[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a method for fast and efficient trapping of genes whose transcription is regulated by exogenous stimuli. We constructed a promoterless retroviral vector transducing a green fluorescent protein-nitroreductase (GFNR) fusion protein downstream from a splice acceptor site. Flow cytometric analysis of the infected population allows identification and sorting of cells in which the trap is integrated downstream from an active promoter. Conversely, the nitroreductase (NTR) moiety allows pharmacological selection against constitutive GFNR expression. Using hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation of liver cells combined with either positive or negative selection, we recovered cell populations carrying traps in induced or suppressed genes, respectively. Several distinct responsive clones were isolated, and regulated expression of the trapped gene was confirmed at the RNA level. Positive and negative selection can be calibrated to recover traps in genes showing different levels of basal expression or transcriptional regulation. The flexibility and efficiency of the GFNR-based trap screening procedure make it suitable for wide surveys of transcriptionally regulated genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene targeting studies have indicated that the two receptors for PDGF, alpha and beta, direct unique functions during development. Distinct ligand affinities, patterns of gene expression, and/or mechanisms of signal relay may account for functional specificity of the two PDGF receptor isoforms. To distinguish between these factors, we have created two complementary lines of knockin mice in which the intracellular signaling domains of one PDGFR have been removed and replaced by those of the other PDGFR. While both lines demonstrated substantial rescue of normal development, substitution of the PDGFbetaR signaling domains with those of the PDGFalphaR resulted in varying degrees of vascular disease. This observation provides a framework for discussing the evolution of receptor tyrosine kinase functional specificity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reciprocal defects in signaling between the myotome and the sclerotome compartments of the somites in PDGFRalpha and Myf5 mutant embryos lead to alterations in the formation of the vertebrae and the ribs. To investigate the significance of these observations, we have examined the role of PDGF signaling in the developing somite. PDGFA ligand expression was not detected in the myotome of Myf5 null mutant embryos and PDGFA promoter activity was regulated by Myf5 in vitro. PDGFA stimulated chondrogenesis in somite micromass cultures as well as in embryos when PDGFA was knocked into the Myf5 locus, resulting in increased vertebral and rib development. PDGFA expression in the myotome was fully restored in embryos in which MyoD has been introduced at the Myf5 locus but to a lesser extent in similar myogenin knock-in embryos. These results underscore the importance of growth factor signaling within the developing somite and suggest an important role for myogenic determination factors in orchestrating normal development of the axial skeleton.
Development 01/2001; 127(23):5059-70. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signal transduction by the platelet-derived growth-factor receptor beta (PDGFR-beta) tyrosine kinase is required for proper formation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). However, the importance of individual PDGFR-beta signal transduction pathways in vivo is not known. To investigate the role of two of the pathways believed to be critical for PDGF signal transduction, we have generated mice that bear a PDGFR-beta that can no longer activate PI3kinase or PLCgamma. Although these mutant mice have normal vasculature, we provide multiple lines of evidence in vivo and from cells derived from the mutant mice that suggest that the mutant PDGFR-beta operates at suboptimal levels. Our observations indicate that although loss of these pathways can lead to attenuated PDGF-dependent cellular function, certain PDGFR-beta-induced signal cascades are not essential for survival in mice.
Genes & Development 01/2001; 14(24):3179-90. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell type-specific microtubules, such as the Sertoli cell microtubules and the manchette and flagellum microtubules of the spermatids, play essential roles in spermatogenesis. We identified the gene encoding E-MAP-115 (epithelial microtubule-associated protein of 115 kD) as a retinoic acid-inducible gene using gene trap mutagenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells. The gene trap insertion led to a null allele of the E-MAP-115 gene and, in agreement with its high expression in the testis, male mice homozygous for the mutation were sterile because of deformation of spermatid nuclei and subsequent gradual loss of germ cells. Consistent with a possible role for E-MAP-115 in stabilizing microtubules, microtubule associations in the mutant were morphologically abnormal in the manchette of spermatids and in Sertoli cells. We hypothesize that the abnormal microtubules in these two cell types are responsible for deformation of spermatid nuclei and germ cell loss, respectively, and indicate an essential role for E-MAP-115 in microtubule functions required for spermatogenesis.
Genes & Development 07/2000; 14(11):1332-42. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are important in many types of mesenchymal cell. Here we identify a new PDGF, PDGF-C, which binds to and activates the PDGF alpha-receptor. PDGF-C is activated by proteolysis and induces proliferation of fibroblasts when overexpressed in transgenic mice. In situ hybridization analysis in the murine embryonic kidney shows preferential expression of PDGF-C messenger RNA in the metanephric mesenchyme during epithelial conversion. Analysis of kidneys lacking the PDGF alpha-receptor shows selective loss of mesenchymal cells adjacent to sites of expression of PDGF-C mRNA; this is not found in kidneys from animals lacking PDGF-A or both PDGF-A and PDGF-B, indicating that PDGF-C may have a unique function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A subpopulation of neural crest termed the cardiac neural crest is required in avian embryos to initiate reorganization of the outflow tract of the developing cardiovascular system. In mammalian embryos, it has not been previously experimentally possible to study the long-term fate of this population, although there is strong inference that a similar population exists and is perturbed in a number of genetic and teratogenic contexts. We have employed a two-component genetic system based on Cre/lox recombination to label indelibly the entire mouse neural crest population at the time of its formation, and to detect it at any time thereafter. Labeled cells are detected throughout gestation and in postnatal stages in major tissues that are known or predicted to be derived from neural crest. Labeling is highly specific and highly efficient. In the region of the heart, neural-crest-derived cells surround the pharyngeal arch arteries from the time of their formation and undergo an altered distribution coincident with the reorganization of these vessels. Labeled cells populate the aorticopulmonary septum and conotruncal cushions prior to and during overt septation of the outflow tract, and surround the thymus and thyroid as these organs form. Neural-crest-derived mesenchymal cells are abundantly distributed in midgestation (E9.5-12.5), and adult derivatives of the third, fourth and sixth pharyngeal arch arteries retain a substantial contribution of labeled cells. However, the population of neural-crest-derived cells that infiltrates the conotruncus and which surrounds the noncardiac pharyngeal organs is either overgrown or selectively eliminated as development proceeds, resulting for these tissues in a modest to marginal contribution in late fetal and postnatal life.
Development 05/2000; 127(8):1607-16. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural crest cells are multipotential stem cells that contribute extensively to vertebrate development and give rise to various cell and tissue types. Determination of the fate of mammalian neural crest has been inhibited by the lack of appropriate markers. Here, we make use of a two-component genetic system for indelibly marking the progeny of the cranial neural crest during tooth and mandible development. In the first mouse line, Cre recombinase is expressed under the control of the Wnt1 promoter as a transgene. Significantly, Wnt1 transgene expression is limited to the migrating neural crest cells that are derived from the dorsal CNS. The second mouse line, the ROSA26 conditional reporter (R26R), serves as a substrate for the Cre-mediated recombination. Using this two-component genetic system, we have systematically followed the migration and differentiation of the cranial neural crest (CNC) cells from E9.5 to 6 weeks after birth. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that CNC cells contribute to the formation of condensed dental mesenchyme, dental papilla, odontoblasts, dentine matrix, pulp, cementum, periodontal ligaments, chondrocytes in Meckel's cartilage, mandible, the articulating disc of temporomandibular joint and branchial arch nerve ganglia. More importantly, there is a dynamic distribution of CNC- and non-CNC-derived cells during tooth and mandibular morphogenesis. These results are a first step towards a comprehensive understanding of neural crest cell migration and differentiation during mammalian craniofacial development. Furthermore, this transgenic model also provides a new tool for cell lineage analysis and genetic manipulation of neural-crest-derived components in normal and abnormal embryogenesis.
Development 05/2000; 127(8):1671-9. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their corresponding surface-bound ligands, the ephrins, provide cues to the migration of cells and growth cones during embryonic development. Here we show that ephrin-A5, which is attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchor, induces compartmentalized signaling within a caveolae-like membrane microdomain when bound to the extracellular domain of its cognate Eph receptor. The physiological response induced by this signaling event is concomitant with a change in the cellular architecture and adhesion of the ephrin-A5-expressing cells and requires the activity of the Fyn protein tyrosine kinase. This study stresses the relevance of bidirectional signaling involving the ephrins and Eph receptors during brain development.
Genes & Development 01/2000; 13(23):3125-35. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research on the formation and maintenance of the vasculature in the embryo and in the adult has provided a greater understanding of the cellular signals involved in these processes. With this understanding comes the potential means of controlling vascularization in pathological situations such as tumorigenesis and wounding. For the purpose of this review, we will discuss the key receptor tyrosine kinases involved in vascular function and the molecules which relay signals downstream of receptor activation. The receptor tyrosine kinases discussed include the vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptors, Eph receptors, Tie1, and Tie2, all of which are expressed on vascular endothelial cells. We also discuss the roles of the platelet derived growth factor receptors which are expressed on vascular smooth muscle cells. While all of these receptor tyrosine kinases activate many similar effector molecules, some of the signals initiated appear to be distinct. This may explain, at least in part, how different receptor tyrosine kinases expressed in overlapping patterns on the developing vasculature, direct unique biological functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using gene trap mutagenesis, we have identified a mutation in mice that causes exencephaly, acrania, facial clefting, and spina bifida, all of which can be attributed to failed neural tube closure. This mutation is designated shroom (shrm) because the neural folds "mushroom" outward and do not converge at the dorsal midline. shrm encodes a PDZ domain protein that is involved at several levels in regulating aspects of cytoarchitecture. First, endogenous Shrm localizes to adherens junctions and the cytoskeleton. Second, ectopically expressed Shrm alters the subcellular distribution of F-actin. Third, Shrm directly binds F-actin. Finally, cytoskeletal polarity within the neuroepithelium is perturbed in mutant embryos. In concert, these observations suggest that Shrm is a critical determinant of the cellular architecture required for proper neurulation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The action of growth factors is thought to make a substantial contribution to the events leading to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In this study, the importance of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was tested in a rabbit model of PVR.
The approach was to compare the extent of PVR induced by cells that do or do not express the receptors for PDGF and therefore differ in their ability to respond to PDGF.
Mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from PDGF receptor knock-out embryos that do not express either of the two PDGF receptors induced PVR poorly when injected into the eyes of rabbits that had previously undergone gas vitrectomy. Re-expression of the PDGF beta receptor in these cells did not improve the ability of the cells to cause PVR. In contrast, injection of cells expressing the PDGF alpha receptor resulted in stage 3 or higher PVR in 8 of 10 animals.
These findings show that PDGF makes an important contribution to the development of PVR in this animal model. Furthermore, there is a marked difference between the two receptors for PDGF, and it is the PDGF alpha receptor that is capable of driving events that lead to PVR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PDGFB is a growth factor which is vital for the completion of normal prenatal development. In this study, we report the phenotypic analysis of placentas from mouse conceptuses that lack a functional PDGFB or PDGFRbeta gene. Placentas of both types of mutant exhibit changes in the labyrinthine layer, including dilated embryonic blood vessels and reduced numbers of both pericytes and trophoblasts. These changes are seen from embryonic day (E) 13.5, which coincides with the upregulation of PDGFB mRNA levels in normal placentas. By E17, modifications in shape, size, and number of the fetal blood vessels in the mutant placentas cause an abnormal ratio of the surface areas between the fetal and the maternal blood vessels in the labyrinthine layer. Our data suggest that PDGFB acts locally to contribute to the development of the labyrinthine layer of the fetal placenta and the formation of a proper nutrient-waste exchange system during fetal development. We point out that the roles of PDGFB/Rbeta signaling in the placenta may be analogous to those in the developing kidney, by controlling pericytes in the labyrinthine layer and mesangial cells in the kidney.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hrs is an early endosomal protein homologous to Vps27p, a yeast protein required for vesicular trafficking. Hrs has a FYVE double zinc finger domain, which specifically binds phosphatidylinositol(3)-phosphate and is conserved in several proteins involved in vesicular traffic. To understand the physiological role of Hrs, we generated mice carrying a null mutation of the gene. Hrs homozygous mutant embryos developed with their ventral region outside of the yolk sac, had two independent bilateral heart tubes (cardia bifida), lacked a foregut, and died around embryonic day 11 (E11). These phenotypes arise from a defect in ventral folding morphogenesis that occurs normally around E8.0. Significant apoptosis was detected in the ventral region of mutant embryos within the definitive endoderm, suggesting an important role of this germ layer in ventral folding morphogenesis. Abnormally enlarged early endosomes were detected in the mutants in several tissues including definitive endoderm, suggesting that a deficiency in vesicular transport via early endosomes underlies the mutant phenotype. The vesicular localization of Hrs was disrupted in cells treated with wortmannin, implicating Hrs in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway of membrane trafficking.
Genes & Development 07/1999; 13(11):1475-85. · 12.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Src family kinases (SFKs) have been implicated as important regulators of ligand-induced cellular responses including proliferation, survival, adhesion and migration. Analysis of SFK function has been impeded by extensive redundancy between family members. We have generated mouse embryos harboring functional null mutations of the ubiquitously expressed SFKs Src, Yes and Fyn. This triple mutation leads to severe developmental defects and lethality by E9.5. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotype, SYF cells (deficient for Src, Yes and Fyn) were derived and tested for their ability to respond to growth factors or plating on extracellular matrix. Our studies reveal that while Src, Yes and Fyn are largely dispensable for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced signaling, they are absolutely required to mediate specific functions regulated by extracellular matrix proteins. Fibronectin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins, including the focal adhesion kinase FAK, was nearly eliminated in the absence of Src, Yes and Fyn. Furthermore, consistent with previous reports demonstrating the importance of FAK for cell migration, SYF cells displayed reduced motility in vitro. These results demonstrate that SFK activity is essential during embryogenesis and suggest that defects observed in SYF triple mutant embryos may be linked to deficiencies in signaling by extracellular matrix-coupled receptors.
The EMBO Journal 06/1999; 18(9):2459-71. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to its receptor causes rapid phosphorylation of the clathrin heavy chain at tyrosine 1477, which lies in a domain controlling clathrin assembly. EGF-mediated clathrin phosphorylation is followed by clathrin redistribution to the cell periphery and is the product of downstream activation of SRC kinase by EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling. In cells lacking SRC kinase, or cells treated with a specific SRC family kinase inhibitor, EGF stimulation of clathrin phosphorylation and redistribution does not occur, and EGF endocytosis is delayed. These observations demonstrate a role for SRC kinase in modification and recruitment of clathrin during ligand-induced EGFR endocytosis and thereby define a novel effector mechanism for regulation of endocytosis by receptor signaling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney glomerulus mesangial cells fail to develop in mice carrying targeted null mutations in the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B or PDGF-Rbeta genes. We have examined the pattern of expression of these genes and smooth muscle markers during kidney development, to address the possible mechanisms underlying the mutant phenotypes. In wild-type embryos, PDGF-B was expressed in vascular endothelial cells, particularly in capillary endothelial cells in the developing glomeruli, whereas PDGF-Rbeta was found in perivascular mesenchymal cells in the developing renal cortex. In the course of glomerular development, small groups of PDGF-Rbeta and desmin-expressing cells collected in the 'S'-shaped and early cup-shaped vesicles, and at later stages such cells were found in the glomerular mesangium. In PDGF-B or -Rbeta null embryos, some PDGF-Rbeta/desmin or desmin-positive cells, respectively, were seen in early cup-shaped vesicles, but fewer than in the wild type, and further development of the mesangium failed. In mouse chimeras composed of PDGF-Rbeta +/+ and -/- cells, the Rbeta-/- cells failed to populate the glomerular mesangium. Our results show that while the mesangial cell lineage is specified independently of PDGF-B/Rbeta, these molecules provide critical permissive signals in mesangial cell development. We propose a model in which mesangial cells originate from PDGF-Rbeta-positive progenitors surrounding the developing glomerular afferent and efferent arterioles, and are co-recruited in response to PDGF-B during angiogenic formation of the glomerular capillary tuft.
Development 10/1998; 125(17):3313-22. · 6.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L1 is a neural cell adhesion molecule mainly involved in axon guidance and neuronal migration during brain development. Mutations in the human L1 gene give rise to a complex clinical picture, with mental retardation, neurologic abnormalities and a variable degree of hydrocephalus. Recently, a transgenic mouse model with a targeted null mutation in the L1 gene was generated. These knockout (KO) mice show hypoplasia of the corticospinal tract. Here we have performed further studies of these KO mice including magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, neuropathological analysis and behavioral testing. The ventricular system was shown to be abnormal with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and the 4th ventricle, and an altered shape of the Sylvius aqueduct. Additionally, the cerebellar vermis of the KO mice is hypoplastic. Their exploratory behavior is characterized by stereotype peripheral circling reminiscent of that of rodents with induced cerebellar lesions.
Human Molecular Genetics 07/1998; 7(6):999-1009. · 7.69 Impact Factor