Patsy M Brannon

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States

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Publications (15)74.84 Total impact

  • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2014; 100(3):982-4. · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • Patsy M Brannon, Christine L Taylor, Paul M Coates
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    ABSTRACT: Decisions related to a spectrum of nutrition-related public health and clinical concerns must consider many factors and are best informed by evaluating the totality and quality of the evidence. Systematic review (SR) is a structured process to evaluate, compare, and synthesize relevant evidence for the SR-specific question(s). Applications of SR are exemplified here through the discussion of four case studies: research agenda, nutrient reference intakes, dietary guidance, and practice guidelines. Concerns that SR cannot be effectively applied to nutrition evidence because of the lack of an unexposed comparator and the complex homeostasis in nutrition are discussed. Central to understanding the applicability of SR is its flexibility in defining key inclusion criteria and rigorous elements as appropriate for the SR-specific question(s). Through the reduction of bias and random error by explicit, reproducible, comprehensive, and rigorous examination of all of the evidence, SR informs the scientific judgment needed for sound evidence-based public health nutrition. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 34 is July 17, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 04/2014; · 9.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal choline intake during gestation may influence placental function and fetal health outcomes. Specifically, we previously showed that supplemental choline reduced placental and maternal circulating concentrations of the anti-angiogenic factor, fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1), in pregnant women as well as sFLT1 production in cultured human trophoblasts. The current study aimed to quantify the effect of choline on a wider array of biomarkers related to trophoblast function and to elucidate possible mechanisms. Immortalized HTR-8/SVneo trophoblasts were cultured in different choline concentrations (8, 13 and 28 [control] µM) for 96-h and markers of angiogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis, and blood vessel formation were examined. Choline insufficiency altered the angiogenic profile, impaired in vitro angiogenesis, increased inflammation, induced apoptosis, increased oxidative stress, and yielded greater levels of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms δ and ϵ possibly through increases in the PKC activators 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol and 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycerol. Notably, the addition of a PKC inhibitor normalized angiogenesis and apoptosis, and partially rescued the aberrant gene expression profile. Together these results suggest that choline inadequacy may contribute to placental dysfunction and the development of disorders related to placental insufficiency by activating PKC. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of maternal choline intake on the human placental transcriptome, with a special interest in its role in modulating placental vascular function. Healthy pregnant women (n=26, wk 26-29 gestation) were randomized to 480 mg choline/d, an intake level approximating the adequate intake of 450 mg/d, or 930 mg/d for 12 wk. Maternal blood and placental samples were retrieved at delivery. Whole genome expression microarrays were used to identify placental genes and biological processes impacted by maternal choline intake. Maternal choline intake influenced a wide array of genes (n=166) and biological processes (n=197), including those related to vascular function. Of special interest was the 30% down-regulation (P=0.05) of the antiangiogenic factor and preeclampsia risk marker fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1) in the placenta tissues obtained from the 930 vs. 480 mg/d choline intake group. Similar decreases (P=0.04) were detected in maternal blood sFLT1 protein concentrations. The down-regulation of sFLT1 by choline treatment was confirmed in a human trophoblast cell culture model and may be related to enhanced acetylcholine signaling. These findings indicate that supplementing the maternal diet with extra choline may improve placental angiogenesis and mitigate some of the pathological antecedents of preeclampsia.-Jiang, X., Bar, H. Y., Yan, J., Jones, S., Brannon, P. M., West, A. A., Perry, C. A., Ganti, A., Pressman, E., Devapatla, S., Vermeylen, F., Wells, M. T., and Caudill, M. A. A higher maternal choline intake among third-trimester pregnant women lowers placental and circulating concentrations of the antiangiogenic factor fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1).
    The FASEB Journal 11/2012; · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In early 2011, a committee convened by the Institute of Medicine issued a report on the Dietary Reference Intakes for calcium and vitamin D. The Endocrine Society Task Force in July 2011 published a guideline for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency. Although these reports are intended for different purposes, the disagreements concerning the nature of the available data and the resulting conclusions have caused confusion for clinicians, researchers, and the public. In this commentary, members of the Institute of Medicine committee respond to aspects of The Endocrine Society guideline that are not well supported and in need of reconsideration. These concerns focus on target serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, the definition of vitamin D deficiency, and the question of who constitutes a population at risk vs. the general population.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 03/2012; 97(4):1146-52. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    Patsy M Brannon
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns exist about adequacy of vitamin D in pregnant women relative to both maternal and fetal adverse health outcomes. Further contributing to these concerns is the prevalence of inadequate and deficient vitamin D status in pregnant women, which ranges from 5 to 84% globally. Although maternal vitamin D metabolism changes during pregnancy, the mechanisms underlying these changes and the role of vitamin D during development are not well understood. Observational evidence links low maternal vitamin D status with an increased risk of non-bone health outcome in the mother (pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, obstructed labour and infectious disease), the fetus (gestational duration) and the older offspring (developmental programming of type 1 diabetes, inflammatory and atopic disorders and schizophrenia); but the totality of the evidence is contradictory (except for maternal infectious disease and offspring inflammatory and atopic disorders), lacking causality and, thus, inconclusive. In addition, recent evidence links not only low but also high maternal vitamin D status with increased risk of small-for-gestational age and schizophrenia in the offspring. Rigorous and well-designed randomised clinical trials need to determine whether vitamin D has a causal role in non-bone health outcomes in pregnancy.
    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2012; 71(2):205-12. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Patsy M Brannon
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    ABSTRACT: Despite interest and expanding research on non-bone health outcomes, the evidence remains inconclusive concerning the causal role of vitamin D in the non-bone health outcomes. To improve our understanding of its role, research needs to address five key areas related to vitamin D: 1) its physiology and molecular pathways. 2) its relationship to health outcomes. 3) its exposure-response relationships, 4) its interactions with genotype and other nutrients and 5) its adverse effects. Its metabolism needs to be elucidated including extra-renal activation and catabolism, distribution and mobilization from body pools, kinetics of this distribution, and their regulation during pregnancy and lactation. Rigorous, well-designed randomized clinical trials need to evaluate the causal role of vitamin D in a diverse array of non-bone health and chronic disease outcomes across the life cycle and reproductive states. Critically needed is the determination of the exposure-response, inflection and threshold of serum 25(OH)D concentrations relative to functional and health outcomes. The dose-response relationships of standardized measures of serum 25(OH)D need to be understood in response to low and high doses of total vitamin D with careful consideration of confounding factors including catabolic rates. How do relevant genetic polymorphisms, dietary calcium and phosphate and potentially dietary cholesterol interact with vitamin D exposure on its bioavailability, transport, distribution in body pools, metabolism and action as well as on bone and non-bone health outcomes? The nature and mechanisms of U-shaped risk relationships with adverse health outcomes at higher exposure to vitamin D needs elucidated across the life cycle and reproductive stages.
    Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation. Supplementum 01/2012; 243:154-62.
  • Journal of the American Dietetic Association 10/2011; 111(10):1467. · 3.80 Impact Factor
  • Patsy M Brannon, Mary Frances Picciano
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns exist about the adequacy of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. This review assesses the evidence that maternal vitamin D status influences maternal, fetal, and breast-fed infant bone health; maternal adverse outcomes (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, obstructed labor, and infectious disease); fetal adverse outcomes (growth, gestational age, and developmental programming); and infant adverse outcomes. The evidence for all of these outcomes is contradictory (except for maternal infectious disease) and lacking causality; thus, it is inconclusive. The 2011 Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin D and their implications for assessing vitamin D status are discussed. An estimated 5% to 29% of American pregnant women may have inadequate vitamin D status, with the higher prevalence in African Americans. Little is known about the prevalence of inadequacy in American lactating women. Research needs are also identified, especially the need for rigorous and well-designed randomized clinical trials to determine the role of vitamin D in nonbone health outcomes in pregnancy and lactation.
    Annual Review of Nutrition 08/2011; 31:89-115. · 9.16 Impact Factor
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    Article: Vitamin D.
    Patsy M Brannon, James C Fleet
    Advances in Nutrition 07/2011; 2(4):365-7. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D comprehensively reviewed the evidence for both skeletal and nonskeletal health outcomes and concluded that a causal role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health provided the necessary basis for the 2011 Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for ages older than 1 year. For nonskeletal outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, infections, and autoimmune disorders, randomized clinical trials were sparse, and evidence was inconsistent, inconclusive as to causality, and insufficient for Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) development. The EAR and RDA for calcium range from 500 to 1,100 and 700 to 1,300 mg daily, respectively, for ages 1 year and older. For vitamin D (assuming minimal sun exposure), the EAR is 400 IU/day for ages older than 1 year and the RDA is 600 IU/day for ages 1 to 70 years and 800 IU/day for 71 years and older, corresponding to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels of 16 ng/mL (40 nmol/L) for EARs and 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L) or more for RDAs. Prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in North America has been overestimated based on serum 25OHD levels corresponding to the EAR and RDA. Higher serum 25OHD levels were not consistently associated with greater benefit, and for some outcomes U-shaped associations with risks at both low and high levels were observed. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for calcium ranges from 1,000 to 3,000 mg daily, based on calcium excretion or kidney stone formation, and from 1,000 to 4,000 IU daily for vitamin D, based on hypercalcemia adjusted for uncertainty resulting from emerging risk relationships. Urgently needed are evidence-based guidelines to interpret serum 25OHD levels relative to vitamin D status and intervention.
    Journal of the American Dietetic Association 04/2011; 111(4):524-7. · 3.80 Impact Factor
  • edited by A. C. Ross, C. L. Taylor, A. L. Yaktine, H. B. Del Valle, 01/2011; National Academies Press., ISBN: 978-0-309-16394-1
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    ABSTRACT: This article summarizes the new 2011 report on dietary requirements for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). An IOM Committee charged with determining the population needs for these nutrients in North America conducted a comprehensive review of the evidence for both skeletal and extraskeletal outcomes. The Committee concluded that available scientific evidence supports a key role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health, consistent with a cause-and-effect relationship and providing a sound basis for determination of intake requirements. For extraskeletal outcomes, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders, the evidence was inconsistent, inconclusive as to causality, and insufficient to inform nutritional requirements. Randomized clinical trial evidence for extraskeletal outcomes was limited and generally uninformative. Based on bone health, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs; covering requirements of ≥97.5% of the population) for calcium range from 700 to 1300 mg/d for life-stage groups at least 1 yr of age. For vitamin D, RDAs of 600 IU/d for ages 1-70 yr and 800 IU/d for ages 71 yr and older, corresponding to a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/liter), meet the requirements of at least 97.5% of the population. RDAs for vitamin D were derived based on conditions of minimal sun exposure due to wide variability in vitamin D synthesis from ultraviolet light and the risks of skin cancer. Higher values were not consistently associated with greater benefit, and for some outcomes U-shaped associations were observed, with risks at both low and high levels. The Committee concluded that the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in North America has been overestimated. Urgent research and clinical priorities were identified, including reassessment of laboratory ranges for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, to avoid problems of both undertreatment and overtreatment.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 01/2011; 96(1):53-8. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We summarize the discussions of a roundtable following the conference "Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century: an Update." The roundtable participants offered additional information on vitamin D research needs from a critical, impartial, and interdisciplinary perspective. Although the group recognized the progress to date, they found that the available evidence on the relation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, dietary intake, status, functional health, and adverse outcomes has significant limitations because most studies have been short term, have failed to consider important confounders such as baseline vitamin D status and body mass index, and did not study key populations. To meet these data gaps, the roundtable identified several overarching research needs: 1) long-term, high-quality dose-response studies with relevant outcomes, including bone health, other functional outcomes (such as immune function, autoimmune disorders, and chronic disease prevention), and adverse outcomes (such as hypercalcemia and hypercalcuria), especially in understudied population groups such as dark-skinned individuals, infants, adolescents, reproductive-aged women, and pregnant and lactating women; 2) further research to understand the relation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D threshold values to relevant functional outcomes in each life stage and in racial and ethnic groups; 3) further research to understand the metabolic partitioning, fate, and mobilization of key vitamin D metabolites at recommended and greater than recommended intakes to assess the availability of stored vitamin D, relative contributions of endogenously produced and dietary vitamin D, and impact of important confounders (such as body mass index) on vitamin D status; and 4) further research to define the maximal, long-term vitamin D intake to ensure safety for all humans.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2008; 88(2):587S-592S. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We summarize the key findings, strength of the evidence, and research needs identified in the National Institutes of Health conference "Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century: an Update," which was held in September 2007; a systematic evidence-based review; and a National Institutes of Health roundtable discussion held after the conference by scientists with relevant expertise. The evidence-based review addressed 5 questions on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and functional outcomes across the life cycle and response to exposure, bone health outcomes of supplementation, risks and benefits of sun exposure, and adverse outcomes. These questions also framed the conference and roundtable discussions. Researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the relation of 25(OH)D to bone health outcomes in the elderly and in postmenopausal women, but we know less about its impact on other stages of the life cycle and in racial and ethnic groups. Limitations of the existing data include the failure of many studies to control for important confounders [baseline 25(OH)D concentration, skin pigmentation, body mass index, compliance, etc], sparse data on key vulnerable populations (dark-skinned persons, reproducing women, infants, children, and adolescents), problems of accuracy and excessive variability in measuring 25(OH)D, lack of established relation of 25(OH)D with functional outcomes except in the elderly, and limited information on the effects of vitamin D independent of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. Future research should determine and validate across the life cycle relevant functional outcomes for bone and other health factors as well as adverse outcomes for the biomarker of exposure, 25(OH)D, to enable assessment of the role of vitamin D status in health maintenance and disease prevention.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2008; 88(2):483S-490S. · 6.50 Impact Factor