[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological findings, based largely on middle-aged populations, support an inverse and independent association between exercise capacity and mortality risk. The information available in older individuals is limited.
Between 1986 and 2008, we assessed the association between exercise capacity and all-cause mortality in 5314 male veterans aged 65 to 92 years (mean+/-SD, 71.4+/-5.0 years) who completed an exercise test at the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Washington, DC, and Palo Alto, Calif. We established fitness categories based on peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved. During a median 8.1 years of follow-up (range, 0.1 to 25.3), there were 2137 deaths. Baseline exercise capacity was 6.3+/-2.4 METs among survivors and 5.3+/-2.0 METs in those who died (P<0.001) and emerged as a strong predictor of mortality. For each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity, the adjusted hazard for death was 12% lower (hazard ratio=0.88; confidence interval, 0.86 to 0.90). Compared with the least fit individuals (< or =4 METs), the mortality risk was 38% lower for those who achieved 5.1 to 6.0 METs (hazard ratio=0.62; confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.71) and progressively declined to 61% (hazard ratio=0.39; confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.49) for those who achieved >9 METs, regardless of age. Unfit individuals who improved their fitness status with serial testing had a 35% lower mortality risk (hazard ratio=0.65; confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.93) compared with those who remained unfit.
Exercise capacity is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in older men. The relationship is inverse and graded, with most survival benefits achieved in those with an exercise capacity >5 METs. Survival improved significantly when unfit individuals became fit.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure is associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT/VF). Fluid accumulation during worsened heart failure may trigger VT/VF. Increased intrathoracic impedance has been correlated with fluid accumulation during heart failure. Implanted defibrillators capable of daily measures of intrathoracic impedance allow correlation of impedance with occurrence of VT/VF. We hypothesized that VT/VF episodes are preceded by decreases in intrathoracic impedance. The goal was to identify the relationship of intrathoracic impedance measured by implanted cardioverter defibrillators to the occurrence of VT/VF.
Implanted defibrillator follow-up data were obtained retrospectively. Those with Medtronic OptiVol (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA), storing averaged daily and reference impedance values, were reviewed for VT/VF episodes. Impedance changes in the week leading up to VT/VF were analyzed.
A total of 317 VT/VF episodes in a cohort of 121 patients' follow-up data were evaluated. Averaged daily intrathoracic impedance declined preceding 64% of VT/VF episodes, with an average decline of 0.46 +/- 0.35 Ohms from the day before the VT/VF episodes. However, the mean values of the averaged daily and reference impedance did not change significantly. A novel measure, DeltaTI, the sum of the daily differences between the averaged daily and reference impedance, was negative preceding 66% of VT/VF episodes (P < 0.001). The mean DeltaTI was -4.0 +/- 1.3 Ohms, which was significantly lower than the theoretically expected value of zero Ohms (P < 0.01).
(1) Averaged daily impedance declined preceding 64% of VT/VF episodes, but the overall decline was of small magnitude; (2) a novel measure, DeltaTI, was negative preceding 66% of VT/VF episodes, and significantly below zero.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 03/2010; 33(8):960-6. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Right ventricular pacing (RVP) has been associated with adverse outcomes, including heart failure and death. Minimizing RVP has been proposed as a therapeutic goal for a variety of pacing devices and indications. Objective. Quantify survival according to frequency of RVP in veterans with pacemakers. Methods. We analyzed electrograms from transtelephonic monitoring of veterans implanted with pacemakers between 1995 and 2005 followed by the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center. We compared all cause mortality and time to death between patients with less than 20% and more than 80% RVP. Results. Analysis was limited to the 7198 patients with at least six trans-telephonic monitoring records (mean = 21). Average follow-up was 5.3 years. Average age at pacemaker implant was significantly lower among veterans with <20% RVP (67 years versus 72 years; P < .0001). An equal proportion of deaths during follow-up were noted for each group: 126/565 patients (22%) with <20% RVP and 1113/4968 patients (22%) with >80% RVP. However, average post-implant survival was 4.3 years with <20% RVP versus 4.7 years with >80% RVP (P < .0001). Conclusions. Greater frequency (>80%) of RVP was not associated with higher mortality in this population of veterans. Those veterans utilizing <20% RVP had a shortened adjusted survival rate (P = .0016).
Cardiology research and practice. 01/2010; 2010:310768.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defibrillator implanters have adopted different approaches to managing failures of multicomponent implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads. Although recent publications identified single-component failures as common mechanisms of failure, there are no published data regarding how best to manage these failures.
An internet-based survey was conducted to identify current management strategies. Questions were asked regarding isolated failure of a high-voltage coil or of a pace/sense electrode, in order to identify the frequency of various techniques to correct these failures.
A worldwide query collected strategies from 376 physicians identifying themselves as ICD-implanting physicians. Replies came from 28 countries, with the USA accounting for 83.2%. The survey was completed by 85.6% of respondents. Implant experience was >10 years for 61.1%, 3-10 years for 29.1%, and <3 years for 10.4%. When the right ventricular coil failed, 52% abandoned and 48% explanted the failed lead. In superior vena cava coil failure, 61.2% chose to simply exclude this coil, using the other intact lead components. For pace/sense defects, 53.1% chose to implant a new pace/sense lead or switch sensing electrodes, using the intact lead components. Medical literature (76.1%), personal experience (67.6%), and professional guidelines (63.7%) were strong decision-making influences.
(1) Management decisions for single-component failures of ICD leads are complex; (2) Significant differences in management strategy exist among physicians; (3) Medical literature and professional guidelines are strong influences for these decisions; (4) A lead failure registry could help identify reasons for such differences and help guide management.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 09/2009; 32(9):1130-41. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the case of a 77-year-old man with hypertension, diabetes, ischemic cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and an extensive device history. In May 2005, he underwent implantation of a right-sided biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) system (Medtronic Insync Maximo 7303), Capsure Fix Novus 4076 atrial lead (Medtronic), Sprint Fidelis 6949 right ventricular (RV) dual coil ICD lead (Medtronic), and Attain OTW Bipolar 4194 left ventricular (LV) lead (Medtronic). In September 2007, he was using his right arm to dig a ditch and lay bricks. The next day while holding up a newspaper to read, he received multiple shocks. He was taken to a local emergency room where his ICD was reprogrammed to prevent shocks, and he was transferred to our facility for management.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 08/2008; 31(7):899-903. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exercise capacity is inversely related to mortality risk in healthy individuals and those with cardiovascular diseases. This evidence is based largely on white populations, with little information available for blacks.
We assessed the association between exercise capacity and mortality in black (n=6749; age, 58+/-11 years) and white (n=8911; age, 60+/-11 years) male veterans with and without cardiovascular disease who successfully completed a treadmill exercise test at the Veterans Affairs Medical Centers in Washington, DC, and Palo Alto, Calif. Fitness categories were based on peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved. Subjects were followed up for all-cause mortality for 7.5+/-5.3 years. Among clinical and exercise test variables, exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of risk for mortality. The adjusted risk was reduced by 13% for every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 0.88; P<0.001). Compared with those who achieved <5 METs, the mortality risk was approximately 50% lower for those with an exercise capacity of 7.1 to 10 METs (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.56; P<0.001) and 70% lower for those achieving >10 METs (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.36; P<0.001). The findings were similar for those with and without cardiovascular disease and for both races.
Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in blacks and whites. The relationship was inverse and graded, with a similar impact on mortality outcomes for both blacks and whites.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure complicated by atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with excessive mortality and morbidity. The aim of the study was to determine the role of amiodarone or implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) in patients with AF and heart failure.
Patients were determined to be in sinus rhythm (SR) or AF on the baseline electrocardiogram. Mortality, ICD discharge, or change in rhythm was assessed.
Of the 2521 patients at baseline, 2328 were in SR and 173 were in AF. Overall, after adjusting for differences in baseline variables, there was no difference in mortality between patients with SR and patients with AF (P = .98), nor within assigned groups: placebo (P) (P = .82), amiodarone (A) (P = .68), and ICD (P = .40). For patients with SR, ICD decreased mortality (P vs ICD, P = .004; A vs ICD, P = .004; P vs A, P = .75). For patients with AF, there were no differences in mortality among groups (P vs ICD, P = .99; A vs ICD, P = .88; P vs A, P = .88). Of patients with SR at baseline, 11% (264) developed AF by any electrocardiogram during follow-up (P 12%, A 8%, ICD 15%; A vs P, P = .019; A vs ICD, P = .001; P vs ICD, P = .044). Of patients with AF, 70% (121) developed SR during follow-up (P 66%, A 67%, ICD 75%, all P = not significant against each other). Any ICD shock was seen in 52% (34) of patients with AF vs 30% (222) of patients with SR (P = .001). Inappropriate shocks were seen in 37% (24) of patients with AF vs 14% (107) of patients with SR (P = .001). Appropriate shocks were more often seen in AF vs SR (P = .03).
After adjustments for baseline differences, patients with AF and patients with SR have similar overall mortality rates. Compared to P or A, ICD improves survival in patients with SR, but may not in patients with AF. Amiodarone is effective in reducing new AF, but not in converting AF to SR. Implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, inappropriate, and appropriate shocks were more often seen in AF than in SR.
American heart journal 12/2006; 152(5):974.e7-11. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Implantable pacemaker cardioverter defibrillators are now available with biphasic waveforms, which have been shown to markedly improve defibrillation thresholds (DFTs). However, in a number of patients the DFT remains high. Also, DFT may increase after implantation, especially if antiarrhythmic drugs are added. We report on the use of a subcutaneous patch in the pectoral position in 15 patients receiving a transvenous defibrillator as a method of easily reducing the DFT. A 660-mm2 patch electrode was placed beneath the generator in a pocket created on the pectoral fascia. The energy required for defibrillation was lowered by 56% on average, and the system impedance was lowered by a mean of 25%. This maneuver allowed all patients to undergo a successful implant with adequate safety margin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a ventricular tachycardia (VT) induction site has a shorter action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP) than a noninducing site, resulting in collision against longer ERP ("upstream") as opposed to shorter ERP ("downstream," no collision).
Induction of sustained VT is often feasible at one stimulation site while application of an identical pacing protocol to another site fails to provoke VT.
Sixty-nine patients undergoing programmed stimulation for VT inducibility had monophasic action potential recording/pacing catheters placed in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and right ventricular apex (RVA) simultaneously. Up to three extra-stimuli were introduced in 5 to 10 ms decrements until ERP was reached. Upon completion of a drive cycle at one stimulation site, it was repeated at the other.
Thirty-eight patients had inducible VT, nine exclusively by RVA pacing and nine exclusively by RVOT pacing. Action potential duration and ERP at the induction site were significantly shorter (12 +/- 15 ms, p <0.05 and 22 +/- 14 ms, p < 0.01, respectively, at 600 ms basic cycle length) than at the noninduction site. Dispersion of repolarization between corresponding APD at the two sites was 58 +/- 41 ms during baseline stimulation (S1) at the inducing site but only 37 +/- 23 ms at the noninducing site (p < 0.05). Dispersion increased during extra-stimulus application (p < 0.05), reaching a maximum of 75 +/- 45 ms during VT induction, but only 53 +/- 33 ms during extra-stimulation at the noninduction site.
Site specificity of VT induction underscores the role of dispersion of repolarization and refractoriness in facilitating re-entry arrhythmias. Upstream stimulation at a site with short repolarization produces larger dispersion and facilitates VT induction.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2002; 40(4):731-6. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that prolongation of the QRS duration (>120 ms) is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between QRS duration and survival in patients with heart failure.
We performed a retrospective analysis to examine the association between QRS prolongation (> or =120 ms) and mortality. The study population included 669 patients with heart failure. Two groups, on the basis of baseline QRS duration <120 milliseconds or > or =120 milliseconds, were identified. The groups were compared with respect to total mortality and sudden death. Subgroups were also stratified by right bundle branch block and left bundle branch block, ejection fraction (EF) <30% and > or =30% to 40%, ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, amiodarone and placebo.
Prolonged QRS was associated with a significant increase in mortality (49.3% vs 34.0%, P =.0001) and sudden death (24.8% vs 17.4%, P =.0004). Left bundle branch block was associated with worse survival (P =.006) but not sudden death. In patients with an EF <30%, QRS prolongation continued to be associated with a significant increase in mortality (51.6% vs 41.1%, P =.01) and sudden death (28.8% vs 21.1%, P =.02). In those with an EF of 30% to 40%, QRS prolongation was associated with a significant increase in mortality (42.7% vs 23.3%, P =.0036) but not in sudden death (13.3% vs 12.0%, P =.625). After adjustment for baseline variables, independent predictors of mortality were found to be prolongation of QRS (P =.0028, risk ratio 1.46) and depressed EF (P =.0001, risk ratio 0.965). Age, type of cardiomyopathy, and drug treatment group were not predictive of mortality.
QRS prolongation is an independent predictor of both increased total mortality and sudden death in patients with heart failure.
American heart journal 06/2002; 143(6):1085-91. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a ventricular tachycardia (VT) induction site has a shorter action potential duration (APD) and effective refractory period (ERP) than a noninducing site, resulting in collision against longer ERP (“upstream”) as opposed to shorter ERP (“downstream,” no collision).
Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2002; 40(4):731-736.