P Chen

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Are you P Chen?

Claim your profile

Publications (8)40.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brain tissue damage due to ischemia/reperfusion has been shown to be caused, in part, by activated macrophages infiltrating into the post-ischemic brain. Using the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) mouse model, this study demonstrated that, in vivo, both endothelin-1 (Et-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, and the macrophage chemokine, monocyte chemoattractant factor-1 (MCP-1) are induced in ischemia. Further studies, using human brain-derived endothelial cells (CNS-EC), showed that in vitro, Et-1 can directly stimulate MCP-1 mRNA expression and MCP-1 protein; and this Et-1-induced MCP-1 production is mediated by the ET(A) receptor. Inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta, functioned additively and synergistically, respectively, with Et-1 to increase this MCP-1 production. Partial elucidation of the signal transduction pathways involved in Et-1-induced MCP-1 production demonstrated that protein kinase C-, but not cAMP-dependent pathways are involved. These data demonstrate that Et-1, functioning as an inflammatory peptide, increased levels of MCP-1, suggesting a mechanism for chemokine regulation during ischemia/reperfusion injury.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 06/2001; 116(1):62-73. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that endothelin-1 (Et-1) induces human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells (CNS-EC) to produce and secrete the chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8). In the present study, we use specific inhibitors and activators to elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in this process. Et-1-induced IL-8 production was blocked by ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ610, but not by ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788, demonstrating that CNS-EC activation is initiated by Et-1 binding to the ET(A) receptor. IL-8 mRNA expression is blocked by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide or protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genestein and geldanamycin, establishing the involvement of the protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase pathways in the activation process. The transcription factor, NF-kappaB, is involved in Et-1 activation as determined by specific inhibitors of translocation and direct analysis of DNA-binding proteins. Neither inhibition nor activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase affected IL-8 production in the absence or presence of Et-1. Similarly, no effect was observed upon inhibition of protein phosphatases by okadaic acid. Thus, the signal transduction process induced by Et-1 in CNS-EC, leading to increased mRNA IL-8 expression, is initiated by Et-1 binding to ET(A) receptor followed by subsequent activation of protein kinase C, protein tyrosine kinase, and NF-kappaB. Because increased expression of Et-1 is associated with hypertension and stroke and IL-8 is likely to be involved in the accumulation of neutrophils causing tissue damage in ischemic/reperfusion injury, identification of the mechanism involved in the Et-1-induced increase in IL-8 production may have significant therapeutic value.
    Blood 09/1999; 94(4):1291-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) by human brain-derived endothelial cells in culture were studied. At 100 nmol/L, ET-1 increased PAI-1 production by 88+/-6% within 72 hours, and increased PAI-1 mRNA expression within 1 hour of stimulation; there was no significant effect on t-PA production. PAI-1 activity was also examined and found to increase with ET-1 treatment. Suboptimal concentrations of ET-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) acted synergistically to increase PAI-1 production. ET-1 activated protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways within 3 to 5 minutes of treatment, with the peak at 10 minutes. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) resulted in increased PAI-1 production, whereas activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase by forskolin or dibutyryl cAMP (dBu-cAMP) significantly decreased PAI-1 production. However, simultaneous activation of protein kinase C by PMA and cAMP-dependent protein kinase by dBu-cAMP only slightly attenuated PMA-induced PAI-1 increase. Inhibition of protein kinase C by GF-109213X abolished the effects of ET-1. These results demonstrate that ET-1 and TNF-alpha function synergistically to induce procoagulant activity of brain endothelial cells in a process that involves a protein kinase C-dependent pathway.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 08/1999; 19(7):1768-75. · 6.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smoking both increases stroke risk and reduces the risk of thrombolysis-associated intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a major regulator of fibrinolysis; elevation of PAI-1 is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic disorders. We studied the effect of nicotine, an important constituent of cigarette smoke, on PAI-1 production by human brain endothelial cells. Adult human central nervous system endothelial cells (CNS-EC) were used for tissue culture experiments. We analyzed culture supernatant for PAI-1 protein and measured PAI-1 mRNA (by Northern blot analysis) and protein kinase C (PK-C) activity. Nicotine at 100 nmol/L increased PAI-1 protein production and mRNA expression by CNS-EC. After 72 hours of exposure to nicotine, the concentration of secreted PAI-1 in the cell supernatant was increased 1.90+/-0.2 fold compared with untreated cells. PAI-1 mRNA also increased approximately twofold. Inhibition of PK-C completely abolished this effect. Nicotine had no effect on the concentration of tissue plasminogen activator. Nicotine increases brain endothelial cell PAI-1 mRNA expression and protein production via PK-C-dependent pathway. These findings provide new insights into why smoking may be associated with predisposition to thrombosis and inversely associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after therapeutic tissue plasminogen activator therapy.
    Stroke 04/1999; 30(3):651-5. · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study focused on the role of the HIV-derived viral protein, tat, in activating central nervous system (CNS)-derived endothelial cells (EC) to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8), a stimulator and chemoattractant for neutrophils and lymphocytes. Human CNS-EC treated with tat (100 ng/ml) demonstrated a 2 to 3 fold upregulation in IL-8 mRNA and protein. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and tat were found to act additively in upregulating IL-8 production. In contrast, transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), appeared to down modulate tat-induced IL-8 production. These data suggest that extracellular tat, especially in the presence of TNF, may be responsible for the local production of IL-8.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 03/1999; 94(1-2):28-39. · 3.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Increased levels of endothelin-1 (Et-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, have been correlated with hypertension and neuronal damage in ischemic/reperfusion injury. The presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in the brain has been shown to be directly responsible for this observed pathology. To address the question of whether Et-1 plays a role in this process, human brain-derived endothelial cells (CNS-ECs) were cultured with Et-1. The results demonstrate that Et-1 induces production of the neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (IL-8) twofold to threefold after 72 hours; mRNA was maximal after 1 hour of stimulation. Conditioned culture medium derived from Et-1-stimulated CNS-ECs induced a chemotactic response in the PMN migration assay. The inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and IL-1beta functioned additively with Et-1 in increasing IL-8 production. In contrast, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), but not IL-10, completely abolished the effect of Et-1 on IL-8 production. However, Et-1 did not modulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression. These data demonstrate that Et-1 may be a risk factor in ischemic/reperfusion injury by inducing increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8.
    Blood 12/1998; 92(9):3064-72. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intracellular signal transduction pathways utilized by the HIV-1-derived protein, Tat, in the activation of human central nervous system-derived endothelial cells (CNS-ECs) were examined using specific enzymatic assays. Tat induced an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA within 1 hr of treatment. This biological effect of Tat involved activation of both protein kinase C (PK-C) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) in CNS-ECs. Tat at 10 ng/ml induced a sharp, transient increase in membrane PK-C activity within 30 sec of incubation, and reached maximum levels at 2 min, declining to control values within 10 min. Tat also induced a sharp increase in intracellular cAMP levels and PK-A activity in these cells, with the PK-A activity reaching a maximum at 10 min and slowly declining to control values in 4 hr of incubation. Activation of PK-A was dependent on a Tat-induced increase in membrane PK-C activity as demonstrated by calphostin C (a PK-C inhibitor) abolishing this effect. Incubation of cells with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin did not affect Tat-induced activation of PK-A, indicating that prostacyclins are not involved in this process. Tat-induced increase in IL-6 mRNA was abolished in the presence on PK-A inhibitor H-89, demonstrating that activation of PK-A is necessary and sufficient for the increase in IL-6 production by these cells. Both the Tat-induced increase in intracellular cAMP and IL-6 mRNA levels in CNS-ECs may play a role in altering the blood-brain barrier and thereby inducing pathology often observed in AIDS dementia.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 08/1998; 14(10):825-33. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source