[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) systems play a crucial role for steady-state tokamak operation, owing to their high current drive (CD) efficiency and hence their capability to reduce flux consumption. This paper describes the extensive technology programmes developed for the Tore Supra (France) and the KSTAR (Korea) tokamaks in order to bring continuous wave (CW) LHCD systems into operation. The Tore Supra LHCD generator at 3.7 GHz is fully CW compatible, with RF power PRF = 9.2 MW available at the generator to feed two actively water-cooled launchers. On Tore Supra, the most recent and novel passive active multijunction (PAM) launcher has sustained 2.7 MW (corresponding to its design value of 25 MW m−2 at the launcher mouth) for a 78 s flat-top discharge, with low reflected power even at large plasma-launcher gaps. The fully active multijunction (FAM) launcher has reached 3.8 MW of coupled power (24 MW m−2 at the launcher mouth) with the new TH2103C klystrons. By combining both the PAM and FAM launchers, 950 MJ of energy, using 5.2 MW of LHCD and 1 MW of ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating), was injected for 160 s in 2011. The 3.7 GHz CW LHCD system will be a key element within the W (for tungsten) environment in steady-state Tokamak (WEST) project, where the aim is to test ITER technologies for high heat flux components in relevant heat flux density and particle fluence conditions. On KSTAR, a 2 MW LHCD system operating at 5 GHz is under development. Recently the 5 GHz prototype klystron has reached 500 kW/600 s on a matched load, and studies are ongoing to design a PAM launcher. In addition to the studies of technology, a combination of ray-tracing and Fokker–Planck calculations have been performed to evaluate the driven current and the power deposition due to LH waves, and to optimize the N∥ spectrum for the future launcher design. Furthermore, an LHCD system at 5 GHz is being considered for a future upgrade of the ITER Heating and Current Drive systems, with a power capability of 20 MW coupled to the plasma using a PAM launcher. An R&D programme is being conducted at CEA/IRFM to develop a BeO vacuum window which is a safety critical component of the transmission line. In addition, a mock-up of a TE10–TE30 mode converter at 5 GHz, designed for a rectangular transmission line, has been manufactured and successfully tested on Tore Supra at low RF power.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In parallel to the direct contribution to the procurement phase of ITER and Broader Approach, CEA has initiated research & development programmes, accompanied by experiments together with a significant modelling effort, aimed at ensuring robust operation, plasma performance, as well as mitigating the risks of the procurement phase. This overview reports the latest progress in both fusion science and technology including many areas, namely the mitigation of superconducting magnet quenches, disruption-generated runaway electrons, edge-localized modes (ELMs), the development of imaging surveillance, and heating and current drive systems for steady-state operation. The WEST (W Environment for Steady-state Tokamaks) project, turning Tore Supra into an actively cooled W-divertor platform open to the ITER partners and industries, is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Negative ion based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) systems which produce powerful high energy hydrogen atom beams are currently used on fusion reactor devices for plasma heating and current drive. To produce sufficient negative ions (NIs), sources with a large surface area are needed for reactor relevant injectors. Plasma source non-uniformity is a recurring issue in the present N-NBI systems, it is mainly due to the transverse magnetic field (filter field) at the front of the source which generates plasma gradients. This paper presents experimental results on a large size arc driven ion source at CEA, called Cybele, the purpose of the experiment is to compare the plasma density distribution (uniformity) between two magnetic confinements, (1) the transverse (horizontal) magnetic filter which is implemented in the present negative ion (NI) sources and (2) a new concept based on the magnetic mirror principle. Experiments show that in Cybele the standard configuration with the horizontal filter field (1) leads to a significant vertical plasma drift with a measured plasma density seven times higher at the top of the source, while the source with the vertical field and mirror-like confinement (2) is vertically uniform within ±10% and can operate at very low filling pressure (0.1 Pa).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A one year-long major upgrade of the 3.7 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) generator for the Tore Supra (TS) tokamak has been performed. It consisted in installing a first series of eight Thales Electron Devices (TED) 700 kW CW klystrons, new CW components and auxiliaries, and in modifying the transmitter control and protection software. Modifications and calibration of the sensors and the RF subsystems were completed as well. Finally, the RF power available in the generator has been increased by 35% and the pulse duration could reach 1000 s. A complete validation and optimization of the klystrons have been performed in 2010 on matched load before the generator could enter into operation. The eight klystrons connected with the Full Active Multijunction (FAM) antenna delivered 3.5 MW/50s in December 2010. The upgrade of the generator and the steps to validate the modifications are described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the framework of the Broader Approach Activities, the EU will deliver to Japan the 18 superconducting coils, which constitute the JT-60SA Toroidal field magnet. These 18 coils, manufactured by France and Italy, will be cold tested before shipping to Japan. For this purpose, the European Joint Undertaking for ITER, the Development of Fusion Energy (“Fusion for Energy”, F4E) and the European Voluntary Contributors are collaborating to design and set-up a coil test facility (CTF) and to perform the acceptance test of the 18 JT-60SA Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The test facility is designed to test one coil at a time at nominal current and cryogenic temperature. The test of the first coil of each manufacturer includes a quench triggered by increasing the temperature.The project is presently in the detailed design phase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First CW test bed, devoted for ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH), is being built at CEA Cadarache. It has been designed for testing the ICRH antenna sub assemblies under ITER relevant conditions (vacuum, cooling and RF).This paper presents a technical overview of these facilities and discusses their future operations in the framework of the ITER ICRH European R&D program.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An innovative high efficiency neutral beam injector concept for future fusion reactors is under investigation (simulation and R&D) between several laboratories in France, the goal being to perform a feasibility study for the neutralization of intense high energy (1 MeV) negative ion (NI) beams by photo‐detachment.
The objective of the proposed project is to put together the expertise of three leading groups in negative ion quantum physics, high power stabilized lasers and neutral beam injectors to perform studies of a new injector concept called SIPHORE (SIngle gap PHOto‐neutralizer energy REcovery injector), based on the photo‐detachment of negative ions and energy recovery of unneutralised ions; the main feature of SIPHORE being the relevance for the future Fusion reactors (DEMO), where high injector efficiency (up to 70–80%), technological simplicity and cost reduction are key issues to be addressed.
The paper presents the on‐going developments and simulations around this project, such as, a new concept of ion source which would fit with this injector topology and which could solve the remaining uniformity issue of the large size ion source, and, finally, the presentation of the R&D program in the laboratories (LAC, ARTEMIS) around the photo‐neutralization for Siphore.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tore Supra routinely addresses the physics and technology of very long-duration plasma discharges, thus bringing precious information on critical issues of long pulse operation of ITER. A new ITER relevant lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) launcher has allowed coupling to the plasma a power level of 2.7 MW for 78 s, corresponding to a power density close to the design value foreseen for an ITER LHCD system. In accordance with the expectations, long distance (10 cm) power coupling has been obtained. Successive stationary states of the plasma current profile have been controlled in real-time featuring (i) control of sawteeth with varying plasma parameters, (ii) obtaining and sustaining a 'hot core' plasma regime, (iii) recovery from a voluntarily triggered deleterious magnetohydrodynamic regime. The scrape-off layer (SOL) parameters and power deposition have been documented during L-mode ramp-up phase, a crucial point for ITER before the X-point formation. Disruption mitigation studies have been conducted with massive gas injection, evidencing the difference between He and Ar and the possible role of the q = 2 surface in limiting the gas penetration. ICRF assisted wall conditioning in the presence of magnetic field has been investigated, culminating in the demonstration that this conditioning scheme allows one to recover normal operation after disruptions. The effect of the magnetic field ripple on the intrinsic plasma rotation has been studied, showing the competition between turbulent transport processes and ripple toroidal friction. During dedicated dimensionless experiments, the effect of varying the collisionality on turbulence wavenumber spectra has been documented, giving new insight into the turbulence mechanism. Turbulence measurements have also allowed quantitatively comparing experimental results with predictions by 5D gyrokinetic codes: numerical results simultaneously match the magnitude of effective heat diffusivity, rms values of density fluctuations and wavenumber spectra. A clear correlation between electron temperature gradient and impurity transport in the very core of the plasma has been observed, strongly suggesting the existence of a threshold above which transport is dominated by turbulent electron modes. Dynamics of edge turbulent fluctuations has been studied by correlating data from fast imaging cameras and Langmuir probes, yielding a coherent picture of transport processes involved in the SOL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the frame of the EFDA task HCD-08-03-01, a 5 GHz Lower Hybrid system which should be able to deliver 20 MW CW on ITER and sustain the expected high heat fluxes has been reviewed. The design and overall dimensions of the key RF elements of the launcher and its subsystem has been updated from the 2001 design in collaboration with ITER organization. Modeling of the LH wave propagation and absorption into the plasma shows that the optimal parallel index must be chosen between 1.9 and 2.0 for the ITER steady-state scenario. The present study has been made with n|| = 2.0 but can be adapted for n|| = 1.9. Individual components have been studied separately giving confidence on the global RF design of the whole antenna.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steady-state long pulse operation of tokamaks requires fully non-inductive current drive, thus an external current drive method. Lower Hybrid Current Drive is recognized as one of the most efficient technique used in the present day tokamaks. Progress of the conceptual design of the LHCD ITER relevant system is reported, as well as critical technology issues.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the framework of the EFDA task HCD-08-03-01, the ITER lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system design has been reviewed. The system aims to generate 24 MW of RF power at 5 GHz, of which 20 MW would be coupled to the plasmas. The present state of the art does not allow envisaging a unitary output of the klystrons exceeding 500 kW, so the project is based on 48 klystron units, leaving some margin when the transmission lines losses are taken into account. A high voltage power supply (HVPS), required to operate the klystrons, is proposed. A single HVPS would be used to feed and operate four klystrons in parallel configuration. Based on the above considerations, it is proposed to design and develop twelve HVPS, based on pulse step modulator (PSM) technology, each rated for 90 kV/90 A. This paper describes in details, the typical electrical requirements and the conceptual design of the proposed HVPS for the ITER LHCD system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of rectangular oversized waveguides in the Main Transmission Lines of the Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system of ITER, requires to investigate the problem of bends. The principal specifications that characterize the oversized bend design concern the minimization of the reflection of the fundamental mode and the maximization of its transmission, limiting at the same time its coupling to spurious modes that could propagate at the operational frequency. In this paper, the performances of bends with different geometries are compared. They are simulated using the commercial finite element software Ansoft HFSS. An innovative modified mitre-bend solution with trapezoidal-elements is proposed and analyzed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to assist the design of the future ITER Lower Hybrid launcher, coupling codes ALOHA, from CEA/IRFM, TOPLHA, from Politecnico di Torino, and GRILL3D, developed by Dr. Mikhail Irzak (A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) and operated by ENEA Frascati, have been compared with the updated (six modules with four active waveguides per module) Passive-Active Multi-junction (PAM) Lower Hybrid antennas. Both ALOHA and GRILL3D formulate the problem in terms of rectangular waveguides modes, while TOPLHA is based on boundary-value problem with the adoption of a triangular cell-mesh to represent the relevant waveguides surfaces. Several plasma profiles, with varying edge density and density increase, have been adopted to provide a complete description of the simulated launcher in terms of reflection coefficient, computed at the beginning of each LH module, and of power spectra. Good agreement can be observed among codes for all the simulated profiles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oversized waveguides allow to transmit high electromagnetic power, but require components able to filter the unwanted modal content unavoidably excited along their path. In this paper mode filters based on corrugations partially filled with absorbing materials are described; they have been studied aiming at optimizing their performance and overcoming their intrinsic limitations. More precisely the dependence of the filtering performance on various geometrical parameters is derived using analytical and numerical approaches. The problems related with the power handling capability of mode filters are shortly considered too. Finally the role of degenerate modes in deteriorating the filtering performance is explained and a solution to this problem is presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main results of the Tore Supra experimental programme in the years 2007–2008 are reported. They document significant progress achieved in the domain of steady-state tokamak research, as well as in more general issues relevant for ITER and for fusion physics research. Three areas are covered: ITER relevant technology developments and tests in a real machine environment, tokamak operational issues for high power and long pulses, and fusion plasma physics. Results presented in this paper include test and validation of a new, load-resilient concept of ion cycotron resonance heating antenna and of an inspection robot operated under ultra-high vacuum and high temperature conditions; an extensive experimental campaign (5 h of plasma) aiming at deuterium inventory and carbon migration studies; real-time control of sawteeth by electron cyclotron current drive in the presence of fast ion tails; ECRH-assisted plasma start-up studies; dimensionless scalings of transport and turbulence; transport experiments using active perturbation methods; resistive and fast-particle driven MHD studies. The potential role of Tore Supra in the worldwide fusion programme before the start of ITER operation is also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 70 keV 40 A hydrogen beam injector has been developed at Cadarache for plasma diagnostic purpose (MSE and charge exchange) on the Tore-Supra tokamak. This injector routinely operates with a large size ion source (the so-called Pagoda ion source) which does not completely fulfill all the requirements necessary for the present experiments. As a consequence, the development of a new ion source (called Cybele) has been underway whose objectives are a high accelerated proton fraction (>80%), current density of 160 mA/cm2, and uniform illumination of the extraction surface (within +/-5%) for long shot operation (from 1 to 100 s). The main particularity of Cybele is the modular construction; it is composed of five, vertically juxtaposed modules, geometrically arranged to fit the curved extraction surface of the injector, which ensures the geometrical focusing of the neutral beam 7 m downstream, at the entrance to the tokamak. Cybele will be tested first for positive-ion production for the Tore-Supra injector and later in negative-ion production mode; its modular concept could be advantageous to ensure plasma uniformity over the very large extraction surface (~1 m2) of the ITER neutral beam injector. A prototype module (the Drift source) has already been developed and optimized [A. Simomin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 4542 (1999)] both for positive- and negative-ion productions. It has met the ITER ion source requirements in terms of D- current density (200 A/m2), source pressure (0.3 Pa), uniformity, and arc efficiency (0.015 A D-/kW).