Patrick M McCarthy

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States

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Publications (491)2065.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The recently implemented integrated 6-year (I-6) format represents a significant change in cardiothoracic surgical residency training. We report the results of the first nationwide survey assessing I-6 program directors' impressions of this new format. A 28-question web-based survey was distributed to program directors of all 24 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited I-6 training programs in November 2013. The response rate was a robust 67%. Compared with graduates of traditional residencies, most I-6 program directors with enrolled residents believed that their graduates will be better trained (67%), be better prepared for new technological advances (67%), and have superior comprehension of cardiothoracic disease processes (83%). Just as with traditional program graduates, most respondents believed their I-6 graduates would be able to independently perform routine adult cardiac and general thoracic operations (75%) and were equivocal on whether additional specialty training (eg, minimally invasive, heart failure, aortic) was necessary. Most respondents did not believe that less general surgical training disadvantaged I-6 residents in terms of their career (83%); 67% of respondents would have chosen the I-6 format for themselves if given the choice. The greater challenges in training less mature and experienced trainees and vulnerability to attrition were noted as disadvantages of the I-6 format. Most respondents believed that I-6 programs represent a natural evolution toward improved residency training rather than a response to declining interest among medical school graduates. High satisfaction rates with the I-6 format were prevalent among I-6 program directors. However, concerns with respect to training relatively less experienced, mature trainees were evident.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 04/2014; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the diagnostic utility of three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in identifying prolapsing mitral valve (MV) scallops, and (2) to compare two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 3DMPR to (2D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) approaches among patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP).Methods Fifty-five patients with MVP who underwent MV repair or replacement were retrospectively analyzed using 3 types of echocardiographic studies (2DTEE, 2DTTE, 3DMPR). The operative (OR) findings were considered the gold standard.ResultsWhen 3DMPR was combined with 2DTTE, the agreement with the OR findings was moderately strong for the A2 scallop (P < 0.001) and strong for the A3 scallop (P = 0.001), entire anterior leaflet (P < 0.001), P2 scallop (P < 0.001) and the entire posterior leaflet (P < 0.001). In comparison to the OR findings, 2DTEE demonstrated moderately strong agreement for the A2 scallop (P = 0.010) and the entire anterior leaflet (P < 0.001), and strong agreement for the P2 scallop (P < 0.001) and entire posterior leaflet (P < 0.001).Conclusions Three-dimensional MPR should be added to the armamentarium of complementary echo techniques in the evaluation of MVP. There is increased benefit in combining 3DMPR with 2DTTE findings as part of the preoperative evaluation of patients with MVP.
    Echocardiography 04/2014; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease is associated with aortic dilatation and aneurysm (AN) formation. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2006 guidelines recommend replacement of the ascending aorta for an aortic diameter (AD) > 45 mm in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR). We evaluated the outcomes of AVR and AVR with aortic replacement (AVR/AN). We retrospectively reviewed (2004-2011) the data from 456 patients with BAV and compared the morbidity and mortality between the AVR and AVR/AN groups and 3 subgroups: AVR with an AD < 45 mm; AVR/AN with an AD of 45 to 49 mm; and AVR/AN with an AD of ≥50 mm. Propensity score matching was used to reduce bias. Of the 456 patients, 250 (55%) underwent AVR and 206 (45%) AVR/AN, with 98% compliance with the current guidelines. The overall 30-day mortality was 0.9%. The AVR AD < 45-mm group had adjusted short- and medium-term survival similar to that of the AVR/AN AD 45- to 49-mm and AVR/AN AD ≥ 50-mm groups, with a 30-day mortality of 0.8%, 0%, and 1.9%, respectively (P = .41). The propensity score-matched AVR/AN AD ≥ 50-mm group had significantly greater rates of reintubation than either the AVR AD < 45-mm (P = .012) or AVR/AN AD 45- to 49-mm (P = .04) group and greater rates of prolonged ventilation (P = .022) than the AVR AD < 45-mm group. No significant differences were found in reoperation or myocardial infarction among the subgroups. In patients with undergoing AVR, no increase was seen in morbidity or mortality when adding aortic replacement with an AD of 45 to 49 mm, in accordance with the 2006 ACC/AHA guidelines, although the AVR/AN AD ≥ 50-mm group had a greater risk of respiratory complications. Our findings indicate that compliance with the ACC/AHA guidelines is safe in select centers.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2014; · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • SCMR; 01/2014
  • Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 01/2014; 7(1):210. · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic 3D blood flow was analyzed to investigate altered ascending aorta (AAo) hemodynamics in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients and its association with differences in cusp fusion patterns (right-left, RL versus right-noncoronary, RN) and expression of aortopathy. 4D flow MRI measured in vivo 3D blood flow in the aorta of 75 subjects: BAV patients with aortic dilatation stratified by leaflet fusion pattern (n=15 RL-BAV, mid AAo diameter=39.9±4.4mm; n=15 RN-BAV, 39.6±7.2mm); aorta size controls with tricuspid aortic valves (n=30, 41.1±4.4mm); healthy volunteers (n=15, 24.9±3.0mm). Aortopathy type (0-3), systolic flow angle, flow displacement, and regional wall shear stress (WSS) were determined for all subjects. Eccentric outflow jet patterns in BAV patients resulted in elevated regional WSS (p<0.0125) at the right-anterior walls for RL-BAV and right-posterior walls for RN-BAV compared to aorta size controls. Dilatation of the aortic root only (type 1) or involving the entire AAo and arch (type 3) was found in the majority of RN-BAV patients (87%) but was mostly absent for RL-BAV (87% type 2). Differences in aortopathy type between RL-BAV and RN-BAV were associated with altered flow displacement in the proximal and mid AAo for type 1 (42-81% decrease versus type 2) and distal AAo for type 3 (33-39% increase versus type 2). The presence and type of BAV fusion was associated with changes in regional WSS distribution, systolic flow eccentricity, and expression of BAV aortopathy. Hemodynamic markers suggest a physiologic mechanism by which valve morphology phenotype can influence phenotypes of BAV aortopathy.
    Circulation 12/2013; · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To provide a more complete characterization of aortic blood flow in patients following valve-sparing aortic root replacement (VSARR) compared with presurgical cohorts matched by tricuspid and bicuspid valve morphology, age and presurgical aorta size. Four-dimensional (4D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to analyse three-dimensional (3D) blood flow in the thoracic aorta of n = 13 patients after VSARR with reimplantation of native tricuspid aortic valve (TAV, n = 6) and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV, n = 7). Results were compared with presurgical age and aortic size-matched control cohorts with TAV (n = 10) and BAV (n = 10). Pre- and post-surgical aortic flow was evaluated using time-resolved 3D pathlines using a blinded grading system (0-2, 0 = small, 1 = moderate and 2 = prominent) analysing ascending aortic (AAo) helical flow. Systolic flow profile uniformity in the aortic root, proximal and mid-AAo was evaluated using a four-quadrant model. Further analysis in nine analysis planes distributed along the thoracic aorta quantified peak systolic velocity, retrograde fraction and peak systolic flow acceleration. Pronounced AAo helical flow in presurgical control subjects (both BAV and TAV: helix grading = 1.8 ± 0.4) was significantly reduced (0.2 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) in cohorts after VSARR independent of aortic valve morphology. Presurgical AAo flow was highly eccentric for BAV patients but more uniform for TAV. VSARR resulted in less eccentric flow profiles. Systolic peak velocities were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in post-root repair BAV patients throughout the aorta (six of nine analysis planes) and to a lesser extent in TAV patients (three of nine analysis planes). BAV reimplantation resulted in significantly increased peak velocities in the proximal AAo compared with root repair with TAV (2.3 ± 0.6 vs 1.6 ± 0.4 m/s, P = 0.017). Post-surgical patients showed a non-significant trend towards higher systolic flow acceleration as a surrogate measure of reduced aortic compliance. VSARR restored a cohesive flow pattern independent of native valve morphology but resulted in increased peak velocities throughout the aorta. 4D flow MRI methods can assess the clinical implications of altered aortic flow dynamics in patients undergoing VSARR.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 12/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of aortic valve morphology on aortic hemodynamics between normal tricuspid and congenitally anomalous aortic valves ranging from unicuspid to quadricuspid morphology. Aortic three-dimensional (3D) blood flow was evaluated by 4D flow MRI in 14 healthy volunteers with normal trileaflet valves and 14 patients with unicuspid (n = 3), bicuspid (n = 9, 3 "true" bicuspid, 3 right-left (RL), 3 right-noncoronary (RN) leaflet fusion, and quadricuspid aortic valves (n = 2). Data analysis included the co-registered visualization of aortic valve morphology with systolic 3D blood flow. The influence of valve morphology on aortic hemodynamics was quantified by valve flow angle. All RL-bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) were associated with flow jets directed toward the right anterior aortic wall while RN-fusion and unicuspid valves resulted in flow jet patterns toward the right-posterior or posterior wall. Flow angles were clearly influenced by valve morphology (47° ± 10, 28° ± 2, 29° ± 18, 18° ± 12, 15° ± 2 for unicuspid, true BAV, RN-BAV, RL-BAV, quadricuspid valves) and increased compared with controls (7.2° ± 1.1, P = 0.001). Altered 3D aortic hemodynamics are impacted by the morphology of congenitally malformed aortic valves.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 11/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present a theoretical basis for noninvasively characterizing in vivo fluid-mechanical energy losses and to apply it in a pilot study of patients known to express abnormal aortic flow patterns. Four-dimensional flow MRI was used to characterize laminar viscous energy losses in the aorta of normal controls (n = 12, age = 37 ± 10 yr), patients with aortic dilation (n = 16, age = 52 ± 8 yr), and patients with aortic valve stenosis matched for age and aortic size (n = 14, age = 46 ± 15 yr), using a relationship between the three-dimensional velocity field and viscous energy dissipation. Viscous energy loss was elevated significantly in the thoracic aorta in patients with dilated aorta (3.6 ± 1.3 mW, P = 0.024) and patients with aortic stenosis (14.3 ± 8.2 mW, P < 0.001) compared with healthy volunteers (2.3 ± 0.9 mW). The same pattern of significant differences was seen in the ascending aorta, where viscous energy losses in patients with dilated aortas (2.2 ± 1.1 mW, P = 0.021) and patients with aortic stenosis (10.9 ± 6.8 mW, P < 0.001) were elevated compared with healthy volunteers (1.2 ± 0.6 mW). This technique provides a capability to quantify the contribution of abnormal laminar blood flow to increased ventricular afterload. In this pilot study, viscous energy loss in patient cohorts was significantly elevated and indicates that cardiac afterload is increased due to abnormal flow. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 10/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -The prevalence of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) and its impact on survival after aortic valve replacement (AVR) have not been clearly defined. Historically, presence of PPM was identified from postoperative echocardiograms or pre-operative manufacturer-provided charts, resulting in wide discrepancies. The 2009 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) guidelines proposed an algorithmic approach to calculate PPM. This study compared PPM prevalence and its impact on survival using three modalities: (i) the ASE guidelines-suggested algorithm (ASE PPM); (ii) the manufacturer-provided charts (M PPM); and (iii) the echocardiographically-measured, body surface area-indexed, effective orifice area (EOAi PPM) measurement. -614 patients underwent AVR with bovine pericardial valves from 2004 to 2009 and had normal preoperative systolic function. EOAi PPM was severe if EOAi was ≤0.60 cm(2)/m(2), moderate if EOAi was 0.60-0.85 cm(2)/m(2), and absent (none) if EOAi was ≥0.85 cm(2)/m(2). ASE PPM was severe in 22 (3.6%), moderate in 6 (1%), and absent (none) in 586 (95.4%). ASE PPM was similar to M PPM (p=1.00). ASE PPM differed significantly from EOAi PPM (p<0.001), which identified severe mismatch in 170 (29.7%), moderate in 191 (33.4%), and absent (none) in 211 patients (36.9%). Irrespective of the PPM classification method, PPM did not adversely affect mid-term survival (average follow-up 4.1±1.8 years, median 3.9 years, range 0.01 to 8 years). There were no reoperations for PPM. -In patients with normal systolic function undergoing bovine pericardial AVR, the prevalence of PPM using the algorithmic-ASE approach was low and correlates well with manufacturer-provided PPM. Independent of the method of PPM assessment, PPM was not associated with medium-term mortality.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 08/2013; · 5.80 Impact Factor
  • Patrick M McCarthy
    Circulation 08/2013; 128(6):653-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Randomized controlled trials of permanent atrial fibrillation ablation surgery have shown improved outcomes compared with control patients undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery. Little has been reported regarding patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. We hypothesized that treating paroxysmal atrial fibrillation during cardiac surgery would not adversely affect the perioperative risk and would improve the midterm outcomes. From April 2004 to June 30 2012, 4947 patients (excluding those with transcatheter aortic valve implants, left ventricular assist devices, trauma, transplantation, and isolated atrial fibrillation surgery) underwent cardiac surgery, and 1150 (23%) had preoperative atrial fibrillation. Of these, 552 (48%) had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Three groups were compared using propensity score matching: treated (n = 423, 77%), untreated (n = 129, 23%), and no atrial fibrillation (n = 3797). The treated patients had 30-day mortality similar to that of the untreated patients and those without atrial fibrillation. They had fewer perioperative complications (26% vs 46%, P = .001), greater freedom from atrial fibrillation at the last follow-up visit (81% vs 60%, P = .007), and lower mortality (hazard ratio 0.47, P = .007) compared with the untreated patients. Compared with those without atrial fibrillation, the treated patients had fewer perioperative complications (25% vs 48%, P < .001), lower freedom from atrial fibrillation at the last follow-up visit (84% vs 93%, P = .001), and similar mortality. Concomitant surgical ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was not associated with increased perioperative risk. The treated patients had greater late freedom from atrial fibrillation and midterm survival compared with the untreated patients, and similar midterm survival compared with the patients without atrial fibrillation. These results suggest that paroxysmal atrial fibrillation warrants treatment consideration in select patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 07/2013; · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Given declining interest in cardiothoracic (CT) training programs during the last decade, increasing emphasis has been placed on engaging candidates early in their training. We examined the effect of supervised and unsupervised practice on medical students' interest in CT surgery. METHODS: Forty-five medical students participated in this study. Participants' interest level in surgery, CT surgery, and simulation were collected before and after a pretest session. Subsequently, participants were randomized to one of three groups: control (n = 15), unsupervised training on a low-fidelity task simulator (n = 15), or supervised training with a CT surgeon or fellow on the same simulator (n = 15). After 3 weeks, attitudes were reassessed at a posttest session. Interest levels were compared before and after the pretest using paired t tests, and the effects of training on interests were assessed with multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: After the pretest session, participants were significantly more interested in simulation (p = 0.001) but not in surgery or CT surgery. After training, compared with control group participants, supervised trainees demonstrated a significant increase in their interest level in pursuing a career in surgery (p = 0.028) and an increasing trend towards a career in CT surgery (p = 0.060), whereas unsupervised trainees did not. CONCLUSIONS: Supervised training on low-fidelity simulators enhances interest in a career in surgery. Practice that lacks supervision does not, possibly related to the complexity of the simulated task. Mentorship efforts may need to involve sustained interaction to provide medical students with enough exposure to appreciate a surgical career.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2013; 95(6):2057-2063. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 06/2013; 145(6):1682. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) infections continue to present a serious challenge in both the destination therapy and the bridge to transplant patient populations. As devices are supporting patients longer due to increased durability, infections can evolve and worsen over time. Complex infections, resistant to standard pharmacologic management, require a more aggressive approach to treatment. A series of patients supported by HeartMate II (HMII) LVADs, treated for multidrug resistant complex driveline infections, failed antibiotic therapy and then underwent device exchange. In each case, the HMII device was exchanged for a HeartWare HVAD as we felt its small size and flexible driveline were advantageous properties when dealing with patients with a complex driveline or pump infection.
    ASAIO journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs: 1992) 03/2013; 59(2):188-92. · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation requires substantial personal, financial, and psychosocial resources. Using an existing multisite data set, we examined predictors of mortality at 5 to 10 years after heart transplantation. METHODS: All 555 participants completed a self-report quality of life instrument. Of these patients, 55 (10%) died 5 to 10 years after heart transplantation. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Cox proportional hazard modeling. RESULTS: Educational level and higher levels of social and economic satisfaction were predictive of improved survival. Conversely, married status, more cumulative infections, the presence of hematologic disorders, higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, and poor adherence to medical care predicted worse survival. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and behavioral factors were important predictors of long-term survival after heart transplantation. These findings have important implications for patient selection for heart transplantation, as well as for posttransplantation care.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 01/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 01/2013; 15(1). · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 01/2013; 15(1). · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The classic cut and sew maze is thought to reduce stroke, in part because of left atrial appendage (LAA) elimination. Multiple LAA elimination techniques have evolved with the introduction of new surgical treatment options for atrial fibrillation (AF), but the impact on stroke remains unknown. We studied the rate of late neurologic event (LNE) in the era of contemporary AF surgery. METHODS: From April 21, 2004, to June 30, 2011, 773 patients underwent surgery for AF. In 131 patients, the LAA was excised. In 579, alternative elimination techniques were used (97 external ligation, 313 internal ligation, 126 stapled excision, 23 stapled excision plus internal ligation, 5 internal plus external ligations, and 15 that did not fit into any category); 63 LAAs were left intact and excluded from analyses. Complete follow-up was obtained by medical record review and phone call. Median survival follow-up was 3.3 years (first and third quartiles, 1.6 and 5.0). An LNE was defined as either a documented stroke or transient ischemic attack 30 or more days after surgery. Baseline characteristics and outcomes between LAA techniques were compared using χ(2), Fisher's exact tests, and Student's t tests. RESULTS: There were 25 LNEs (3.5%) overall; the median occurrence time was 3.6 years (first and third quartiles, 1.9 and 5.4) after surgery. There were 17 strokes and 8 transient ischemic attacks. Of 45 demographic and surgical variables, only age, aortic valve surgery, and perioperative neurologic event (<30 days after cardiac surgery) independently predicted LNE (p = 0.003, 0.021, and 0.010, respectively). Late neurologic events occurred with an annual rate of 1.13% in patients with alternative elimination techniques, and 0.20% in patients with excised LAA (p = 0.001). Patients in AF at any time were more likely to have LNE, but this was not an independent predictor. CONCLUSIONS: After surgery for AF ablation, there is ongoing low risk of LNE even when the LAA is surgically excised. Further investigation should be pursued to clarify whether a difference exists with alternative elimination techniques and in patients in whom AF is successfully eliminated.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Edwin C McGee, Patrick M McCarthy
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to examine the appropriateness of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for the patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. CABG is the gold standard therapy for patients with advanced multivessel and left main coronary artery disease. A critical analysis of the Surgical Treatment of Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) trial confirms the benefit of CABG for patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. CABG can be safely applied to patients with heart failure and provides benefit for appropriately selected patients.
    Current opinion in cardiology 10/2012; 27(6):629-33. · 2.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
2,065.19 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2013
    • Northwestern University
      • • Division of Cardiac Surgery
      • • Feinberg School of Medicine
      • • Division of Thoracic Surgery
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Rice University
      • Department of Bioengineering
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Northwestern Memorial Hospital
      • Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2008
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Cardiac Sciences
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 1994–2007
    • Cleveland Clinic
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Medicine
      • • Department of Cardiology
      • • Transplant Center
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 2006
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2001–2006
    • Lerner Research Institute
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2004
    • AtriCure, Inc.
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2002
    • Cleveland State University
      • Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • Università degli Studi dell'Aquila
      • Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health
      Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 1995–2001
    • Texas Heart Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Surgery
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering
      Cleveland, OH, United States
  • 1999
    • Ochsner
      • Department of Cardiology
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 1993–1999
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Columbus, Ohio, United States