Philippe Caroff

Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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Publications (67)324.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report on magneto-transport measurements in InAs nanowires under large magnetic field (up to 55T), providing a direct spectroscopy of the 1D electronic band structure. Large modulations of the magneto-conductance mediated by an accurate control of the Fermi energy reveal the Landau fragmentation, carrying the fingerprints of the confined InAs material. Our numerical simulations of the magnetic band structure consistently support the experimental results and reveal key parameters of the electronic confinement.
    Physical Review Letters 02/2014; 112:076801. · 7.73 Impact Factor
  • Kimberly A Dick, Philippe Caroff
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    ABSTRACT: Semiconductor nanowires composed of III-V materials have enormous potential to add new functionality to electronics and optical applications. However, integration of these promising structures into applications is severely limited by the current near-universal reliance on gold nanoparticles as seeds for nanowire fabrication. Although highly controlled fabrication is achieved, this metal is entirely incompatible with the Si-based electronics industry. In this Feature we review the progress towards developing gold-free bottom-up synthesis techniques for III-V semiconductor nanowires. Three main categories of nanowire synthesis are discussed: selective-area epitaxy, self-seeding and foreign metal seeding, with main focus on the metal-seeded techniques. For comparison, we also review the development of foreign metal seeded synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires. Finally, directions for future development and anticipated important trends are discussed. We anticipate significant development in the use of foreign metal seeding in particular. In addition, we speculate that multiple different techniques must be developed in order to replace gold and to provide a variety of nanowire structures and properties suited to a diverse range of applications.
    Nanoscale 02/2014; · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the signatures of Majorana fermions in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor hybrid device by charge transport measurements. The device is made from an epitaxially grown InSb nanowire with two superconductor Nb contacts on a Si/SiO$_2$ substrate. At low temperatures, a quantum dot is formed in the segment of the InSb nanowire between the two Nb contacts and the two Nb contacted segments of the InSb nanowire show superconductivity due to the proximity effect. At zero magnetic field, well defined Coulomb diamonds and the Kondo effect are observed in the charge stability diagram measurements in the Coulomb blockade regime of the quantum dot. Under the application of a finite, sufficiently strong magnetic field, a zero-bias conductance peak structure is observed in the same Coulomb blockade regime. It is found that the zero-bias conductance peak is present in many consecutive Coulomb diamonds, irrespective of the even-odd parity of the quasi-particle occupation number in the quantum dot. In addition, we find that the zero-bias conductance peak is in most cases accompanied by two differential conductance peaks, forming a triple-peak structure, and the separation between the two side peaks in bias voltage shows oscillations closely correlated to the background Coulomb conductance oscillations of the device. The observed zero-bias conductance peak and the associated triple-peak structure are in line with the signatures of Majorana fermion physics in a nanowire based topological superconductor-quantum dot-topological superconductor system, in which the two Majorana bound states adjacent to the quantum dot are hybridized into a pair of quasi-particle states with finite energies and the other two Majorana bound states remain as the zero-energy modes located at the two ends of the entire InSb nanowire.
    Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4(7621). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The modified phonon dispersion is of importance for understanding the origin of the reduced heat conductivity in nanowires. We have measured the phonon dispersion for 50 nm diameter InSb (111) nanowires using time-resolved X-ray diffraction. By comparing the sound speed of the bulk (3880 m/s) and that of a classical thin rod (3600 m/s) to our measurement (2880 m/s), we conclude that the origin of the reduced sound speed and thereby to the reduced heat conductivity is that the C44 elastic constant is reduced by 35% compared to the bulk material.
    Nano Letters 01/2014; · 13.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the continued maturation of III-V nanowire research, expectations of material quality should be concomitantly raised. Ideally, III-V nanowires integrated on silicon should be entirely free of extended planar defects such as twins, stacking faults or polytypism, position-controlled for convenient device processing, and gold-free for compatibility with standard CMOS processing tools. Here we demonstrate large area vertical GaAsxSb1-x nanowire arrays grown on silicon (111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires' complex faceting, pure zinc blende crystal structure and composition are mapped using characterization techniques both at the nanoscale and in large-area ensembles. We prove unambiguously that these gold-free nanowires are entirely twin-free down to the first bilayer and reveal their three-dimensional composition evolution, paving the way for novel infra-red devices integrated directly on the cost-effective Si platform.
    Nano Letters 12/2013; · 13.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the continued maturation of III−V nanowire research, expectations of material quality should be concomitantly raised. Ideally, III−V nanowires integrated on silicon should be entirely free of extended planar defects such as twins, stacking faults, or polytypism, position-controlled for convenient device processing, and gold-free for compatibility with standard complementary metal−oxide−semiconductor (CMOS) processing tools. Here we demonstrate large area vertical GaAsxSb1−x nanowire arrays grown on silicon (111) by molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires’ complex faceting, pure zinc blende crystal structure, and composition are mapped using characterization techniques both at the nanoscale and in large-area ensembles. We prove unambiguously that these gold-free nanowires are entirely twin-free down to the first bilayer and reveal their three-dimensional composition evolution, paving the way for novel infrared devices integrated directly on the costeffective Si platform.
    Nano Letters 12/2013; 14:326. · 12.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antimonide-based nanowires represent an important new class of material with great promise for both fundamental physics studies and various device applications. We report a comprehensive study on understanding the growth behaviour of GaxIn1-xSb nanowires on GaAs substrates using Au nanoparticles. First, the effect of growth parameters on the morphology and composition of GaxIn1-xSb nanowires is extensively studied over the entire compositional range (from 3 to ∼100% of In). Second, the obtained compositional results are explained by a kinetic model, suggesting an Arrhenius-type behavior for the trimethylindium (TMIn) precursor. Third, the particle composition is fully investigated and the implications for growth are discussed with reference to our calculated Au-Ga-In phase diagram. Fourth, a mechanism is presented to explain the temperature-dependent morphology and radial growth of the GaxIn1-xSb nanowires. Finally, we demonstrate homogeneous compositions in both axial and radial directions and the nanowires remain entirely twin-free zinc blende. The understanding gained from this study together with the potential to precisely tailor the band gap, wavelength and carrier mobilities allows fabrication of various GaxIn1-xSb-based nanowire devices.
    Nanoscale 12/2013; · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organized growth of high aspect-ratio nanostructures such as membranes is interesting for opto-electronic and energy harvesting applications. Recently, we reported a new form of InAs nano-membranes grown on Si substrates with enhanced light scattering properties. In this paper we study how to tune the morphology of the membranes by changing the growth conditions. We examine the role of the V/III ratio, substrate temperature, mask opening size and inter-hole distances in determining the size and shape of the structures. Our results show that the nano-membranes form by a combination of the growth mechanisms of nanowires and the Stranski-Krastanov type of quantum dots: in analogy with nanowires, the length of the membranes strongly depends on the growth temperature and the V/III ratio; the inter-hole distance of the sample determines two different growth regimes: competitive growth for small distances and an independent regime for larger distances. Conversely, and similarly to quantum dots, the width of the nano-membranes increases with the growth temperature and does not exhibit dependence on the V/III ratio. These results constitute an important step towards achieving rational design of high aspect-ratio nanostructures.
    Nanotechnology 11/2013; 24(43):435603. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thanks to their wide band structure tunability, GaAs1-xSbx nanowires provide exciting perspectives in optoelectronic and energy harvesting applications. The control of composition and strain of these ternary alloys is crucial in the determination of their optical and electronic properties. Raman scattering provides information on the vibrational properties of materials, which can be related to the composition and strain. We present a systematic study of the vibrational properties of GaAs1-xSbx nanowires for Sb contents from 0 to 44%, as determined by energy-dispersive x-ray analyses. We find that optical phonons red-shift with increasing Sb content. We explain the shift by alloying effects, including mass disorder, dielectric changes and ionic plasmon coupling. The influence of Sb on the surface optical modes is addressed. Finally, we compare the luminescence yield between GaAs and GaAs1-xSbx, which can be related to a lower surface recombination rate. This work provides a reference for the study of ternary alloys in the form of nanowires, and demonstrates the tunability and high material quality of gold-free ternary antimonide nanowires directly grown on silicon.
    Nanotechnology 09/2013; 24(40):405707. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated in-situ Si doping of InAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy from gold seeds. The effectiveness of n-type doping is confirmed by electrical measurements showing an increase of the electron density with the Si flux. We also observe an increase of the electron density along the nanowires from the tip to the base, attributed to the dopant incorporation on the nanowire facets whereas no detectable incorporation occurs through the seed. Furthermore the Si incorporation strongly influences the lateral growth of the nanowires without giving rise to significant tapering, revealing the complex interplay between axial and lateral growth.
    Applied Physics Letters 07/2013; 102(22). · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a significant and persistent enhancement of the conductivity in free-standing non-intentionally doped InAs nanowires upon irradiation in ultra-high vacuum. Combining four-point probe transport measurements performed on nanowires with different surface chemistries, field effect based measurements and numerical simulations of the electron density, the change in the conductivity is found to be caused by an increase in the surface free carrier concentration. Although an electron beam of a few keV, typically used for the inspection and the processing of materials, propagates through the entire nanowire cross-section, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of the nanowire are predominantly affected by radiation-induced defects occurring at the nanowire surface and not in the bulk.
    Nanotechnology 06/2013; 24(27):275706. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present transport measurements in superconductor-nanowire devices with a gated constriction forming a quantum point contact. Zero-bias features in tunneling spectroscopy appear at finite magnetic fields, and oscillate in amplitude and split away from zero bias as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage. A crossover in magnetoconductance is observed: Magnetic fields above ~ 0.5 T enhance conductance in the low-conductance (tunneling) regime but suppress conductance in the high-conductance (multichannel) regime. We consider these results in the context of Majorana zero modes as well as alternatives, including Kondo effect and analogs of 0.7 structure in a disordered nanowire.
    Physical review. B, Condensed matter 03/2013; 87(24). · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The band structure and the Fermi level pinning at clean and well-ordered sidewall surfaces of zincblende (ZB)-wurtzite (WZ) GaAs nanowires are investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The WZ-ZB phase transition in GaAs nanowires introduces p-i junctions at the sidewall surfaces. This is caused by the presence of numerous steps, which induce a Fermi level pinning at different energies on the non-polar WZ and ZB sidewall facets.
    Applied Physics Letters 01/2013; 103(12):122104-122104-4. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Semiconductor InSb nanowires are expected to provide an excellent material platform for the study of Majorana fermions in solid state systems. Here, we report on the realization of a Nb-InSb nanowire-Nb hybrid quantum device and the observation of a zero-bias conductance peak structure in the device. An InSb nanowire quantum dot is formed in the device between the two Nb contacts. Due to the proximity effect, the InSb nanowire segments covered by the superconductor Nb contacts turn to superconductors with a superconducting energy gap $\Delta_{InSb}\sim 0.25$ meV. A tunable critical supercurrent is observed in the device in high back gate voltage regions in which the Fermi level in the InSb nanowire is located above the tunneling barriers of the quantum dot and the device is open to conduction. When a perpendicular magnetic field is applied to the devices, the critical supercurrent is seen to decrease as the magnetic field increases. However, at sufficiently low back gate voltages, the device shows the quasi-particle Coulomb blockade characteristics and the supercurrent is strongly suppressed even at zero magnetic field. This transport characteristic changes when a perpendicular magnetic field stronger than a critical value, at which the Zeeman energy in the InSb nanowire is $E_z\sim \Delta_{InSb}$, is applied to the device. In this case, the transport measurements show a conductance peak at the zero bias voltage and the entire InSb nanowire in the device behaves as in a topological superconductor phase. We also show that this zero-bias conductance peak structure can persist over a large range of applied magnetic fields and could be interpreted as a transport signature of Majorana fermions in the InSb nanowire.
    Nano Letters 11/2012; · 13.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a new form of III-V compound semiconductor nanostructures growing epitaxially as vertical wing-shaped membranes on Si[001] and study their light scattering properties. Precise position-control of the InAs nanostructures in regular arrays is demonstrated by bottom-up synthesis using molecular beam epitaxy in nanoscale apertures on a SiO2 mask. The InAs wing-shaped nano-membranes are found to originate from the two opposite facets of a rectangular pyramidal island nucleus and extend along two opposite <111>B directions, forming flat {110} walls. Dark-field scattering experiments, in combination with light scattering theory, show the presence of distinctive shape-dependent optical resonances significantly enhancing the local intensity of incident electromagnetic fields over tunable spectral regions. These new nanostructures therefore could have interesting potential in nano-sensors, infra-red light emitters and non-linear optical elements.
    ACS Nano 11/2012; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Ga(x)In(1-x)Sb ternary system has many interesting material properties, such as high carrier mobilities and a tunable range of bandgaps in the infrared. Here we present the first report on the growth and compositional control of Ga(x)In(1-x)Sb material grown in the form of nanowires from Au seeded nanoparticles by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The composition of the grown Ga(x)In(1-x)Sb nanowires is precisely controlled by tuning the growth parameters where x varies from 1 to ∼0.3. Interestingly, the growth rate of the Ga(x)In(1-x)Sb nanowires increases with diameter, which we model based on the Gibbs-Thomson effect. Nanowire morphology can be tuned from high to very low aspect ratios, with perfect zinc blende crystal structure regardless of composition. Finally, electrical characterization on nanowire material with a composition of Ga(0.6)In(0.4)Sb showed clear p-type behavior.
    Nano Letters 08/2012; 12(9):4914-9. · 13.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polytypism in III-V semiconductor nanowires is a topic that has received considerable attention in recent years. Achieving a pure nanowire crystal phase requires well-controlled and advanced parameter tuning for most III-V materials. Additionally, the new and unusual phases sometimes observed may present unique material properties if they can be controllably fabricated. With the prospect of using nanowires in applications within several different fields (including electronics, photonics, and life science), theoretical models are necessary to explain experimental trends and to attain a high level of crystal phase control. At present, there is no theoretical model (or combination of models) that fully explains how and why nanowire crystal structures commonly include several different polytypes. Here we use combinatorics and interlayer interactions to include higher order polytypes (4H and 6H) with the aim to explain nanowire crystal structure beyond the well-investigated zinc blende-wurtzite polytypism. Predictions from our theoretical models compare well with experimental results.
    ACS Nano 06/2012; 6(7):6142-9. · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the observation of excitation of Majorana fermions in a Nb-InSb nanowire quantum dot-Nb hybrid system. The InSb nanowire quantum dot is formed between the two Nb contacts by weak Schottky barriers and is thus in the regime of strong couplings to the contacts. Due to the proximity effect, the InSb nanowire segments covered by superconductor Nb contacts turn to superconductors with a superconducting energy gap $\Delta^*$. Under an applied magnetic field larger than a critical value for which the Zeeman energy in the InSb nanowire is $E_z\sim \Delta^*$, the entire InSb nanowire is found to be in a nontrivial topological superconductor phase, supporting a pair of Majorana fermions, and Cooper pairs can transport between the superconductor Nb contacts via the Majorana fermion states. This transport process will be suppressed when the applied magnetic field becomes larger than a second critical value at which the transition to a trivial topological superconductor phase occurs in the system. This physical scenario has been observed in our experiment. We have found that the measured zero-bias conductance for our hybrid device shows a conductance plateau in a range of the applied magnetic field in quasi-particle Coulomb blockade regions.
    04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: III-V antimonide nanowires are among the most interesting semiconductors for transport physics, nanoelectronics and long-wavelength optoelectronic devices due to their optimal material properties. In order to investigate their complex crystal structure evolution, faceting and composition, we report a combined scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of gold-nucleated ternary InAs/InAs(1-x)Sb(x) nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. SEM showed the general morphology and faceting, TEM revealed the internal crystal structure and ternary compositions, while STM was successfully applied to characterize the oxide-free nanowire sidewalls, in terms of nanofaceting morphology, atomic structure and surface composition. The complementary use of these techniques allows for correlation of the morphological and structural properties of the nanowires with the amount of Sb incorporated during growth. The addition of even a minute amount of Sb to InAs changes the crystal structure from perfect wurtzite to perfect zinc blende, via intermediate stacking fault and pseudo-periodic twinning regimes. Moreover, the addition of Sb during the axial growth of InAs/InAs(1-x)Sb(x) heterostructure nanowires causes a significant conformal lateral overgrowth on both segments, leading to the spontaneous formation of a core-shell structure, with an Sb-rich shell.
    Nanotechnology 03/2012; 23(9):095702. · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
324.69 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Australian National University
      • Department of Electronic Materials Engineering (EME)
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  • 2008–2013
    • Lund University
      • • Division of Solid State Physics
      • • Division of Solid State Physics
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2011
    • Technische Universiteit Eindhoven
      Eindhoven, North Brabant, Netherlands