P. S. Coppi

Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (126)352.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present well-sampled UBVRIJHK photometry of SN 2002fk starting 12 days before maximum light through 122 days after peak brightness, along with a series of 15 optical spectra from –4 to +95 days since maximum. Our observations show the presence of C II lines in the early-time spectra of SN 2002fk, expanding at 11,000 km s–1 and persisting until 8 days past maximum light with a velocity of ~9000 km s–1. SN 2002fk is characterized by a small velocity gradient of km s–1 day–1, possibly caused by an off-center explosion with the ignition region oriented toward the observer. The connection between the viewing angle of an off-center explosion and the presence of C II in the early-time spectrum suggests that the observation of C II could be also due to a viewing angle effect. Adopting the Cepheid distance to NGC 1309 we provide the first H 0 value based on near-infrared (near-IR) measurements of a Type Ia supernova (SN) between 63.0 ± 0.8 (±3.4 systematic) and 66.7 ± 1.0 (±3.5 systematic) km s–1 Mpc–1, depending on the absolute magnitude/decline rate relationship adopted. It appears that the near-IR yields somewhat lower (6%-9%) H 0 values than the optical. It is essential to further examine this issue by (1) expanding the sample of high-quality near-IR light curves of SNe in the Hubble flow, and (2) increasing the number of nearby SNe with near-IR SN light curves and precise Cepheid distances, which affords the promise to deliver a more precise determination of H 0.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 789(1):89. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We perform time-dependent, spatially-resolved simulations of blazar emission to evaluate several flaring scenarios related to magnetic-field amplification and enhanced particle acceleration. The code explicitly accounts for light-travel-time effects and is applied to flares observed in the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 0208-512, which show optical/{\gamma}-ray correlation at some times, but orphan optical flares at other times. Changes in both the magnetic field and the particle acceleration efficiency are explored as causes of flares. Generally, external Compton emission appears to describe the available data better than a synchrotron self-Compton scenario, and in particular orphan optical flares are difficult to produce in the SSC framework. X-ray soft-excesses, {\gamma}-ray spectral hardening, and the detections at very high energies of certain FSRQs during flares find natural explanations in the EC scenario with particle acceleration change. Likewise, optical flares with/without {\gamma}-ray counterparts can be explained by different allocations of energy between the magnetization and particle acceleration, which may be related to the orientation of the magnetic field relative to the jet flow. We also calculate the degree of linear polarization and polarization angle as a function of time for a jet with helical magnetic field. Tightening of the magnetic helix immediately downstream of the jet perturbations, where flares occur, can be sufficient to explain the increases in the degree of polarization and a rotation by >= 180 degree of the observed polarization angle, if light-travel-time effects are properly considered.
    04/2014; 441(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Since 2008, we have been monitoring southern-hemisphere blazars at optical and near-infrared (OIR) wavelengths using the SMARTS 1.3m+ANDICAM instrument. Our targets are observed simultaneously with the Fermi Gamma-ray telescope providing us with an opportunity to probe the relative contribution of the thermal and non-thermal emission to the broad-band spectral energy distribution. In this poster we present our results which include OIR light curves that, in some cases, show ‘orphan’ flares in OIR fluxes that are not present in gamma-rays. In addition we see evidence for intra-night variability in some blazars. Discrete correlation functions of simultaneous gamma-ray and OIR fluxes suggest there is no lag or lead time between OIR and gamma-ray fluxes during some flares. Finally, color-magnitude diagrams of some blazars show clear changes in color over flares allowing us to study the evolution of accretion disk vs. jet emission during flaring events.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Relativistic jets in blazars produce radio through gamma-ray emission, via synchrotron radiation at long wavelengths and inverse Compton scattering at gamma-ray energies. Variability across these wavelengths allows us to estimate the densities and energies of the radiating particles. Yet, the physics of blazar jets is still uncertain; e.g., it is not clear whether the gamma-rays come from sub- or kilo-parsec scales. The unprecedented temporal and spectral sensitivity of the Fermi Space Telescope has ushered in a new era of discovery and over the past 5 years I have obtained queue-scheduled, nightly optical-infrared (OIR) photometry and bi-weekly optical spectroscopy using the Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3m+Andicam and 1.5m+RCSpec, in Cerro Tololo, Chile; totaling ~70 gamma-ray bright blazars that are detected nightly with Fermi. In my dissertation, I analyze 5 years of bi-monthly spectroscopy of 6 blazars. I find that the broad lines - which are presumably photoionized by the accretion disk - vary substantially less than the OIR continuum, which is dominated by the Doppler-beamed jet. However, during the largest gamma-ray flares in 3C 454.3 and PKS 1510-089, I see significant broad emission line variations, with lags on the order days and infer that the jet, in its brightest state, contributes significantly to photoionizing the broad-line clouds, meaning the gamma-emitting region is within the broad line region at sub-parsec scales. These variations are not seen at lower gamma-ray fluxes or in any other blazars we observed. I also describe inferences about the jet physics obtained from the SMARTS OIR photometry, which is well correlated with the gamma-ray flux for 11 blazars, with lags of less than one day, strongly supporting the inverse Compton model for gamma-ray production. In addition, color changes in the OIR constrain the ratio of thermal disk to non-thermal jet emission. The color evolution differs by source and also in a given source over timescales of years. In summary, the results of this dissertation provide strong constraints on the location of the gamma-emitting region and the spectral evolution of flaring blazars on short and long timescales.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present multi-epoch optical observations of the blazar 3C 454.3 (z = 0.859) from 2008 August through 2011 December, using the SMARTS Consortium 1.5m+RCSpectrograph and 1.3m+ANDICAM in Cerro Tololo, Chile. The spectra reveal that the broad optical emission lines Mg II, H-beta and H-gamma are far less variable than the optical or gamma-ray continuum. Although, the gamma-rays varied by a factor of 100 above the EGRET era flux, the lines generally vary by a factor of 2 or less. Smaller variations in the gamma-ray flux did not produce significant variation in any of the observed emission lines. Therefore, to first order, the ionizing flux from the disk changes only slowly during large variations of the jet. However, two exceptions in the response of the broad emission lines are reported during the largest gamma-ray flares in 2009 December and 2010 November, when significant deviations from the mean line flux in H-gamma and Mg II were observed. H-gamma showed a maximum 3-sigma and 4-sigma deviation in each flare, respectively, corresponding to a factor of 1.7 and 2.5 increase in flux. Mg II showed a 2-sigma deviation in both flares; no variation was detected in H-beta during either flare. These significant deviations from the mean line flux also coincide with 7mm core ejections reported previously (Jorstad et al. 2012). The correlation of the increased emission line flux with mm core ejections, and gamma-ray, optical and UV flares suggests that the broad line region extends beyond the gamma-emitting region during the 2009 and 2010 flares.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The La Silla-QUEST Low Redshift Supernova Survey is a part of the La Silla-QUEST Southern Hemisphere Variability Survey. The survey uses the 10 deg2 QUEST camera installed at the prime focus of the 1.0-m Schmidt Telescope of the European Southern Observatory at La Silla, Chile, and utilizes essentially all of the observing time of the telescope. The QUEST camera was installed on the ESO Schmidt telescope in 2009 after completing a 5 year variability survey in the northern hemisphere using the 1.2-m Oschin Schmidt telescope at Palomar. La Silla-QUEST started science operations in 2009 September. The low redshift supernova survey commenced in 2011 December and is planned to continue for the next 4 years. In this article we describe the instrumentation, software, operation, and performance characteristics of the survey.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 06/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of kiloparsec-scale X-ray emission from quasar jets, the physical processes responsible for their high-energy emission have been poorly defined. A number of mechanisms are under active debate, including synchrotron radiation, inverse-Comptonized CMB (IC/CMB) emission, and other Comptonization processes. In a number of cases, the optical and X-ray emission of jet regions are inked by a single spectral component, and in those, high- resolution multi-band imaging and polarimetry can be combined to yield a powerful diagnostic of jet emission processes. Here we report on deep imaging photometry of the jet of PKS 1136$-$135 obtained with the {\it Hubble Space Telescope.} We find that several knots are highly polarized in the optical, with fractional polarization $\Pi>30%$. When combined with the broadband spectral shape observed in these regions, this is very difficult to explain via IC/CMB models, unless the scattering particles are at the lowest-energy tip of the electron energy distribution, with Lorentz factor $\gamma \sim 1$, and the jet is also very highly beamed ($\delta \geq 20$) and viewed within a few degrees of the line of sight. We discuss both the IC/CMB and synchrotron interpretation of the X-ray emission in the light of this new evidence, presenting new models of the spectral energy distribution and also the matter content of this jet. The high polarizations do not completely rule out the possibility of IC/CMB optical-to-X-ray emission in this jet, but they do strongly disfavor the model. We discuss the implications of this finding, and also the prospects for future work.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 773(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) will revolutionize our understanding of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their environments. The decade-long survey will discover at least 10 million AGN across 18,000 square degrees on the sky, with between about 50 to 200 visits per source for each of the ugrizy filters. A combination of the LSST sub-arcsecond astrometry, six-band photometry, and unprecedented cadence will enable the most efficient AGN selection, with additional characterization through the use of sophisticated star-galaxy separation techniques. The time-domain nature of the survey will provide invaluable information on the physics of the AGN central engine, as well as on transient fueling events, and will allow real-time alerts that will trigger follow-up observations. Several LSST "deep drilling" fields will help discover the faintest AGN at high redshift, enhancing the value of current and planned multiwavelength pencil-beam surveys while providing hours-to-years temporal information on thousands of AGN. The wide ranges of both luminosity and redshift spanned by LSST, including the discovery of over 1000 quasars at z>6.5, will dramatically improve the quantification of the optical AGN luminosity function. Measurements of AGN clustering at high redshift will be used to determine the relationship between AGN and dark matter. The discovery of about 8000 gravitationally lensed quasars, including 1000 systems with measurable time delays, will place significantly tighter constraints on key cosmological parameters.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe via a suite of four instruments, covering a very wide energy range, from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. These instruments include a high-resolution, high-throughput spectrometer sensitive over 0.3-2 keV with high spectral resolution of Delta E < 7 eV, enabled by a micro-calorimeter array located in the focal plane of thin-foil X-ray optics; hard X-ray imaging spectrometers covering 5-80 keV, located in the focal plane of multilayer-coated, focusing hard X-ray mirrors; a wide-field imaging spectrometer sensitive over 0.4-12 keV, with an X-ray CCD camera in the focal plane of a soft X-ray telescope; and a non-focusing Compton-camera type soft gamma-ray detector, sensitive in the 40-600 keV band. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution, will enable the pursuit of a wide variety of important science themes.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We constrain gas and dark matter (DM) parameters of galaxy groups and clusters, by comparing X-ray scaling relations to theoretical expectations, obtained assuming that the gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with the DM and follows a polytropic relation. We vary four parameters: the gas polytropic index Gamma, its temperature at large radii T_xi, the DM logarithmic slope at large radii zeta and its concentration c_vir. When comparing the model to the observed mass-temperature (M-T) relation of local clusters, our results are independent of both T_xi and c_vir. We thus obtain constraints on Gamma, by fixing the DM profile, and on zeta, by fixing the gas profile. For an NFW DM profile, we find that 6/5<Gamma<13/10, which is consistent with numerical simulations and observations of individual clusters. Taking 6/5<Gamma<13/10 allows the DM profile to be slightly steeper than the NFW profile at large radii. Upon including local groups, we constrain the mass-dependence of Gamma and the value of T_xi. Interestingly, with Gamma=6/5 and zeta=-3, we reproduce the observed steepening/breaking of the M-T relation at low M, if 10^6 K<T_xi<10^7 K, consistent with simulations and observations of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. When extrapolated to high redshift z, the model with a constant Gamma reproduces the expected self-similar behaviour. We also account for the observed, non-self-similar relations provided by some high-z clusters, as they provide constraints on the evolution of Gamma. Comparing our model to the observed luminosity-temperature relation, we discriminate between different M-c_vir relations: a weak dependence of c_vir on M is currently preferred by data. This simple theoretical model accounts for much of the complexity of recent, improved X-ray scaling relations, provided that we allow for a mild dependence of Gamma on M or for T_xi consistent with intercluster values. [abridged]
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2011; 422(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From a sample of 12 well-observed Type Ia supernovae, we find clear evidence of correlations between early phase (U-B), (V-R), and (V-I) colors and the velocity shifts of the [Fe II] \lambda 7155 and [Ni II] \lambda 7378 nebular lines measured from late-phase spectra. As these lines are thought to trace the ashes of the initial deflagration process, our findings provide additional support to the new paradigm of off-center explosions in Type Ia supernovae, and we interpret these correlations as viewing angle effects in the observed colors. We also show that the nebular velocity shifts are related to the strength and width of the Ca II H&K and IR-triplet lines near-maximum light. The evidence presented here implies that the viewing angle must be taken into account when deriving extinction values and distances in future cosmological studies based on Type Ia supernovae.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2011; 534. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the use of the bispectrum for understanding quasi-periodic oscillations. The bispectrum is a statistic which probes the relations between the relative phases of the Fourier spectrum at different frequencies. The use of the bispectrum allows us to break the degeneracies between different models for time series which produce identical power spectra. We look at data from several observations of GRS 1915+105 when the source shows strong quasi-periodic oscillations and strong broad-band noise components in its power spectrum. We show that, despite strong similarities in the power spectrum, the bispectra can differ strongly. In all cases, there are frequency ranges where the bicoherence, a measure of non-linearity, is strong for frequencies involving the frequency of the quasi-periodic oscillations, indicating that the quasi-periodic oscillations are coupled to the noise components, rather than being generated independently. We compare the bicoherences from the data to simple models, finding some qualitative similarities.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2011; 413(3):1819 - 1827. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of an eclipsing cataclysmic variable with eclipse depths >5.7 mag, orbital period 94.657 minutes, and peak brightness V ~ 18 at J2000 position 17h25m54.s8, –64°38'39''. Detected by visual inspection of images from Yale University's QUEST camera on the European Southern Observatory 1.0 m Schmidt telescope at La Silla, we obtained light curves in B, V, R, I, z, and J with SMARTS 1.3 m and 1.0 m telescopes at Cerro Tololo and spectra from 3500 to 9000 Å with the SOAR 4.3 m telescope at Cerro Pachon. The optical light curves show a deep, 5-minute eclipse immediately followed by a shallow 38-minute eclipse and then sinusoidal variation. No eclipses appear in J. During the deep eclipse we measure V–J > 7.1, corresponding to a spectral type M8 or later secondary, consistent with the dynamical constraints. The estimated distance is 150 ps. The spectra show strong hydrogen emission lines, Doppler broadened by 600-1300 km s–1, oscillating with radial velocity that peaks at mid deep eclipse with semi-amplitude 500 ± 22 km s–1. We suggest that LSQ172554.8-643839 is a polar with a low-mass secondary viewed at high inclination. No known radio or X-ray source coincides with the new object's location.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2011; 732(1):51. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxy formation is significantly modulated by energy output from supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies which grow in highly efficient luminous quasar phases. The timescale on which black holes transition into and out of such phases is, however, unknown. We present the first measurement of the shutdown timescale for an individual quasar using X-ray observations of the nearby galaxy IC 2497, which hosted a luminous quasar no more than 70,000 years ago that is still seen as a light echo in "Hanny's Voorwerp," but whose present-day radiative output is lower by at least two, and more likely by over four, orders of magnitude. This extremely rapid shutdown provides new insight into the physics of accretion in supermassive black holes and may signal a transition of the accretion disk to a radiatively inefficient state.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 10/2010; 724(1):L30. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV) . The micro-calorimeter system is developed by an international collaboration led by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~7 eV provided by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. Comment: 18 pages, 12 figures, Proceedings of the SPIE Astronomical Instrumentation "Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2010: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray"
    10/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analytic formulation for the equilibrium gas density profile of early-type galaxies that explicitly includes the contribution of stars in the gravitational potential. We build a realistic model for an isolated elliptical galaxy and explore the equilibrium gas configurations as a function of multiple parameters. For an assumed central gas temperature k_B*T_0=0.6 keV, we find that neglecting the gravitational effects of stars, which can contribute substantially in the innermost regions, leads to an underestimate of the enclosed baryonic gas mass by up to ~65% at the effective radius, and by up to ~15% at the NFW scale radius, depending on the stellar baryon fraction. This formula is therefore important for estimating the baryon fraction in an unbiased fashion. These new hydrostatic equilibrium solutions, derived for the isothermal and polytropic cases, can also be used to generate more realistic initial conditions for simulations of elliptical galaxies. Moreover, the new formulation is relevant when interpreting X-ray data. We compare our composite isothermal model to the standard beta-model used to fit X-ray observations of early-type galaxies, to determine the value of the NFW scale radius r_s. Assuming a 10% stellar baryon fraction, we find that the exclusion of stars from the gravitational potential leads to (i) an underestimate of r_s by ~80%, and to (ii) an overestimate of the enclosed dark matter at r_s by a factor of ~2, compared to the equivalent beta-model fit results when stars are not taken into account. For higher stellar mass fractions, a beta-model is unable to accurately reproduce our solution, indicating that when the observed surface brightness profile of an isolated elliptical galaxy is found to be well fitted by a beta-model, the stellar mass fraction cannot be much greater than ~10%.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2010; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and visual classifications of morphology from the Galaxy Zoo project to study black hole growth in the nearby universe (z < 0.05) and to break down the active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxy population by color, stellar mass, and morphology. We find that the black hole growth at luminosities >1040 erg s–1 in early- and late-type galaxies is fundamentally different. AGN host galaxies as a population have a broad range of stellar masses (1010-1011 M ☉), reside in the green valley of the color-mass diagram and their central black holes have median masses around 106.5 M ☉. However, by comparing early- and late-type AGN host galaxies to their non-active counterparts, we find several key differences: in early-type galaxies, it is preferentially the galaxies with the least massive black holes that are growing, while in late-type galaxies, it is preferentially the most massive black holes that are growing. The duty cycle of AGNs in early-type galaxies is strongly peaked in the green valley below the low-mass end (1010 M ☉) of the red sequence at stellar masses where there is a steady supply of blue cloud progenitors. The duty cycle of AGNs in late-type galaxies on the other hand peaks in massive (1011 M ☉) green and red late-types which generally do not have a corresponding blue cloud population of similar mass. At high-Eddington ratios (L/L Edd>0.1), the only population with a substantial fraction of AGNs are the low-mass green valley early-type galaxies. Finally, the Milky Way likely resides in the "sweet spot" on the color-mass diagram where the AGN duty cycle of late-type galaxies is highest. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the role of AGNs in the evolution of galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2010; 711(1):284. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use data from large surveys of the local Universe (SDSS+Galaxy Zoo) to show that the galaxy-black hole connection is linked to host morphology at a fundamental level. The fraction of early-type galaxies with actively growing black holes, and therefore the AGN duty cycle, declines significantly with increasing black hole mass. Late-type galaxies exhibit the opposite trend: the fraction of actively growing black holes increases with black hole mass. Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Proceedings of the IAU Symposium no. 267, "Co-Evolution of Central Black Holes and Galaxies: Feeding and Feedback", eds. B.M. Peterson, R.S. Somerville and T. Storchi-Bergmann
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 02/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultane-ous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard "low states". Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the "focused wind" from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary's focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8–300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations, and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c 2 . All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum-dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is > 40 GM/c 2 .
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2010; 18. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With its large collection area, broad-band energy coverage from optical/NIR (0.3 to 2.2 micron) to soft/hard X-ray (0.1-600 keV), all-sky monitoring capability, and on-board follow-up, the proposed Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope mission (EXIST, see L. Natalucci contribution at this conference) has been designed to properly tackle the study of the AGN phenomenon and the role that SMBH play in the Universe. In particular EXIST will carry out an unprecedented survey above 10 keV (a factor ~20 increase in hard X-ray sensitivity compared to current and prior X-ray missions) of SMBH activity, not just in space but also in time and over a significant expanded energy range; this strategy will overcome previous selection biases, will break the "multi-wavelength" identification bottleneck and will dramatically increase the number of AGN detected above 10 keV that are amenable to detailed follow-up studies (~50000 AGN are expected). We discuss here on few selected AGN science topics enabled by the unique combination of EXIST's instruments. In particular EXIST will enable major progress in understanding: i) when and where SMBH are active in the Universe (by revealing and measuring heavily obscured accretion in the local - z<0.5 - Universe), ii) the physics of how SMBH accrete (by studying the broad-band X-ray spectra and variability properties of an unbiased and significant sample of AGN), and iii) the link between accretion power and jet/outflow power (by using observations of blazars). Last but not least EXIST's ability to find powerful, but very rare blazars, enables it to probe the appearance of the very first SMBH in the Universe allowing us to set strong constraints on the models of SMBH formation and early growth in the Universe.
    Proceedings of The Extreme sky: Sampling the Universe above 10 keV, Otranto (Lecce), Italy; 10/2009

Publication Stats

3k Citations
352.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 1997–2014
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Astronomy
      • • Department of Physics
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2001
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States