle. Ion-current measurements in isolated cardiomyocytes showed that IK1- and IKs-density were 3- and 4.5-fold larger in dogs than humans respectively. IKr-density and kinetics were similar in human versus dog. ICa and Ito were respectively ~30% larger and ~29% smaller in human, and Na+,Ca2+-exchange current was comparable. Cardiac mRNA-levels for the main IK1 ion-channel subunit Kir2.1 and the IKs accessory-subunit minK were significantly lower, but mRNA-expression of ERG and KvLQT1 (IKr and IKs α-subunits) were significantly higher in human versus dog. Immunostaining suggested lower Kir2.1 and minK, and higher KvLQT1 protein-expression in human versus canine cardiomyocytes. IK1 and IKs inhibition increased the APD-prolonging effect of IKr-block more in dog (by 55% and 51% respectively) than human (33 and 16%), indicating that both currents contribute to increased repolarization-reserve in the dog. A mathematical model incorporating observed human-canine ion-current differences confirmed the role of IK1 and IKs in repolarization-reserve differences. Thus, humans show greater repolarization-delaying effects of IKr-block than dogs, because of lower repolarization-reserve contributions from IK1 and IKs, emphasizing species-specific determinants of repolarization and the limitations of animal models for human disease.
The Journal of Physiology 07/2013; accepted for publication. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to study antagonistic interactions between the effects of various types of Ca(2+) channel blockers and isoproterenol on the amplitude of L-type Ca(2+) current in canine ventricular cells.
Whole-cell version of the patch clamp technique was used to study the effect of isoproterenol on Ca(2+) current in the absence and presence of Ca(2+) channel-blocking agents, including nifedipine, nisoldipine, diltiazem, verapamil, CoCl(2) and MnCl(2) .
Five micromolar Nifedipine, 1 μM nisoldipine, 10 μM diltiazem, 5 μM verapamil, 3 mM CoCl(2) and 5 mM MnCl(2) evoked uniformly a 90-95% blockade of Ca(2+) current in the absence of isoproterenol. Isoproterenol (100 nM) alone increased the amplitude of Ca(2+) current from 6.8 ± 1.3 to 23.7 ± 2.2 pA/pF in a reversible manner. Isoproterenol caused a marked enhancement of Ca(2+) current even in the presence of nifedipine, nisoldipine, diltiazem and verapamil, but not in the presence of CoCl(2) or MnCl(2) .
The results indicate that the action of isoproterenol is different in the presence of organic and inorganic Ca(2+) channel blockers. CoCl(2) and MnCl(2) were able to fully prevent the effect of isoproterenol on Ca(2+) current, while the organic Ca(2+) channel blockers failed to do so. This has to be born in mind when the effects of organic Ca(2+) channel blockers are evaluated either experimentally or clinically under conditions of increased sympathetic tone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The contribution of the transient outward potassium current (Ito) to ventricular repolarization is controversial as it depends on the experimental conditions, the region of myocardium and the species studied. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterize Ito and estimate its contribution to repolarization reserve in canine ventricular myocardium.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ion currents were recorded using conventional whole-cell voltage clamp and action potential voltage clamp techniques in canine isolated ventricular cells. Action potentials were recorded from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The contribution of Ito to repolarization was studied using 100 µM chromanol 293B in the presence of 0.5 µM HMR 1556, which fully blocks IKs.KEY RESULTS The high concentration of chromanol 293B used effectively suppressed Ito without affecting other repolarizing K+ currents (IK1, IKr, Ip). Action potential clamp experiments revealed a slowly inactivating and a ‘late’ chromanol-sensitive current component occurring during the action potential plateau. Action potentials were significantly lengthened by chromanol 293B in the presence of HMR 1556. This lengthening effect induced by Ito inhibition was found to be reverse rate-dependent. It was significantly augmented after additional attenuation of repolarization reserve by 0.1 µM dofetilide and this caused the occurrence of early afterdepolarizations. The results were confirmed by computer simulation.CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results indicate that Ito is involved in regulating repolarization in canine ventricular myocardium and that it contributes significantly to the repolarization reserve. Therefore, blockade of Ito may enhance pro-arrhythmic risk.
British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2011; 164(1):93 - 105. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review focuses on the potential role of site- and event-selective adenosinergic drugs in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Adenosine is released from the myocardium and vessels in response to various forms of stress and acts on four receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B and A3). Adenosine is an important endogenous substance with important homeostatic activity in the regulation of cardiac function and circulation. Adenosine receptors are also involved in the modulation of various cellular events playing crucial role in physiological and pathological processes of the cardiovascular system. These actions are associated to activation of distinct adenosine receptor subtypes, therefore drugs targeting specific adenosine receptors might be promising therapeutic tools in treatment of several disorders including various forms of cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, angina pectoris, chronic heart failure, etc. Recently, in addition to subtype-specific adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists, a number of substances that enhance adenosine receptor activation locally at the site where the release of endogenous adenosine is the most intensive have been developed. Thus global actions of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as desensitization or down-regulation following chronic administration of these orthosteric compounds can possibly be avoided. We discuss the chemical, pharmacological and clinical features of these compounds: (1) inhibitors of membrane adenosine transporters (NBTI, dipyridamole), (2) inhibitors of adenosine deaminase (coformycin, EHNA), (3) inhibitors of adenosine kinase (tubercidin, aristeromycin), (4) inhibitors of AMP deaminase (GP3269), (5) activators of 5'-nucleotidase (methotrexate), (6) adenosine regulators (acadesine) and (7) allosteric adenosine receptor modulators (PD81723, LUF6000). The development of this type of substances might offer a novel therapeutic approach for treating cardiovascular diseases in the near future.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 02/2011; 18(8):1164-87. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent large clinical trials found an association between the antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone therapy and increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. The aim of this report is to elucidate the cardiac electrophysiological properties of rosiglitazone (R) on isolated rat and murine ventricular papillary muscle cells and canine ventricular myocytes using conventional microelectrode, whole cell voltage clamp, and action potential (AP) voltage clamp techniques. In histidine-decarboxylase knockout mice as well as in their wild types R (1-30 µM) shortened AP duration at 90% level of repolarization (APD(90)) and increased the AP amplitude (APA) in a concentration-dependent manner. In rat ventricular papillary muscle cells R (1-30 µM) caused a significant reduction of APA and maximum velocity of depolarization (V(max)) which was accompanied by lengthening of APD(90). In single canine ventricular myocytes at concentrations ≥10 µM R decreased the amplitude of phase-1 repolarization, the plateau potential and reduced V(max). R suppressed several ion currents in a concentration-dependent manner under voltage clamp conditions. The EC(50) value for this inhibition was 25.2±2.7 µM for the transient outward K(+ ) current (I(to)), 72.3±9.3 µM for the rapid delayed rectifier K(+ ) current (I(Kr)), and 82.5±9.4 µM for the L-type Ca(2+ ) current (I(Ca)) with Hill coefficients close to unity. The inward rectifier K(+ ) current (I(K1)) was not affected by R up to concentrations of 100 µM. Suppression of I(to), I(Kr), and I(Ca) has been confirmed under action potential voltage clamp conditions as well. The observed alterations in the AP morphology and densities of ion currents may predict serious proarrhythmic risk in case of intoxication with R as a consequence of overdose or decreased elimination of the drug, particularly in patients having multiple cardiovascular risk factors, such as elderly diabetic patients.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3720-8. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium ions are crucial elements of excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac myocytes. The intracellular Ca(2+ ) concentration changes continously during the cardiac cycle, but the Ca(2+ ) entering to the cell serves as an intracellular second messenger, as well. The Ca(2+ ) as a second messenger influences the activity of many intracellular signalling pathways and regulates gene expression. In cardiac myocytes the major pathway for Ca(2+ ) entry into cells is L-type calcium channel (LTCC). The precise control of LTCC function is essential for maintaining the calcium homeostasis of cardiac myocytes. Dysregulation of LTCC may result in different diseases like cardiac hypertrophy, arrhytmias, heart failure. The physiological and pathological structural changes in the heart are induced in part by small G proteins. These proteins are involved in wide spectrum of cell biological functions including protein transport, regulation of cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Understanding the crosstalk between small G proteins and LTCC may help to understand the pathomechanism of different cardiac diseases and to develop a new generation of genetically-encoded Ca(2+ ) channel inhibitors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3714-9. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of its widespread clinical application, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone in larger experimental animals. In the present study therefore concentration-dependent effects of rosiglitazone on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in dog hearts.
Standard microelectrode techniques, conventional whole cell patch clamp and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in enzymatically dispersed ventricular cells from dog hearts.
At concentrations ≥10 µM rosiglitazone decreased the amplitude of phase-1 repolarization, reduced the maximum velocity of depolarization and caused depression of the plateau potential. These effects developed rapidly and were readily reversible upon washout. Rosiglitazone suppressed several transmembrane ion currents, concentration-dependently, under conventional voltage clamp conditions and altered their kinetic properties. The EC(50) value for this inhibition was 25.2 ± 2.7 µM for the transient outward K(+) current (I(to)), 72.3 ± 9.3 µM for the rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)) and 82.5 ± 9.4 µM for the L-type Ca(2+) current (I(Ca) ) with Hill coefficients close to unity. The inward rectifier K(+) current (I(K1)) was not affected by rosiglitazone up to concentrations of 100 µM. Suppression of I(to), I(Kr), and I(Ca) was confirmed also under action potential voltage clamp conditions.
Alterations in the densities and kinetic properties of ion currents may carry serious pro-arrhythmic risk in case of overdose with rosiglitazone, especially in patients having multiple cardiovascular risk factors, like elderly diabetic patients.
British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2011; 163(3):499-509. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor-mediated changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration play critical role in the autonomic control of the heart, including regulation of a variety of ion channels via mechanisms involving protein kinase A, EPAC, or direct actions on cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels. In case of any ion channel, the actual signal transduction cascade can be identified by using properly modified cAMP derivatives with altered binding and activating properties. In this study we focus to structural modifications of cAMP resulting in specific activator and blocking effects on PKA or EPAC. Involvement of the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway in controlling rapid delayed rectifier K(+ ) current was studied in canine ventricular myocytes using these specific cAMP analogues. Adrenergic stimulation increased the density of I(Kr) in canine ventricular cells, which effect was mediated by a PKA-dependent but EPAC-independent pathway. It was also shown that intracellular application of large concentrations of cAMP failed to fully activate PKA comparing to the effect of isoproterenol, forskolin, or PDE-resistant cAMP derivatives. This difference was fully abolished following inhibition of phosphodiesterase by IBMX. These results are in line with the concept of compartmentalized release, action, and degradation of cAMP within signalosomes.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3729-36. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) is the major outward current responsible for ventricular repolarization in cardiac tissues. Based on kinetic properties and drug sensitivity it is composed of a slow (I(Ks)) and a rapid (I(Kr)) component, the latter is mediated by hERG channels. Suppression of IKr is the common mechanism of action of all class III antiarrhythmics, causing prolongation of the refractory period. However, lengthening of repolarization - either by a pathological factor or due to a pharmacological intervention - threatens with an increased risk of EAD generation and the concomitant sudden cardiac death. Therefore, a new potential anti-arrhythmic strategy, based on augmentation of the repolarization reserve, has been emerged. Recently a new class of compounds has been introduced as activators of the hERG channel. In this article we systematically review the chemical structures found to enhance IKr. Since the majority of previous experiments were performed in expression systems or in rodent cardiac preparations (neither is relevant to the human heart), in the second part of this article we present some results obtained with NS1643, the best examined hERG activator, in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. This preparation is believed to have electrophysiological parameters most resembling those of human. NS1643 shortened the duration of canine ventricular action potential and was shown to interact with several transmembrane ion currents, including I(Ca), I(Kr), I(Ks), and I(to). However, the action potential shortening effect of NS1643 is likely related to inhibition of ICa, in addition to the enhancement of IKr. Although the multiple ion channel activity of NS1643 may carry proarrhythmic risk, the rationale of antiarrhythmic strategy based on I(Kr) activation is not questioned.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3607-21. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Action potential voltage-clamp (APVC) is a technique to visualize the profile of various currents during the cardiac action potential. This review summarizes potential applications and limitations of APVC, the properties of the most important ion currents in nodal, atrial, and ventricular cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, the profiles ("fingerprints") of the major ion currents in canine ventricular myocytes, i.e. in cells of a species having action potential morphology and set of underlying ion currents very similar to those found in the human heart, are discussed in details. The degree of selectivity of various compounds, which is known to be a critical property of drugs used in APVC experiments, is overviewed. Thus the specificity of agents known to block sodium (tetrodotoxin, saxitoxin), potassium (chromanol 293B, HMR 1556, E-4031, dofetilide, sotalol, 4-aminopyridine, BaCl(2)), calcium (nifedipine, nisolpidine, nicardipine, diltiazem, verapamil, gallopamil), and chloride (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, DIDS) channels, the inhibitor of the sodium-calcium exchanger (SEA0400), and the activator of sodium current (veratridine) are accordingly discussed. Based on a theory explaining how calcium current inhibitors block calcium channels, the structural comparison of the studied substances usually confirmed the results of the literature. Using these predictions, a hypothetical super-selective calcium channel inhibitor structure was designed. APVC is a valuable tool not only for studying the selectivity of the known ion channel blockers, but is also suitable for safety studies to exclude cardiac ion channel actions of any agent under development.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3737-56. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic strategy for cardiac arrhythmias has undergone a remarkable change during the last decades. Currently implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy is considered to be the most effective therapeutic method to treat malignant arrhythmias. Some even argue that there is no room for antiarrhythmic drug therapy in the age of implantable cardioverter defibrillators. However, in clinical practice, antiarrhythmic drug therapies are frequently needed, because implantable cardioverter defibrillators are not effective in certain types of arrhythmias (i.e. premature ventricular beats or atrial fibrillation). Furthermore, given the staggering cost of device therapy, it is economically imperative to develop alternative effective treatments. Cardiac ion channels are the target of a number of current treatment strategies, but therapies based on ion channel blockers only resulted in moderate success. Furthermore, these drugs are associated with an increased risk of proarrhythmia, systemic toxicity, and increased defibrillation threshold. In many cases, certain ion channel blockers were found to increase mortality. Other drug classes such as ßblockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists, and statins appear to have proven efficacy for reducing cardiac mortality. These facts forced researchers to shift the focus of their research to molecular targets that act upstream of ion channels. One of these potential targets is calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Several lines of evidence converge to suggest that CaMKII inhibition may provide an effective treatment strategy for heart diseases. (1) Recent studies have elucidated that CaMKII plays a key role in modulating cardiac function and regulating hypertrophy development. (2) CaMKII activity has been found elevated in the failing hearts from human patients and animal models. (3) Inhibition of CaMKII activity has been shown to mitigate hypertrophy, prevent functional remodeling and reduce arrhythmogenic activity. In this review, we will discuss the structural and functional properties of CaMKII, the modes of its activation and the functional consequences of CaMKII activity on ion channels.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3707-13. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methylxanthines, such as theophylline, have been used to treat cardiorespiratory disorders, whereas caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive agent in various soft drinks. Because of the worldwide use of these drugs and the recently synthesized xanthine derivatives, an intensive research on the cardiac actions of these substances is under progress. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms involved in the actions of xanthine derivatives with special reference to their adenosine receptor antagonistic properties. The main basic and human studies on the action of xanthines on impulse initiation and conduction, as well as the electrophysiological and mechanical activity of the working myocardium will be overviewed. The potential beneficial and harmful actions of the methylxanthines will be discussed in light of the recent experimental and clinical findings. The pharmacological features and clinical observations with adenosine receptor subtype-specific xanthine antagonists are also the subject of this paper. Based on the adenosine receptor-antagonistic activity of these compounds, it can be raised that xanthine derivatives might inhibit the cardioprotective action of endogenous adenosine on various subtypes (A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3)) of adenosine receptors. Adenosine is an important endogenous substance with crucial role in the regulation of cardiac function under physiological and pathological conditions (preconditioning, postconditioning, ischemia/reperfusion injury). Recent clinical studies show that acute administration of caffeine or theophylline can inhibit various types of preconditioning in human subjects. There are no human studies, however, for the cardiovascular actions of long-term administration of these drugs. Upregulation of adenosine receptors and increased effectiveness of adenosine receptor-related cardiovascular functions have been observed after long-lasting treatment with methylxanthines. In addition, there are data indicating that blood adenosine level increases after long-term caffeine administration. Since the salutary actions (and also the adverse reactions) of a number of xanthine derivatives are repeatedly shown, the main goal is the development of novel structures that mimic the actions of the conventional methylxanthines as lead compounds, but their adenosine receptor subtype-specificity is higher, their water solubility is optimal, and the unwanted reactions are minimized.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3695-706. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal heart function and repolarization of the cardiac action potential (AP) is to a high extent subjective to synchronized activity of sarcolemmal K(+) channels, expressed in both ventricular and atrial myocardium, largely contributing to regulation of the resting potential, the pacemaker activity, and the shape and duration of the AP. Clinical observations and experimental studies in cardiomyocytes and multicellular preparations provided firm evidence for the sensitivity of some major outward K+ currents and the corresponding ion channels to shifts in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Direct regulation via interaction between [Ca(2+ )](i) and the channel protein or indirect modulation via Ca(2+ ) signaling pathways of these currents have strong implications to mechanical and electrical performance of the heart, and its physiological adaptation to altered load. It may also lead to severe cardiac dysfunction, if [Ca(2+ )](i) handling is disturbed in a variety of pathological conditions. In this review we attempt to summarize the present state of the topic on two ubiquitous repolarizing K(+) currents (I(to1) and I(K1)) with documented Ca(2+)-sensitivity and critical significance in cellular antiarrhythmic defense, to highlight fields where clue data are missing, and discuss the apparently unsolved "mystery" of the cardiac small conductance Ca(2+ )-activated K(+ ) (SK) channels. We have collected the available information on the known novel, although usually still not enough selective inhibitors and activators of these currents justifying the need for more selective ones. Finally, we emphasize a few related therapeutical perspectives to be considered for future experimental research and particularly in pharmaceutical development.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3622-39. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Class 3 antiarrhythmic agents exhibit reverse rate-dependent lengthening of the action potential duration (APD), i.e. changes in APD are greater at longer than at shorter cycle lengths. In spite of the several theories developed to explain this reverse rate-dependency, its mechanism has been clarified only recently. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for reverse rate-dependency in mammalian ventricular myocardium. Action potentials were recorded using conventional sharp microelectrodes from human, canine, rabbit, guinea pig, and rat ventricular myocardium in a rate-dependent manner. Rate-dependent drug-effects of various origin were studied using agents known to lengthen or shorten action potentials allowing thus to determine the drug-induced changes in APD as a function of the cycle length. Both drug-induced lengthening and shortening of action potentials displayed reverse rate-dependency in human, canine, and guinea pig preparations, but not in rabbit and rat myocardium. Similar results were obtained when repolarization was modified by injection of inward or outward current pulses in isolated canine cardiomyocytes. In contrast to reverse rate-dependence, drug-induced changes in APD well correlated with baseline APD values (i.e. that measured before the superfusion of drug or injection of current) in all of the preparations studied. Since the net membrane current (I(net)), determined from the action potential waveform at the middle of the plateau, was inversely proportional to APD, and consequently to cycle length, it is concluded that that reverse rate-dependency may simply reflect the inverse relationship linking I(net) to APD. In summary, reverse rate-dependency is an intrinsic property of drug action in the hearts of species showing positive APD - cycle length relationship, including humans. This implies that development of a pure K(+) channel blocking agent without reverse rate-dependent effects is not likely to be successful.
Current Medicinal Chemistry 01/2011; 18(24):3597-606. · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Ks)) is known to be enhanced by the stimulation of β-adrenoceptors in several mammalian species, phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)) is controversial.
In the present study, therefore, the effect of isoprenaline (ISO), activators and inhibitors of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway on I(Kr) and I(Ks) was studied in canine ventricular myocytes using the whole cell patch clamp technique.
I (Kr) was significantly increased (by 30-50%) following superfusion with ISO, forskolin or intracellular application of PKA activator cAMP analogues (cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP, 6-Bnz-cAMP). Inhibition of PKA by Rp-8-Br-cAMP had no effect on baseline I(Kr). The stimulating effect of ISO on I(Kr) was completely inhibited by selective β₁-adrenoceptor antagonists (metoprolol and CGP-20712A), by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMP and by the PKA activator cAMP analogues, but not by the EPAC activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP. In comparison, I(Ks) was increased threefold by the activation of PKA (by ISO or 8-Br-cAMP), and strongly reduced by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMP. The ISO-induced enhancement of I(Ks) was decreased by Rp-8-Br-cAMP and completely inhibited by 8-Br-cAMP.
The results indicate that the stimulation of β₁-adrenoceptors increases I(Kr), similar to I(Ks), via the activation of PKA in canine ventricular cells.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/2010; 162(4):890-6. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na(+) concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts.
The concentration-dependent effects of SEA0400 on I(Na/Ca) were studied in rat and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes using a patch clamp technique. Starling curves were constructed for isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat and rabbit hearts. The cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities of both species were compared by immunohistochemistry.
SEA0400 inhibited I(Na/Ca) with similar efficacy in the two species; there was no difference between the inhibitions of the forward or reverse mode of the NCX in either species. SEA0400 increased the systolic and the developed pressure in the rat heart in a concentration-dependent manner, for example, 1.0 microM SEA0400 increased the maximum systolic pressures by 12% relative to the control, whereas it failed to alter the contractility in the rabbit heart. No interspecies difference was found in the cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities.
NCX inhibition exerted a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but it did not influence the contractility of the rabbit heart. This implies that the AP configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration may play an important role in the contractility response to NCX inhibition.
British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 154(1):93-104. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In diabetes mellitus, several cardiac electrophysiological parameters are known to be affected. In rodent experimental diabetes models, changes in these parameters were reported, but only limited relevant information is available in other species, having cardiac electrophysiological properties more resembling the human, including the rabbit. The present study was designed to analyse the effects of experimental type 1 diabetes on ventricular repolarization and the underlying transmembrane potassium currents in rabbit hearts.
Diabetes was induced by a single injection of alloxan (145 mg kg(-1) i.v.). After the development of diabetes (3 weeks), electrophysiological studies were performed using whole cell voltage clamp and ECG measurements.
The QT(c) interval in diabetic rabbits was moderately but statistically significantly longer than measured in the control animals (155 +/- 1.8 ms vs. 145 +/- 2.8 ms, respectively, n = 9-10, P < 0.05). This QT(c)-lengthening effect of diabetes was accompanied by a significant reduction in the density of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current, I(Ks) (from 1.48 +/- 0.35 to 0.86 +/- 0.17 pA pF(-1) at +50 mV, n = 19-21, P < 0.05) without changes in current kinetics. No differences were observed either in the density or in the kinetics of the inward rectifier K(+) current (I(K1)), the rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)), the transient outward current (I(to)) and the L-type calcium current (I(CaL)) between the control and alloxan-treated rabbits.
It is concluded that type 1 diabetes mellitus, although only moderately, lengthens ventricular repolarization. Diabetes attenuates the repolarization reserve by decreasing the density of I(Ks) current, and thereby may enhance the risk of sudden cardiac death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of its widespread clinical application, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of articaine. In the present study, the concentration-dependent effects of articaine on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes.
Action potentials were recorded from the enzymatically dispersed myocytes using sharp microelectrodes (16 cells from 3 dogs). Conventional patch clamp and action potential voltage clamp arrangements were used to study the effects of articaine on transmembrane ion currents (37 cells from 14 dogs).
Articaine-induced concentration-dependent changes in action potential configuration including shortening of the action potentials, reduction of their amplitude and maximum velocity of depolarization (V(max)), suppression of early repolarization and depression of plateau. The EC50 value obtained for the V(max) block was 162 (sd 30) microM. Both the reduction of V(max) and action potential shortening were frequency dependent: the former was more prominent at shorter, while the latter at longer pacing cycle lengths. A rate dependent V(max) block, having rapid offset kinetics [tau = 91 (20) ms], was observed in addition to tonic block. Under voltage clamp conditions, a variety of ion currents were blocked by articaine: I(Ca) [EC50 = 471 (75) microM], I(to) [EC50 = 365 (62) microM], I(K1) [EC50 = 372 (46) microM], I(Kr) [EC50 = 278 (79) microM], and I(Ks) [EC50 = 326 (65) microM]. Hill coefficients were close to unity indicating a single binding site for articaine, except for I(K1).
Articaine can modify cardiac action potentials and ion currents at concentrations higher than the therapeutic range which can be achieved only by accidental venous injection. Since its suppressive effects on the inward and outward currents are relatively well balanced, the articaine-induced changes in action potential morphology may be moderate even in the case of overdose.
BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 12/2007; 99(5):726-33. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to give a parametric description of the most important K(+) currents flowing during canine ventricular action potential.
Inward rectifier K(+) current (I(K1)), rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)), and transient outward K(+) current (I(to)) were dissected under action potential clamp conditions using BaCl(2), E-4031, and 4-aminopyridine, respectively.
The maximum amplitude of I(to) was 3.0 +/- 0.23 pA/pF and its integral was 29.7 +/- 2.5 fC/pF. The current peaked 4.4 +/- 0.7 ms after the action potential upstroke and rapidly decayed to zero with a time constant of 7.4 +/- 0.6 ms. I(Kr) gradually increased during the plateau, peaked 7 ms before the time of maximum rate of repolarization (V(max)(-)) at -54.2 +/- 1.7 mV, had peak amplitude of 0.62 +/- 0.08 pA/pF, and integral of 57.6 +/- 6.7 fC/pF. I(K1) began to rise from -22.4 +/- 0.8 mV, peaked 1 ms after the time of V(max)(-) at -58.3 +/- 0.6 mV, had peak amplitude of 1.8 +/- 0.1 pA/pF, and integral of 61.6 +/- 6.2 fC/pF. Good correlation was observed between peak I(K1) and V(max)(-) (r = 0.93) but none between I(Kr) and V(max)(-). Neither I(K1) nor I(Kr) was frequency-dependent between 0.2 and 1.66 Hz. Congruently, I(Kr) failed to accumulate in canine myocytes at fast driving rates.
Terminal repolarization is dominated by I(K1), but action potential duration is influenced by several ion currents simultaneously. As I(to) was not active during the plateau, and neither I(K1) nor I(Kr) was frequency-dependent, other currents must be responsible for the frequency dependence of action potential duration at normal and slow heart rates in canine ventricular cells.