Patrick M McCarthy

Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, United States

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Publications (529)3045.66 Total impact

  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/2015; 65(25):2767-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.04.034 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gender disparities in short- and long-term outcomes have been documented in cardiac and valvular heart surgery. However, there is a paucity of data regarding these differences in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) population. The aim of this study was to examine gender-specific differences in short- and long-term outcomes after surgical aortic valve (AV) replacement in patients with BAV. A retrospective analysis was performed in 628 consecutive patients with BAV who underwent AV surgery from April 2004 to December 2013. To reduce bias when comparing outcomes by gender, propensity score matching obtained on the basis of potential confounders was used. Women with BAV who underwent AV surgery presented with more advanced age (mean 60.7 ± 13.8 vs 56.3 ± 13.6 years, p <0.001) and less aortic regurgitation (29% vs 44%, p <0.001) and had a higher risk for in-hospital mortality (mean Ambler score 3.4 ± 4.4 vs 2.5 ± 4.0, p = 0.015). After propensity score matching, women received more blood products postoperatively (48% vs 34%, p = 0.028) and had more prolonged postoperative lengths of stay (median 5 days [interquartile range 5 to 7] vs 5 days [interquartile range 4 to 6], p = 0.027). Operative, discharge, and 30-day mortality and overall survival were not significantly different. In conclusion, women with BAV who underwent AV surgery were older, presented with less aortic regurgitation, and had increased co-morbidities, lending higher operative risk. Although women received more blood products and had significantly longer lengths of stay, short- and long-term outcomes were similar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American journal of cardiology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.04.017 · 3.43 Impact Factor
  • Patrick M McCarthy
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2015; 65(18). DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.01.058 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac papillary fibroelastoma is a rare, benign tumor, arising predominantly from cardiac valves. This tumor can cause a variety of symptoms due to thromboembolism. We describe our single-center surgical experience with papillary fibroelastoma of the aortic valve. From April 2004 through June 2013, 6,530 patients underwent cardiac surgery. Of those, 6,098 patients were included in the final analysis. Twenty-one patients (0.34%) underwent surgical resection of 30 papillary fibroelastomas of the aortic valve. Most patients (67%) were incidentally diagnosed to have cardiac papillary fibroelastoma. The usual symptom was cerebral infarction (in 5 of 7 symptomatic patients). A rare presentation of papillary fibroelastoma in one patient was cardiac arrest caused by left main coronary artery ostial obstruction. Tumor size was not related to patient age (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.34; P=0.13). Neither the number of tumors (1.43 ± 0.72 vs 1.43 ± 0.62) nor tumor size (8.14 ± 2.42 vs 8.07 ± 3.31 mm) was significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. All lesions were resected by means of the simple shave technique. There were no operative or 30-day deaths. Follow-up echocardiograms showed no tumor recurrence (mean follow-up duration, 17 ± 14 mo). We identified no significant relationship among tumor size, number of tumors, symptoms, or patient age. Because simple shave excision of the tumor can be safely achieved without evidence of tumor recurrence, we conclude that surgical resection can be reasonable in asymptomatic patients.
    Texas Heart Institute journal / from the Texas Heart Institute of St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital 04/2015; 42(2):131-5. DOI:10.14503/THIJ-14-4262 · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • 04/2015; 3(4):343-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jchf.2014.12.011
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    ABSTRACT: Post-surgical late reinterventions for atrial fibrillation (AF) include cardioversions (CV) or catheter ablations (CA). Commonly used methods for reporting and modeling the frequency and timing of CA or CV have well-known shortcomings. Intuitive and robust methods to visualize, summarize and model late reinterventions type/timing and vital status simultaneously are presented. We present (1) the SMART plot (Summary of Mortality And Outcomes Reported Over Time); (2) the reintervention mean cumulative function (MCF); (3) the proportional means model and the proportional rates model. We illustrate these methods in three groups: patients age ≤ 60, 60 to 75 (reference) and > 75 years who underwent surgical AF ablation. Patients age > 75 years had a significantly lower MCF of CVs (hazard ratio (HR) =0.50, p < 0.001). The MCF for CAs was not significantly lower for patients age > 75 (HR = 0.57, p=0.13). For combined reinterventions (CV or CA), the age > 75 years group had a significantly lower MCF (HR=0.51, p< 0.001). There were no significant differences in late CV or CA reintervention patterns for patients age ≤ 60 years. Methods presented provide a comprehensive framework for displaying, summarizing and modeling repeated late reinterventions after surgical AF ablation. Other areas of application are described, thus further emphasizing the potential for immediate use. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.03.062 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A hemiarch reconstruction, using deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, is the conventional approach for proximal aortic arch reconstruction, but it carries risks of neurologic events and coagulopathy. The addition of a hemiarch reconstruction to an aortic root replacement may prevent future aortic arch pathology. Outcomes of this approach at a tertiary care institution were examined to determine whether the addition of a hemiarch reconstruction to an aortic root replacement conferred any additional risk. A total of 384 patients underwent an aortic root replacement between April 2004 and June 2012. Of them, 177 (46%) had hemiarch replacement. Propensity score matching yielded 133 pairs of patients receiving hemiarch and non-hemiarch. Sinus segment diameter was similar between groups; ascending aortic diameter was greater in the hemiarch group (median 50 vs 44 mm; P < .001). The hemiarch group had longer perfusion (median 186 vs 120.5 minutes; P < .001) and crossclamp times (median 140 vs 104 minutes; P < .001); median circulatory arrest was 13 minutes. There was no difference, hemiarch versus no hemiarch, in 30-day mortality (3.0% vs 1.5%; P = .41), stroke (2.3% vs 4.5%; P = .31), reoperation for bleeding (11% vs 10%; P = .84), or overall survival (5-year 88.0% [95% confidence interval, 81.9-94.0] vs 91.4% [95% confidence interval, 85.8-96.9], P = .24). In this series, aortic root replacement ± hemiarch reconstruction had low mortality. Addition of hemiarch replacement extended perfusion times but not at the expense of safety. Hemiarch reconstruction should be performed when the aortic root aneurysm extends into the distal ascending aorta. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.03.020 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with poor outcomes, but its correction does not reverse the underlying left ventricular (LV) pathology or improve the prognosis. The recently published American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines on valvular heart disease generated considerable controversy by revising the definition of severe secondary MR from an effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) of 0.4 to 0.2 cm(2), and from a regurgitant volume (RVol) of 60 to 30 ml. This paper reviews hydrodynamic determinants of MR severity, showing that EROA and RVol values associated with severe MR depend on LV volume. This explains disparities in the evidence associating a lower EROA threshold with suboptimal survival. Redefining MR severity purely on EROA or RVol may cause significant clinical problems. As the guidelines emphasize, defining severe MR requires careful integration of all echocardiographic and clinical data, as measurement of EROA is imprecise and poorly reproducible. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 12/2014; 64(25):2792-2801. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.10.016 · 15.34 Impact Factor
  • Patrick M McCarthy
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 12/2014; 148(6):2750-1. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.10.071 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of aortic valve morphology on aortic hemodynamics between normal tricuspid and congenitally anomalous aortic valves ranging from unicuspid to quadricuspid morphology. Aortic three-dimensional (3D) blood flow was evaluated by 4D flow MRI in 14 healthy volunteers with normal trileaflet valves and 14 patients with unicuspid (n = 3), bicuspid (n = 9, 3 "true" bicuspid, 3 right-left (RL), 3 right-noncoronary (RN) leaflet fusion, and quadricuspid aortic valves (n = 2). Data analysis included the co-registered visualization of aortic valve morphology with systolic 3D blood flow. The influence of valve morphology on aortic hemodynamics was quantified by valve flow angle. All RL-bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) were associated with flow jets directed toward the right anterior aortic wall while RN-fusion and unicuspid valves resulted in flow jet patterns toward the right-posterior or posterior wall. Flow angles were clearly influenced by valve morphology (47° ± 10, 28° ± 2, 29° ± 18, 18° ± 12, 15° ± 2 for unicuspid, true BAV, RN-BAV, RL-BAV, quadricuspid valves) and increased compared with controls (7.2° ± 1.1, P = 0.001). Altered 3D aortic hemodynamics are impacted by the morphology of congenitally malformed aortic valves.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 12/2014; 40(6). DOI:10.1002/jmri.24498 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    Circulation 11/2014; 130(19):e171. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.010928 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study sought to assess feasibility, safety, and potential efficacy of a novel implantable extra-aortic counterpulsation system (C-Pulse) in functional class III and ambulatory functional class IV heart failure (HF) patients.
    10/2014; 2(5):526-33. DOI:10.1016/j.jchf.2014.04.014
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with high mortality without intervention. The impact of waiting time for aortic valve replacement (AVR), either surgically or transcatheter, has not been reported. Methods. From January 2008 to December 2012, we identified 1,005 patients with severe symptomatic AS. AVR was recommended for 823 patients (82%). Of these 823 patients, 721 (87.6%) underwent AVR. We modeled overall survival (OS) since AVR recommendation or intervention date using Cox and multistate models. Results. Overall, the median (first, third quartiles) waiting time until operation was 2.9 (1.3, 5.1) weeks. Mortality at these times was lower (p < 0.001) in the AVR group (1.2%, 0.3%, 1.7%, respectively) than in the group that did not receive AVR (6.9%, 2.9%, 9.8%, respectively). Thirty-day mortality after AVR was 3.9% (3.2% surgical AVR [SAVR] and 7.0% transcatheter AVR [TAVR]). In patients receiving AVR, waiting time was not associated with increased mortality. Mortality while waiting for AVR was 3.7% and 11.6% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Mortality while waiting for TAVR was higher than that for SAVR (1-, 6-, and 12-month mortality of 3.7%, 8.0%, and 9.6%, respectively, in SAVR group and 3.8%, 23.3%, and 27.5%, respectively, in TAVR group; p < 0.001). Conclusions. Some patients do not receive AVR in a timely fashion, and prolonged waiting time for AVR is associated with mortality greater than the AVR operative mortality. Although waiting time was not associated with poor operative outcomes after AVR, many patients may die while waiting for AVR. Patients should receive AVR on a semiurgent, not elective, basis. (C) 2014 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 09/2014; 98(5). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.06.040 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present a theoretical basis for noninvasively characterizing in vivo fluid-mechanical energy losses and to apply it in a pilot study of patients known to express abnormal aortic flow patterns. Four-dimensional flow MRI was used to characterize laminar viscous energy losses in the aorta of normal controls (n = 12, age = 37 ± 10 yr), patients with aortic dilation (n = 16, age = 52 ± 8 yr), and patients with aortic valve stenosis matched for age and aortic size (n = 14, age = 46 ± 15 yr), using a relationship between the three-dimensional velocity field and viscous energy dissipation. Viscous energy loss was elevated significantly in the thoracic aorta in patients with dilated aorta (3.6 ± 1.3 mW, P = 0.024) and patients with aortic stenosis (14.3 ± 8.2 mW, P < 0.001) compared with healthy volunteers (2.3 ± 0.9 mW). The same pattern of significant differences was seen in the ascending aorta, where viscous energy losses in patients with dilated aortas (2.2 ± 1.1 mW, P = 0.021) and patients with aortic stenosis (10.9 ± 6.8 mW, P < 0.001) were elevated compared with healthy volunteers (1.2 ± 0.6 mW). This technique provides a capability to quantify the contribution of abnormal laminar blood flow to increased ventricular afterload. In this pilot study, viscous energy loss in patient cohorts was significantly elevated and indicates that cardiac afterload is increased due to abnormal flow. Magn Reson Med, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 09/2014; 72(3). DOI:10.1002/mrm.24962 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular septal myectomy in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) has been shown to reduce left ventricular (LV) outflow tract (LVOT) gradient and improve symptoms, although little data exist regarding changes in left atrial (LA) volume and LV diastolic function after myectomy. We investigated changes in LA size and LV diastolic function in patients with HC after septal myectomy from 2004 to 2011. We studied 25 patients (age 49.2 ± 13.1 years, 48% women) followed for a mean of 527 days after surgery who had serial echocardiography at baseline and at most recent follow-up, at least 6 months after myectomy. In addition to myectomy, 3 patients (12%) underwent Maze surgery and 13 (52%) underwent mitral valve surgery, of whom 5 had a mitral valve replacement or mitral annuloplasty. Patients with mitral valve replacement or mitral annuloplasty were excluded from LV diastolic function analysis. LA volume index decreased (from 47.2 ± 17.6 to 35.9 ± 17.0 ml/m(2), p = 0.001) and LV diastolic function improved with an increase in lateral e' velocity (from 7.3 ± 2.9 to 9.8 ± 3.1 cm/sec, p = 0.01) and a decrease in E/e' (from 14.8 ± 6.3 to 11.7 ± 5.5, p = 0.051). Ventricular septal thickness and LVOT gradient decreased, and symptoms of dyspnea and heart failure improved, with reduction in the New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms from 21 (84%) to 1 (4%). In conclusion, relief of LVOT obstruction in HC by septal myectomy results in improved LV diastolic function and reduction in LA volume with improved symptoms.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 08/2014; 114(10). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.08.029 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There exists considerable controversy surrounding the timing and extent of aortic resection for patients with BAV disease. Since abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) is potentially associated with tissue remodeling in BAV-related aortopathy, we propose a methodology that creates patient-specific 'heat maps' of abnormal WSS, based on 4D flow MRI. The heat maps were created by detecting outlier measurements from a volumetric 3D map of ensemble-averaged WSS in healthy controls. 4D flow MRI was performed in 13 BAV patients, referred for aortic resection and 10 age-matched controls. Systolic WSS was calculated from this data, and an ensemble-average and standard deviation (SD) WSS map of the controls was created. Regions of the individual WSS maps of the BAV patients that showed a higher WSS than the mean + 1.96SD of the ensemble-average control WSS map were highlighted. Elevated WSS was found on the greater ascending aorta (35% ± 15 of the surface area), which correlated significantly with peak systolic velocity (R (2) = 0.5, p = 0.01) and showed good agreement with the resected aortic regions. This novel approach to characterize regional aortic WSS may allow clinicians to gain unique insights regarding the heterogeneous expression of aortopathy and may be leveraged to guide patient-specific resection strategies for aorta repair.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 08/2014; 43(6). DOI:10.1007/s10439-014-1092-7 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple techniques have been used to repair degenerative mitral valve prolapse with leaflet elongation, without creating systolic anterior motion. We describe a simple, reproducible, measured technique to guide repair.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.06.075 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The EVEREST II (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge REpair STudy) High-Risk registry and REALISM Continued Access Study High-Risk Arm are prospective registries of patients who received the MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) for mitral regurgitation (MR) in the United States. Objectives The purpose of this study was to report 12-month outcomes in high-risk patients treated with the percutaneous mitral valve edge-to-edge repair. Methods Patients with grades 3 to 4+ MR and a surgical mortality risk of ≥12%, based on the Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk calculator or the estimate of a surgeon coinvestigator following pre-specified protocol criteria, were enrolled. Results In the studies, 327 of 351 patients completed 12 months of follow-up. Patients were elderly (76 ± 11 years of age), with 70% having functional MR and 60% having prior cardiac surgery. The mitral valve device reduced MR to ≤2+ in 86% of patients at discharge (n = 325; p < 0.0001). Major adverse events at 30 days included death in 4.8%, myocardial infarction in 1.1%, and stroke in 2.6%. At 12 months, MR was ≤2+ in 84% of patients (n = 225; p < 0.0001). From baseline to 12 months, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume improved from 161 ± 56 ml to 143 ± 53 ml (n = 203; p < 0.0001) and LV end-systolic volume improved from 87 ± 47 ml to 79 ± 44 ml (n = 202; p < 0.0001). New York Heart Association functional class improved from 82% in class III/IV at baseline to 83% in class I/II at 12 months (n = 234; p < 0.0001). The 36-item Short Form Health Survey physical and mental quality-of-life scores improved from baseline to 12 months (n = 191; p < 0.0001). Annual hospitalization rate for heart failure fell from 0.79% pre-procedure to 0.41% post-procedure (n = 338; p < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival estimate at 12 months was 77.2%. Conclusions The percutaneous mitral valve device significantly reduced MR, improved clinical symptoms, and decreased LV dimensions at 12 months in this high-surgical-risk cohort. (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge REpair STudy [EVERESTIIRCT]; NCT00209274)
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2014; 64(2):172–181. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.12.062 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recently implemented integrated 6-year (I-6) format represents a significant change in cardiothoracic surgical residency training. We report the results of the first nationwide survey assessing I-6 program directors' impressions of this new format. A 28-question web-based survey was distributed to program directors of all 24 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited I-6 training programs in November 2013. The response rate was a robust 67%. Compared with graduates of traditional residencies, most I-6 program directors with enrolled residents believed that their graduates will be better trained (67%), be better prepared for new technological advances (67%), and have superior comprehension of cardiothoracic disease processes (83%). Just as with traditional program graduates, most respondents believed their I-6 graduates would be able to independently perform routine adult cardiac and general thoracic operations (75%) and were equivocal on whether additional specialty training (eg, minimally invasive, heart failure, aortic) was necessary. Most respondents did not believe that less general surgical training disadvantaged I-6 residents in terms of their career (83%); 67% of respondents would have chosen the I-6 format for themselves if given the choice. The greater challenges in training less mature and experienced trainees and vulnerability to attrition were noted as disadvantages of the I-6 format. Most respondents believed that I-6 programs represent a natural evolution toward improved residency training rather than a response to declining interest among medical school graduates. High satisfaction rates with the I-6 format were prevalent among I-6 program directors. However, concerns with respect to training relatively less experienced, mature trainees were evident.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 04/2014; 148(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.04.004 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the diagnostic utility of three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) in identifying prolapsing mitral valve (MV) scallops, and (2) to compare two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 3DMPR to (2D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) approaches among patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP).Methods Fifty-five patients with MVP who underwent MV repair or replacement were retrospectively analyzed using 3 types of echocardiographic studies (2DTEE, 2DTTE, 3DMPR). The operative (OR) findings were considered the gold standard.ResultsWhen 3DMPR was combined with 2DTTE, the agreement with the OR findings was moderately strong for the A2 scallop (P < 0.001) and strong for the A3 scallop (P = 0.001), entire anterior leaflet (P < 0.001), P2 scallop (P < 0.001) and the entire posterior leaflet (P < 0.001). In comparison to the OR findings, 2DTEE demonstrated moderately strong agreement for the A2 scallop (P = 0.010) and the entire anterior leaflet (P < 0.001), and strong agreement for the P2 scallop (P < 0.001) and entire posterior leaflet (P < 0.001).Conclusions Three-dimensional MPR should be added to the armamentarium of complementary echo techniques in the evaluation of MVP. There is increased benefit in combining 3DMPR with 2DTTE findings as part of the preoperative evaluation of patients with MVP.
    Echocardiography 04/2014; 32(1). DOI:10.1111/echo.12608 · 1.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
3,045.66 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2015
    • Northwestern Memorial Hospital
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Northwestern University
      • • Division of Thoracic Surgery
      • • Division of Cardiac Surgery
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Feinberg School of Medicine
      • • Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
    • Rice University
      • Department of Bioengineering
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • Cleveland Clinic Laboratories
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2001–2006
    • Lerner Research Institute
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Psychology
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2004
    • AtriCure, Inc.
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 1993–2004
    • Cleveland Clinic
      • Department of Cardiology
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Florida Health Science Center-Jacksonville
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
    • Stanford University
      • Division of Cardiovascular Medicine
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2002
    • Wake Forest University
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
    • Cleveland State University
      • Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • Università degli Studi dell'Aquila
      • Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health
      Aquila, Abruzzo, Italy
  • 1999
    • Ochsner
      • Department of Cardiology
      New Orleans, LA, United States
  • 1993–1999
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1995
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering
      Cleveland, OH, United States