P D Greig

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (203)857.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) are well-recognized risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The characteristics and clinical outcomes of HCC arising from these conditions may differ. This study was conducted to compare the outcomes of HCC associated with HBV and HCV after liver resection. Of 386 liver resections for HCC performed between July 1992 and April 2011, 181 patients had HBV and 74 patients had HCV. Patients with HBV/HCV coinfections (n = 20), non-HBV/HCV etiology (n = 94), and postoperative death within 3 months (n = 17) were excluded. Patient, tumor characteristics, and perioperative and oncologic outcomes were compared between patients with HBV and HCV. The patients with HBV had better overall survival (OS) than patients with HCV (68 vs. 59 months, p = 0.03); however, there was no difference in recurrence-free survival (RFS) between the groups (44 vs. 45 months, p = 0.1). The factors predictive of OS based on multivariate analyses included: vascular invasion [p < 0.01, hazard ratio (HR) = 3.4], Child-Pugh Score (p < 0.01, HR = 4.8), and underlying liver disease (HCV vs HBV) (p = 0.01, HR = 1.9). Vascular invasion and tumor number (p < 0.01, HR = 2.3 and p < 0.01, HR = 2.1) were independent predictors of RFS. OS but not RFS after liver resection for HCC is better in patients with HBV than HCV. This survival advantage for HBV patients may be due to differences in tumor biology and outcomes after disease recurrence.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Combined pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and colonic resection may be necessary to achieve an R0 resection of peri-ampullary tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with this procedure.MethodsA retrospective cohort study was performed comparing 607 patients who underwent a standard pancreaticoduodenectomy (S-PD) to 28 patients who had a concomitant colon resection and PD (PD-colon) over a 10-year period at an academic centre.ResultsPatients in the PD-colon group were more likely to have received neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± radiation (3/28, 11% versus 14/607, 2%, P = 0.024). Operative time was also longer (530 versus 410 min, P < 0.001) and they were more likely to have had portal vein resections (9/28, 32% versus 76/607, 13%, P = 0.007). There was no difference in the intra-operative blood loss, length of stay, or overall complication rates. The PD-colon group had a higher rate of severe post-operative bleeding (4/28, 11% versus 8/607, 1%, P = 0.002). The post-operative mortality rates for the PD-colon and PD groups were 2/28 (7%) and 8/607 (1%), respectively (P = 0.068).ConclusionsPD-colon has an acceptable risk of peri-operative morbidity compared with S-PD in well-selected patients.
    HPB 05/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dense tissue infiltrates of IgG4+ plasma cells >50/high-powered field (HPF) are purportedly highly specific for IgG4-related disease. However, the frequency and significance of liver-infiltrating IgG4+ plasma cells in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) applying these cut-offs has not been determined. We sought to determine the incidence of intrahepatic IgG4-positive staining in PSC patients undergoing transplantation, correlating findings with clinical parameters. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on liver explants obtained between 1991 and 2009. Of 122 explants obtained, hilar IgG4+ staining was found to be mild (10–29 IgG4+ cells/HPF) in 23.0%, moderate (30–50/HPF) in 9.0% and marked (>50/HPF) in 15.6%. Marked hilar lymphoplasmacytic infiltration was significantly associated with marked hilar IgG4+ staining (P < 0.001). No patient had marked peripheral IgG4+ staining, although mild and moderate staining was observed in 24.5% and 3.3% respectively. Marked hilar IgG4+ staining was significantly associated with the presence of dominant biliary strictures (P = 0.01) and need for biliary stenting (P = 0.001). There did not, however, exist any significant differences in the age at PSC diagnosis, presence of inflammatory bowel disease or extrahepatic autoimmune disease, frequency of cholangiocarcinoma, interval between diagnosis and transplantation, or post-transplant PSC recurrence or survival. Of 51 control liver sections (PBC = 18; HCV = 19; HBV = 8; AIH = 6), none had marked or moderate hilar IgG4+ staining, whereas mild staining was seen in only 10% (P < 0.001). Marked (>50/HPF) hilar IgG4+ lymphoplasmacytic infiltration is frequently observed in PSC and associated with the presence of dominant biliary strictures. However, unlike serum IgG4+, this does not seemingly associate with clinical disease course.
    International Journal of Experimental Pathology 04/2014; · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014; 218(2):306-7. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are the second most common pancreatic neoplasms, exhibiting a complex spectrum of clinical behaviors. To examine the clinico-pathological characteristics associated with long-term prognosis we reviewed 119 patients with pNETs treated in a tertiary referral center using the WHO 2010 grading and the American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer (AJCC/UICC) staging systems, with a median follow-up of 38 months. Tumor size, immunohistochemistry (IHC) profiling and patient characteristics-determining stage were analyzed. Primary clinical outcomes were disease progression or death. The mean age at presentation was 52 years; 55% were female patients, 11% were associated with MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia 1) or VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau); mean tumor diameter was 3.3 cm (standard deviation, SD) (2.92). The clinical presentation was incidental in 39% with endocrine hypersecretion syndromes in only 24% of cases. Nevertheless, endocrine hormone tissue immunoreactivity was identified in 67 (56.3%) cases. According to WHO 2010 grading, 50 (42%), 38 (31.9%), and 3 (2.5%) of tumors were low grade (G1), intermediate grade (G2), and high grade (G3), respectively. Disease progression occurred more frequently in higher WHO grades (G1: 6%, G2: 10.5%, G3: 67%, P = 0.026) and in more advanced AJCC stages (I: 2%, IV: 63%, P = 0.033). Shorter progression free survival (PFS) was noted in higher grades (G3 vs. G2; 21 vs. 144 months; P = 0.015) and in more advanced AJCC stages (stage I: 218 months, IV: 24 months, P < 0.001). Liver involvement (20 vs. 173 months, P < 0.001) or histologically positive lymph nodes (33 vs. 208 months, P < 0.001) were independently associated with shorter PFS. Conversely, tissue endocrine hormone immunoreactivity, independent of circulating levels was significantly associated with less aggressive disease. Age, gender, number of primary tumors, and heredity were not significantly associated with prognosis. Although the AJCC staging and WHO 2010 grading systems are useful in predicting disease progression, tissue endocrine hormone profiling provides additional information of potentially important prognostic value.
    Cancer medicine. 10/2013; 2(5):701-711.
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    ABSTRACT: The role of liver resection in patients with multifocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with well preserved liver function is controversial. This study was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of such patients. This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent liver resection for multifocal HCC between 1992 and 2011. Postoperative outcomes, survival and predictors of outcomes were analysed. Of 46 patients who underwent hepatic resection for multifocal HCC, 38 had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B disease. Major hepatectomy was performed in 27 patients, and major complications occurred in nine (20 per cent). The 90-day postoperative mortality rate was 7 per cent. Overall 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 78, 64, 59 and 53 per cent respectively (median 70 months), whereas corresponding recurrence-free survival rates were 53, 32, 30 and 27 per cent (median 14 months). Recurrence developed in 28 (61 per cent) of the 46 patients, affecting the liver only in 22. Three-quarters of patients with recurrence underwent further therapy. Major hepatectomy (hazard ratio (HR) 0.37, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.14 to 0·95; P = 0·038), microvascular (HR 3·44, 1·35 to 8·74; P = 0·009) and macrovascular (HR 2·68, 1·11 to 6·43; P = 0·028) invasion, and cirrhosis (HR 3·15, 1·12 to 8·86; P = 0·029) were associated with overall survival. Microvascular invasion (HR 2·81, 1·06 to 7·40; P = 0·037), cirrhosis (HR 3·12, 1·41 to 6·88; P < 0·001) and bilobar disease (HR 2·93, 1·09 to 7·88; P = 0·033) were associated with recurrence-free survival. In selected patients with multifocal HCC and well preserved liver function, long-term survival is possible after liver resection and subsequent aggressive treatment of recurrence.
    British Journal of Surgery 10/2013; 100(11):1516-22. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of portal vein (PV) involvement by pancreatic adenocarcinoma during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of unplanned and planned PV resections as part of PD. An analysis of PD over 11 years was performed. Patients who had undergone PV resection (PV-PD) were identified, and categorized into those who had undergone planned or unplanned resection. Postoperative and oncological outcomes were compared. Of 249 patients who underwent PD for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 66 (26·5 per cent) had PV-PD, including 27 (41 per cent) planned and 39 (59 per cent) unplanned PV resections. Twenty-five of 27 planned PV resections were circumferential PV-PD, whereas 25 of 39 unplanned PV resections were partial PV-PD. Planned PV resections were performed in slightly younger patients (mean(s.d.) 60(9) versus 65(10) years; P = 0·031), and associated with longer operating times (mean(s.d.) 602(131) versus 458(83) min; P < 0·001) and more major complications (26 versus 5 per cent; P = 0·026). Planned PV resections were associated with a lower rate of positive margins (4 versus 44 per cent; P < 0·001) despite being carried out for larger tumours (mean(s.d.) 3·9(1·4) versus 2·9(1·0) cm; P = 0·002). There was no difference in survival between the two groups (P = 0·998). On multivariable analysis, margin status was a significant predictor of survival. Although planned PV resections for pancreatic adenocarcinoma were associated with higher rates of postoperative morbidity than unplanned resections, R0 resection rates were better.
    British Journal of Surgery 09/2013; 100(10):1349-56. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among patients with initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM), a subset are rendered resectable following the administration of systemic chemotherapy. This study reports the results achieved in liver resections performed at a single hepatobiliary referral centre after downsizing chemotherapy in patients with initially unresectable CLM. All liver resections for CLM performed over a 10-year period at the Toronto General Hospital were considered. Data on initially non-resectable patients who received systemic therapy and later underwent surgery were included for analysis. Between January 2002 and July 2012, 754 liver resections for CLM were performed. A total of 24 patients were found to meet the study inclusion criteria. Bilobar CLM were present in 23 of these 24 patients. The median number of tumours was seven (range: 2-15) and median tumour size was 7.0 cm (range: 1.0-12.8 cm) before systemic therapy. All patients received oxaliplatin- or irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Fourteen patients received combined treatment with bevacizumab. Negative margin (R0) resection was accomplished in 21 of 24 patients. There was no perioperative mortality. Ten patients suffered perioperative morbidity. Eighteen patients suffered recurrence of disease within 9 months. Rates of disease-free survival at 1, 2 and 3 years were 47.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 30.4-74.6%], 23.8% (95% CI 11.1-51.2%) and 19.0% (95% CI 7.9-46.0%), respectively. Overall survival at 1, 2 and 3 years was 91.5% (95% CI 80.8-100%), 65.3% (95% CI 48.5-88.0%) and 55.2% (95% CI 37.7-80.7%), respectively. Liver resection in initially unresectable CLM can be performed with low rates of morbidity and mortality in patients who respond to systemic chemotherapy, although these patients do experience a high frequency of disease recurrence.
    HPB 08/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are high rates of recurrence after definitive surgery in biliary tract cancer patients. We reviewed the use and effectiveness of adjuvant therapy (AT; chemotherapy±radiotherapy) in a single institution series. Characteristics, treatment details, and follow-up data of all patients with biliary tract cancer who had definitive surgery from January 1987 to September 2011 were reviewed. The association between baseline variables and disease-free survival/overall survival (OS) were tested using Cox proportional hazard analysis in the univariable and multivariable settings. Analysis included 296 patients (58% male; median age, 63 y). Negative or microscopically positive resections were reported in 42% and 14%, respectively, with 44% not reported. Node positivity was reported in 35% patients. AT was given in 28% of patients with 59% receiving chemotherapy and 35% concurrent chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Disease recurred in 60% patients. AT was associated with significantly improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.41; P=0.02). Compared with R0 resection, patients with R1 resection derived significantly increased benefit from AT (P for difference 0.02). In the node positive population (n=103), AT was associated with significantly improved OS (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.95; P=0.03). Patients with R1 resection and node positive disease receiving AT after definitive surgery seem to derive OS advantage. Large prospective trials are needed to confirm these data.
    American journal of clinical oncology 07/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: An aberrant right hepatic artery (aRHA) may pose technical and oncologic challenges during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a result of its proximity to the head of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an aRHA on resectability, and perioperative and oncologic outcomes after PD for PA. METHODS: An 11-year retrospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 289 patients with PA scheduled for PD with intent for resection were included in the study. RESULTS: Of 289 patients, 249 underwent PD and 40 were found to have unresectable tumours. Incidences of aRHA in the resectable (14.9%) and unresectable (7.5%) groups were similar (P = 0.2); the main reasons for aborting PD were not directly related to the presence of an aRHA. In patients who underwent resection, complications occurred more frequently in the standard PD group (41.5% versus 24.3%; P = 0.04), but there was no difference in rates of positive margin (R1) resection (10.8% versus 16.0%; P = 0.4) or median overall survival (17 months versus 23 months; P = 0.1) between patients with and without an aRHA. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an aRHA in patients with PA does not affect resectability. In patients with resectable tumours, the presence of an aRHA does not increase morbidity or R1 resection rates and does not impact on overall survival.
    HPB 06/2013; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Informed consent for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) requires that patients are provided with accurate information on the relative benefits and risks of this procedure compared with deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). There is strong evidence to suggest that LDLT facilitates timely transplantation to patients; however, information on the relative morbidity and death risks after LDLT as compared with DDLT is limited. A matched cohort comparison was performed matching recipients for age, MELD, date of transplant, gender, primary diagnosis, and recipient surgeon. A total of 145 LDLT were matched with 145 DDLT. LDLT had a higher overall rate of perioperative surgical complications (P = 0.009). Most of this difference was caused by a higher rate of biliary complications. However, the complications that occurred in the DDLT group tended to be more serious (P = 0.037), and these complications were strongly associated with graft loss in multivariate analysis. The 3- and 5-year graft and patient survivals were similar. In conclusion, DDLT and LDLT have different complication profiles, but comparable hospital stays and survival rates. In areas of deceased donor organ shortages, LDLT offers an excellent alternative to DDLT because it facilitates access to a liver transplant without compromising short- or medium-term recipient outcomes.
    Transplant International 05/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Controversy exists regarding the preferred biliary drainage technique in patients with Klatskin tumors because few comparative studies exist. This study compared outcomes of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients (N = 129) with Klatskin tumors treated with initial EBD or PTBD were identified, and their clinical histories were retrospectively reviewed. The primary endpoint was the time to therapeutic success (TTS), defined as the time between the first drainage and a total bilirubin measurement of 40 μmol/L or lower. RESULTS: EBD was the first biliary decompression procedure performed in 87 patients; PTBD was performed first in 42. Technical success rates (78% with EBD vs 98% with PTBD; P = .004) and therapeutic success rates (49% vs 79%, respectively; P = .002) were significantly lower in the EBD group than in the PTBD group. Forty-four patients in the EBD group (51%) subsequently underwent PTBD before therapeutic success was achieved or antitumoral treatment was started. Median TTSs were 61 days in the EBD group and 44 days in the PTBD group, and multivariate analysis showed a hazard ratio of 0.63 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.99; P = .045). In patients treated with surgery or chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy, median times to treatment were 76 and 68 days in the EBD and PTBD groups, respectively (P = .76). Cholangitis occurred in 25% and 21% of patients in the EBD and PTBD groups, respectively (P = .34). CONCLUSIONS: PTBD should be seriously considered for biliary decompression when treating patients with Klatskin tumor.
    Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 11/2012; · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental studies suggest that the regenerating liver provides a "fertile field" for the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, clinical studies report conflicting results comparing living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for HCC. Thus, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared after LDLT and DDLT for HCC in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Twelve studies satisfied eligibility criteria for DFS, including 633 LDLT and 1232 DDLT. Twelve studies satisfied eligibility criteria for OS, including 637 LDLT and 1050 DDLT. Altogether, there were 16 unique studies; 1, 2, and 13 of these were rated as high, medium, and low quality, respectively. Studies were heterogeneous, non-randomized, and mostly retrospective. The combined hazard ratio was 1.59 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-2.49; I(2) = 50.07%) for DFS after LDLT vs. DDLT for HCC, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.73-1.27; I(2 ) = 5.68%) for OS. This analysis provides evidence of lower DFS after LDLT compared with DDLT for HCC. Improved study design and reporting is required in future research to ascribe the observed difference in DFS to study bias or biological risk specifically associated with LDLT.
    Clinical Transplantation 11/2012; · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Routine induction therapy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been well described. We reviewed outcomes of induction therapy with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) or basiliximab within 1 year of LDLT. Between 2002 and 2007, 184 adults underwent LDLT and received induction therapy in addition to standard immunosuppression. Acute cellular rejection (ACR) developed in 17 of 130 patients (13.1%) who received rATG and 13 of 54 patients (24.1%) who received basiliximab (P = .066). The interval between transplantation and rejection as well as rejection severity was similar in patients who received rATG and those who received basiliximab. Hepatitis C (HCV) recurrence requiring initiation of antiviral therapy was more common in patients who received rATG compared with basiliximab (34.5% vs 8.7%; P = .021), and in those who received induction combined with tacrolimus as opposed to cyclosporine (38.5% vs 3.9%; P = .001). rATG and basiliximab were associated with excellent patient and graft survivals well as low rates of opportunistic infections and malignancies. Induction with rATG or basiliximab was well tolerated and highly effective at preventing ACR within 1 year of LDLT, but may be associated with a higher risk of clinically significant HCV recurrence in some patients.
    Transplantation Proceedings 06/2012; 44(5):1351-6. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported higher rates of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) versus deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). It is unclear whether this difference is due to a specific biological effect unique to the LDLT procedure or to other factors such as patient selection. We compared the overall survival (OS) rates and the rates of HCC recurrence after LDLT and DDLT at our center. Between January 1996 and September 2009, 345 patients with HCC were identified: 287 (83%) had DDLT and 58 (17%) had LDLT. The OS rates were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, whereas competing risks methods were used to determine the HCC recurrence rates. The LDLT and DDLT groups were similar with respect to most clinical parameters, but they had different median waiting times (3.1 versus 5.3 months, P = 0.003) and median follow-up times (30 versus 38.1 months, P = 0.02). The type of transplant did not affect any of the measured cancer outcomes. The OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were equivalent: 91.3%, 75.2%, and 75.2%, respectively, for the LDLT group and 90.5%, 79.7%, and 74.6%, respectively, for DDLT (P = 0.62). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year HCC recurrence rates were also similar: 8.8%, 10.7%, and 15.4%, respectively, for the LDLT group and 7.5%, 14.8%, and 17.0%, respectively, for the DDLT group (P = 0.54). A regression analysis identified microvascular invasion (but not the graft type) as a predictor of HCC recurrence. In conclusion, in well-matched cohorts of LDLT and DDLT recipients, LDLT and DDLT provide similarly low recurrence rates and high survival rates for the treatment of HCC.
    Liver Transplantation 12/2011; 18(3):315-22. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biliary strictures after live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) are frequent and difficult to manage. The outcomes of surgical correction of biliary anastomotic complications remain unclear. Clinical outcomes of patients requiring surgical revision of their biliary anastomosis following LDLT were analyzed. Of 296 consecutive right lobe LDLTs, approximately 21% of patients developed biliary strictures. Of these patients, twelve required surgical revision of a biliary anastomotic stricture. For patients who had operative repair, the average time from transplantation to stricture diagnosis was 7.6 months. Mean time to surgical correction was 8.2 months from the time of stricture diagnosis. Eight of 12 (67%) patients no longer require any intervention with a mean follow-up of 43.7 months. Two of 12 patients require intermittent medical treatment for presumed cholangitis, but have not required biliary interventions. Two patients have required chronic PTC catheter drainage. The 30-day postoperative morbidity was 58%, with four serious (Grade 3) complications occurring in three patients. Early stricture repair (<6 months from diagnosis of stricture) and younger donor grafts were associated with better surgical outcomes. Timely surgical correction of biliary strictures is successful and durable in appropriately selected patients. However, operative repair is associated with significant postoperative morbidity.
    Transplant International 11/2011; 25(1):69-77. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Living liver donation is a successful treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. Most adults are provided with a right lobe graft to ensure a generous recipient liver volume. Some centers are re-exploring the use of smaller left lobe grafts to potentially reduce the donor risk. However, the evidence showing that the donor risk is lower with left lobe donation is inconsistent, and most previous studies have been limited by potential learning curve effects, small sample sizes, or poorly matched comparison groups. To address these deficiencies, we conducted a case-control study. Forty-five consecutive patients who underwent left hepatectomy (LH; n = 4) or left lateral segmentectomy (LLS; n = 41) were compared with matched controls who underwent right hepatectomy (RH) or extended right hepatectomy (ERH). The overall complication rates of the 3 groups were similar (31%-37%). There were no grade 4 or 5 complications. There were more grade 3 complications for the RH patients (13.3%) and the ERH patients (15.6%) versus the LH/LLS patients (2.2%). The extent of the liver resection significantly correlated with the peak international normalized ratio (INR), the days to INR normalization, and the peak bilirubin level. A univariate analysis demonstrated that hepatectomy, the spared volume percentage, and the peak bilirubin level were strongly associated with grade 3 complications. A higher peak bilirubin level, which correlated with a lower residual liver volume, was associated with grade 3 complications in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.005). RH and grade 3 complications were associated with an increased length of stay (>7 days) in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion, this analysis demonstrates a significant correlation between the residual liver volume and liver dysfunction, serious adverse postoperative events, and longer hospital stays. Donor safety should be the first priority of all living liver donor programs. We propose that the surgical procedure removing the smallest amount of the liver required to provide adequate recipient graft function should become the standard of care for living liver donation.
    Liver Transplantation 08/2011; 17(12):1404-11. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A standardized definition of post-hepatectomy haemorrhage (PHH) has not yet been established. An international study group of hepatobiliary surgeons from high-volume centres was convened and a definition of PHH was developed together with a grading of severity considering the impact on patients' clinical management. The definition of PHH varies strongly within the hepatic surgery literature. PHH is defined as a drop in haemoglobin level > 3 g/dl post-operatively compared with the post-operative baseline level and/or any post-operative transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) for a falling haemoglobin and/or the need for radiological intervention (such as embolization) and/or re-laparotomy to stop bleeding. Evidence of intra-abdominal bleeding should be obtained by imaging or blood loss via the abdominal drains if present. Transfusion of up to two units of PRBC is considered as being Grade A PHH. Grade B PHH requires transfusion of more than two units of PRBC, whereas the need for invasive re-intervention such as embolization and/ or re-laparotomy defines Grade C PHH. The proposed definition and grading of severity of PHH enables valid comparisons of results from different studies. It is easily applicable in clinical routine and should be applied in future trials to standardize reporting of complications.
    HPB 08/2011; 13(8):528-35. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic resection in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) is associated with a risk of post-operative liver failure and higher morbidity than patients without liver disease. There is no universal risk stratification scheme for CLD patients undergoing resection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between routine pre-operative laboratory investigations, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), indocyanine green retention at 15 min (ICG15) and post-operative outcomes in CLD patients undergoing liver resection. A retrospective review of patients undergoing resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the University Health Network was preformed. ICG15 results, pre- and post-operative laboratory results were obtained from clinical records. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were calculated for associations between pre-operative factors and post-operative outcomes using multivariate logistic regression adjusting for patient age and number of segments resected. Between 2001 and 2005, 129 CLD patients underwent surgical resection for HCC. Procedures included 51 (40%) resections of ≤ 2 segments, 52 (40%) hemihepatectomies and 25 (19%) extended hepatic resections. Thirty- and 90-day post-operative mortality was 1.6% and 4.1%, respectively. Prolonged (>10 days) hospital length of stay (LOS) was independently associated with an ICG15 >15% {AOR [95% confidence interval (CI)]= 8.5 (1.4-51)} and an international normalized ratio (INR) > 1.2 [AOR (95% CI) = 5.0 (1.4-18.6)]. An ICG15 > 15% and MELD score were independent predictors of prolonged LOS. An ICG15 > 15% was also independently associated with MELD > 20 on post-operative day 3 [AOR (95% CI) = 24.3 (1.8-319)]. Elevated ICG retention was independently associated with post-operative liver dysfunction and morbidity. The utility of ICG in combination with other biochemical measures to predict outcomes after hepatic resection in CLD patients requires further prospective study.
    HPB 08/2011; 13(8):559-65. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Liver Transplantation 05/2011; 17 Suppl 2:S139-46. · 3.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
857.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1989–2014
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of General Surgery
      • • Department of Medicine
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000–2013
    • University Health Network
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Medical Imaging
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1987–2013
    • UHN: Toronto General Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2010
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2006
    • The Princess Margaret Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2004–2005
    • Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto
      • • Department of Medical Imaging
      • • Department of Surgery
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Division of Surgery V
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2003–2005
    • The University of Calgary
      • Department of Surgery
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Canadian Institute for Health Information
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1989–1996
    • SickKids
      • • Division of Pathology
      • • Department of Surgery
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1992–1993
    • Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada