Patricia Gober

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

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Publications (71)144.72 Total impact

  • Patricia Gober · Howard S. Wheater
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    ABSTRACT: Socio-hydrology views human activities as endogenous to water system dynamics; it is the interaction between human and biophysical processes that threatens the viability of current water systems through positive feedbacks and unintended consequences. Di Baldassarre et al. implement socio-hydrology as a flood risk problem using the concept of social memory as a vehicle to link human perceptions to flood damage. Their mathematical model has heuristic value in comparing potential flood damages in green versus technological societies. It can also support communities in exploring the potential consequences of policy decisions and evaluating critical policy tradeoffs, for example, between flood protection and economic development. The concept of social memory does not, however, adequately capture the social processes whereby public perceptions are translated into policy action, including the pivotal role played by the media in intensifying or attenuating perceived flood risk, the success of policy entrepreneurs in keeping flood hazard on the public agenda during short windows of opportunity for policy action, and different societal approaches to managing flood risk that derive from cultural values and economic interests. We endorse the value of seeking to capture these dynamics in a simplified conceptual framework, but favor a broader conceptualization of socio-hydrology that includes a knowledge exchange component, including the way modeling insights and scientific results are communicated to floodplain managers. The social processes used to disseminate the products of socio-hydrological research are as important as the research results themselves in determining whether modeling is used for real-world decision making.
    Water Resources Research 04/2015; 51:n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1002/2015WR016945 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    Wen-Ching Chuang · Patricia Gober
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    ABSTRACT: Vulnerability mapping based on vulnerability indices is a pragmatic approach for highlighting the areas in a city where people are at the greatest risk of harm from heat, but the manner in which vulnerability is conceptualized influences the results. We tested a generic national heat-vulnerability index, based on a 10-variable indicator framework, using data on heat-related hospitalizations in Phoenix. We also identified potential local risk factors not included in the generic indicators. To evaluate the accuracy of the generic index in a city-specific context, we used factor scores, derived from a factor analysis using census tract-level characteristics, as independent variables and heat hospitalizations (with census tracts categorized as zero-, moderate-, or high-incidence) as dependent variables in a multinomial logistic regression model. We also compared the geographical differences between a vulnerability map derived from the generic index and one derived from actual heat-related hospitalizations at the census-tract scale. We found that the national-indicator framework correctly classified just over half (54%) of census tracts in Phoenix. Compared with all census tracts, high-vulnerability tracts that were misclassified by the index as zero-vulnerability tracts had higher average income and higher proportions of residents with a duration of residency < 5 years. The generic indicators of vulnerability are useful, but they are sensitive to scale, measurement, and context. Decision makers need to consider the characteristics of their cities to determine how closely vulnerability maps based on generic indicators reflect actual risk of harm.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 01/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307868 · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Seung-Jae Lee · Heejun Chang · Patricia Gober
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    ABSTRACT: Critical to effective urban climate adaptation is a clearer understanding of the sensitivities of resource demand to changing climatic conditions and land cover situations. We used Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) stochastic procedures to estimate temperature and precipitation at the very small scale of urban Census Block Groups (CBGs) in Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon, and then compared average household water use patterns by climate conditions and land cover characteristics between and within the two cities. Summer household water use was positively related to maximum temperatures and dense vegetation cover in terms of grass cover and trees and shrubs; it was negatively related to precipitation amounts in both cities. Water use was more sensitive to maximum temperature, precipitation levels, and vegetation cover in Phoenix than in Portland. There was substantial intra-city variation with greater sensitivity in urban water use associated with higher densities of trees and shrubs in both cities, but in Phoenix, the highest sensitivities to maximum temperatures occurred in CBGs with the most grass cover while in Portland, high sensitivity was associated with CBGs with the least grass cover. Many of the latter are in highly built-up downtown areas of Portland where artificial irrigation is required to maintain landscapes during the hot summer season. Take-home messages are: (1) BME space/time statistics provide efficient estimates of missing precipitation and temperature data to create continuous high resolution meteorological data that improve water demand analysis and (2) use of landscaping for urban climate adaptation will have differing impacts on water use, depending on local climate conditions, urban layout, and the type of vegetation cover.
    Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 01/2015; 29(4). DOI:10.1007/s00477-014-1015-z · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central to the Smart Growth movement is that compact development reduces vehicle miles traveled, carbon emissions, and water use. Empirical efforts to evaluate compact development have examined residential densities but have not distinguished decreasing lot sizes from multifamily apartments as mechanisms for compact development. Efforts to link design features to water use have emphasized single-family at the expense of multifamily housing. This study isolates the determinants of water use in large (more than fifty units) apartment complexes in the city of Tempe, Arizona. In July 2007, per bedroom water use increased with pool area, dishwashers, and in-unit laundry facilities. We are able to explain nearly 50 percent of the variation in water demand with these variables. These results inform public policy for reducing water use in multifamily housing structures, suggesting strategies to construct and market “green” apartment units.
    The Professional Geographer 08/2014; 66(3). DOI:10.1080/00330124.2013.805627 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using a system dynamics approach, an integrated water resources system model is developed for scenario analysis of the Saskatchewan portion of the transboundary Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada. The water resources component is constructed by emulating an existing Water Resources Management Model. Enhancements include an irrigation sub-model to estimate dynamic irrigation demand, including alternative potential evapotranspiration estimates, and an economic sub-model to estimate the value of water use for various sectors of the economy. Results reveal that the water resources system in Saskatchewan becomes increasingly sensitive to the selection of evapotranspiration algorithm as the irrigation area increases, due to competition between hydropower and agriculture. Preliminary results suggest that irrigation expansion would decrease hydropower production, but might increase the total direct economic benefits to Saskatchewan. However, indirect costs include reduction in lake levels and river flows.
    Environmental Modelling and Software 08/2014; 58:12–26. DOI:10.1016/j.envsoft.2014.03.015 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Environmental policy discussion is replete with references to water security, food security, ecosystem health, community resilience, sustainable development, and sustainable urbanism. These terms are, by their very nature, ambiguous and difficult to define; they allow room, however, for a variety of actors to conceptualize water, food, ecological, economic, and urban problems in ways that allow them to move forward on contentious issues. This article focuses on the idea of water security and asks how it is conceptualized and used for regional policy debate in western Canada. We asked fifty-eight water stakeholders from the Saskatchewan River Basin to define water security, identify major barriers to security, and prioritize water problems. Responses showed there are myriad ways to think about water security, ranging from narrow conceptualizations, such as reliability, quality, and quantity, to broader sustainability perspectives about the nature of resource development and its social and economic consequences. The human dimensions of water security (governance, land use, and competing demands) were assigned higher priority than its biophysical aspects (flooding, droughts, and climate change). Framing water security to emphasize the human capacity to manage uncertain and rapid biophysical and societal change offers the opportunity to unite actors who otherwise would be separated by core environmental values, definitions of water security, provincial context (Alberta vs. Saskatchewan), and occupation.
    The Professional Geographer 01/2014; 67(1):62-71. DOI:10.1080/00330124.2014.883960 · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The connection between scientific knowledge and environmental policy is enhanced through boundary organizations and objects that are perceived to be credible, salient, and legitimate. In this study, water resource decision-makers evaluated the knowledge embedded in WaterSim, an interactive simulation model of water supply and demand presented in an immersive decision theater. Content analysis of individual responses demonstrated that stakeholders were fairly critical of the model's validity, relevance, and bias. Differing perspectives reveal tradeoffs in achieving credible, salient, and legitimate boundary objects, along with the need for iterative processes that engage them in the co-production of knowledge and action.
    Science and Public Policy 12/2013; 37(3). DOI:10.3152/030234210X497726 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on how heat impacts human health has increased as climate change threatens to raise temperatures to new extremes. Excessive heat exposure increases death rates, as well as rates of nonfatal, adverse health outcomes. This study used the negative binomial regression model to examine the relationship between daily maximum temperature, heat index, and heat-related emergency calls in Phoenix, Arizona and Chicago, Illinois, from 2003 to 2006. Using model results, we estimated call volumes in a warmer climate, with temperature increase from 1 to 5.5 °C. We found that: (1) heat-stress calls increase sharply when the temperature exceeds about 35 °C in Chicago and in 45 °C Phoenix; (2) warmer climate could seriously threaten human health and existing emergency response system in Chicago more than in Phoenix. Policies to reduce heat impacts in Phoenix should focus on reducing prolonged heat exposure, while Chicago should build a strong early-warning system for extreme heat events and provide sufficient resources and infrastructure to mitigate heat stress during those events.
    Urban Climate 10/2013; 5:1–18. DOI:10.1016/j.uclim.2013.07.003 · 0.36 Impact Factor
  • Howard Wheater · Patricia Gober
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we discuss the multiple dimensions of water security and define a set of thematic challenges for science, policy and governance, based around cross-scale dynamics, complexity and uncertainty. A case study of the Saskatchewan River basin (SRB) in western Canada is presented, which encompasses many of the water-security challenges faced worldwide. A science agenda is defined based on the development of the SRB as a large-scale observatory to develop the underpinning science and social science needed to improve our understanding of water futures under societal and environmental change. We argue that non-stationarity poses profound challenges for existing science and that new integration of the natural sciences, engineering and social sciences is needed to address decision making under deep uncertainty. We suggest that vulnerability analysis can be combined with scenario-based modelling to address issues of water security and that knowledge translation should be coupled with place-based modelling, adaptive governance and social learning to address the complexity uncertainty and scale dynamics of contemporary water problems.
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 09/2013; 371(2002):20120409. DOI:10.1098/rsta.2012.0409 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The coupled processes of climate change and urbanization pose challenges for water resource management in cities worldwide. Comparing the vulnerabilities of water systems in Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon, this paper examines (1) exposures to these stressors, (2) sensitivities to the associated impacts, and (3) adaptive capacities for responding to realized or anticipated impacts. Based on a case study and survey-based approach, common points of vulnerability include: rising exposures to drier, warmer summers, and suburban growth; increasing sensitivities based on demand hardening; and limited capacities due to institutional and pro-growth pressures. Yet each region also exhibits unique vulnerabilities. Comparatively, Portland shows: amplified exposures to seasonal climatic extremes, heightened sensitivity based on less diversified municipal water sources and policies that favor more trees and other irrigated vegetation, and diminished adaptive capacities because of limited attention to demand management and climate planning for water resources. Phoenix exhibits elevated exposure from rapid growth, heightened sensitivities due to high water demands and widespread increases in residential and commercial uses, and limited adaptive capacities due to weak land use planning and "smart growth" strategies. Unique points of vulnerability suggest pathways for adapting to urban-environmental change, whether through water management or land planning. Greater coordination between the land and water sectors would substantially reduce vulnerabilities in the study regions and beyond.
    Environmental Management 05/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00267-013-0072-2 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study addresses a classic sustainability challenge-the tradeoff between water conservation and temperature amelioration in rapidly growing cities, using Phoenix, Arizona and Portland, Oregon as case studies. An urban energy balance model-LUMPS (Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme)-is used to represent the tradeoff between outdoor water use and nighttime cooling during hot, dry summer months. Tradeoffs were characterized under three scenarios of land use change and three climate-change assumptions. Decreasing vegetation density reduced outdoor water use but sacrificed nighttime cooling. Increasing vegetated surfaces accelerated nighttime cooling, but increased outdoor water use by ~20%. Replacing impervious surfaces with buildings achieved similar improvements in nighttime cooling with minimal increases in outdoor water use; it was the most water-efficient cooling strategy. The fact that nighttime cooling rates and outdoor water use were more sensitive to land use scenarios than climate-change simulations suggested that cities can adapt to a warmer climate by manipulating land use.
    Urban Geography 05/2013; 33(7):1030-1054. DOI:10.2747/0272-3638.33.7.1030 · 1.75 Impact Factor
  • Patricia Gober
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    ABSTRACT: Discriminant analysis was used to investigate the empirical underpinnings of the labels, "Sunbelt" and "Frostbelt." Nine study variables were chosen to represent structural, economic, and population characteristics in 158 SMSAs with 1980 populations over 200,000. The results show that SMSAs in the Sunbelt have lower densities; they house larger minority populations who are less likely to participate in the political process; and their economies are less oriented to manufacturing. In terms of the regional convergence-uneven development debate, results favor the uneven development thesis. The fact that Sunbelt metropolitan areas house populations that are different from their Frostbelt counterparts and perform different social roles and functions in the national space economy suggests they represent a new form of urban development rather than a manifestation of heretofore lagging regions converging with traditional centers of development.
    Urban Geography 05/2013; 5(2):130-145. DOI:10.2747/0272-3638.5.2.130 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    P. Gober · H. S. Wheater
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    ABSTRACT: While there is popular perception that Canada is a water-rich country, the Saskatchewan River Basin (SRB) in Western Canada exemplifies the multiple threats to water security seen worldwide. It is Canada's major food-producing region and home to globally-significant natural resource development. The SRB faces current water challenges stemming from: (1) a series of extreme events, including major flood and drought events, since the turn of the 21st century, (2) full allocation of existing water resources in parts of the Basin, (3) rapid population growth and economic development, (4) increasing pollution, and (5) fragmented governance that includes the Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, various Federal and First Nations responsibilities, and international boundaries. The interplay of these factors has increased competition for increasingly scarce water resources across economic sectors and among provinces, between upstream and downstream users, between environmental flows and human needs, and among people who hold different values about the meaning, ownership, and use of water. These current challenges are set in a context of significant environmental and societal change, including widespread land modification, climate warming, and deep uncertainties about future water supplies. We outline the geographic setting of the SRB and its environmental history, and then discuss the major challenges to water security from: (1) environmental change, (2) rapid growth and economic development, and most importantly, (3) a governance model unsuited to managing complex and uncertain water systems. We conclude with a discussion of the emerging field of socio-hydrology and what it can contribute to knowledge translation, water management, policy, and governance in the SRB and worldwide.
    Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions 05/2013; 10(5):6669-6693. DOI:10.5194/hessd-10-6669-2013 · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence demonstrates that unsustainable land use practices result in human-induced drought conditions, and inadequate water supplies constrain land development in growing cities. Nonetheless, organizational barriers impair coordinated land and water management. Land planning is strongly influenced by political realities and interest groups, while water management is focused on the single-minded goal of providing reliable water for future development, often set apart from other priorities. Survey results from Portland, OR, and Phoenix, AZ, show that water managers and land planners are generally aware of the physical interconnections between land and water, but there is little cross-sector involvement in the two cities. Focusing on shared concerns about outdoor water use, climate variability, and water-sensitive urban design is a fruitful first step in integrating the practices of land planning and water management for climate adaptation and sustainable resource use.
    Society and Natural Resources 03/2013; 276(3):356-364. DOI:10.1080/08941920.2012.713448 · 1.09 Impact Factor
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    Patricia Gober
    Water Resources Management 03/2013; 27(4). DOI:10.1007/s11269-012-0222-y · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in land use and land cover alter the local energy balance and contribute to distinct urban climates. This paper presents a local-scale above-canopy study of intra-urban land cover mixes in two cities to analyse the relative effects of surface morphology and local climate on the surface energy balance (SEB). The study is conducted for urban areas in Phoenix, Arizona, and Portland, Oregon, cities with distinct climates but similarly warm and dry summers. A Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) is used to analyse the relative contributions of local weather extremes and land cover variations on the urban energy balance. The partitioning of net all-wave radiation into turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes as well as heat storage is investigated for a typical dry summer month and two extreme weather scenarios in the two cities. Results of sensitivity analyses show that incoming solar radiation is an important driver of the SEB in LUMPS and should be considered in the generation of climate scenarios. The relationship between individual land cover fractions and SEB fluxes is not clear because of interrelated effects of surface characteristics in the land cover mix. Daytime Bowen ratios vary inversely with vegetation fraction between and within cities for all weather scenarios. Impervious surface cover is positively correlated to the available energy that is partitioned into sensible heat. Cumulative evapotranspiration (ET) is similar for average weather conditions across medium wet sites in Phoenix and Portland but varies more in Portland than in Phoenix under extreme weather conditions. Results suggest that land cover manipulation could offset influences of weather extremes on ET in Portland to a certain degree but not in Phoenix. These findings highlight the importance of spatial and climatic context in the urban design process to mitigate the effects of urbanization. Copyright © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society
    International Journal of Climatology 11/2012; 32(13). DOI:10.1002/joc.2408 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Climate change is likely to result in increased aridity, lower runoff, and declining water supplies for the cities of the Southwestern United States, including Phoenix. The situation in Phoenix is particularly complicated by the large number of water providers, each with its own supply portfolio, demand conditions, and conservation strategies. This paper details spatial optimization models to support water supply allocation between service provider districts, where some districts experience deficits and others experience surpluses in certain years. The approach seeks to reconcile and integrate projections derived from a complex simulation model taking into account current and future climate conditions. The formulated and applied models are designed to help better understand the expected increasingly complex interactions of providers under conditions of climate change. Preliminary results show cooperative agreements would reduce spot shortages that would occur even without climate change. In addition, they would substantially reduce deficits if climate change were to moderately reduce river flows in Phoenix’s major source regions, but have little effect under the most pessimistic scenarios because there are few surpluses available for re-allocation.
    Water Resources Management 06/2012; 26(8). DOI:10.1007/s11269-012-0013-5 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    Winston T. L. Chow · Wen-Ching Chuang · Patricia Gober
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the spatial distribution of vulnerability to extreme heat in 1990 and 2000 within metropolitan Phoenix based on an index of seven equally weighted measures of physical exposure and adaptive capacity. These measures were derived from spatially interpolated climate, normalized differential vegetation index, and U.S. Census data. From resulting vulnerability maps, we also analyzed population groups living in areas of high heat vulnerability. Results revealed that landscapes of heat vulnerability changed substantially in response to variations in physical and socioeconomic factors, with significant alterations to spatial distribution of vulnerability especially between eastern and western sectors of Phoenix. These changes worked to the detriment of Phoenix's Hispanic population and the elderly concentrated in urban-fringe retirement communities. Este estudio evaluó la distribución espacial de la vulnerabilidad al calor extremo en 1990 y el 2000 dentro del área metropolitana de Phoenix, sobre la base de un índice de siete medidas igualmente ponderadas de exposición física y capacidad de adaptación. Estas medidas se derivan del clima interpolado espacialmente, del índice normalizado de vegetación diferencial, y datos censales de EE.UU. A partir de mapas de vulnerabilidad también se analizaron grupos de población que viven en zonas con vulnerabilidad a las altas temperaturas. Los resultados revelaron que los paisajes con vulnerabilidad al calor cambiaron sustancialmente en respuesta a variaciones en factores físicos y socioeconómicos, con modificaciones importantes en la distribución espacial de la vulnerabilidad, especialmente entre los sectores este y oeste de Phoenix. Estos cambios se dieron en detrimento de la población hispana de Phoenix y los ancianos concentrados en comunidades de jubilación urbano-marginales.
    The Professional Geographer 05/2012; 64(2-2):286-302. DOI:10.1080/00330124.2011.600225 · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • H. S. Wheater · P. Gober
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    ABSTRACT: Effects of human-induced change on the land surface and the functioning of water systems are ubiquitous. There is a basic need to understand these human processes and to represent them appropriately in hydrological models. Some land use effects, such as urbanisation, are well understood, but not readily quantifiable at catchment scale. Agricultural intensification, on the other hand, is poorly understood, and tools for quantification often lack scientific basis. And while land surface change affects runoff and recharge, in most major river systems flows are also modified by storage, withdrawals and returns; groundwater is also often heavily influenced by management. Quantification of these effects remains a major and neglected challenge - much large-scale hydrological modelling is concerned with hypothetical 'natural' systems. At a deeper level, in an era of rapid change and profound uncertainties about both human and physical systems, water management requires an understanding of the drivers of, and responses to change. Socio-hydrology has two very specific social components: 1. Integrating humans and their activities into water science. 2. Ensuring that water decision-making incorporates a range of values and perspectives about the meaning, value and use of water. Socio-hydrology recognizes that many of the current stresses on water systems stem from social factors such as demography, the global economy, changing societal values and norms, technological innovation, laws and customs, and financial markets. It also acknowledges that the inability of many water systems to adjust to change is because of outdated governance, institutional rigidity, failure to adequately perceive threats to water security, ill-functioning markets, and undue focus on physical at the expense of social change. Increasingly, it is recognized that some of the most critical vulnerabilities in contemporary water systems lie at the intersection between human activities and physical systems, such as when governance systems are incapable of dealing with climate-induced changes in water supply. Socio-hydrology also incorporates research into the processes by translating traditional scientific information into tools for water decision making. These processes are inherently social and value-based. They depend upon the way various water stakeholders (e.g. municipalities, farmers, mining companies, environmental groups, Aboriginal Peoples) define the problem of water security and the values they place on different aspects of it. Socio-hydrology is at the forefront of efforts to establish and study participatory processes for decision making in the water sector. We illustrate these issues by reference to the inter-provincial Saskatchewan River Basin in western Canada. The University of Saskatchewan has established socio-hydrology as a priority research area. Our goal is to integrate hydro-ecological research with social science to study societal responses to water stresses like flooding, drought and nutrient pollution and investigate the potential of existing and new economic and other policy instruments to help communities make sound decisions under uncertainty.
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    ABSTRACT: Uncertainty in future water supplies for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (Phoenix) are exacerbated by the near certainty of increased, future water demands; water demand may increase eightfold or more by 2030 for some communities. We developed a provider-based water management and planning model for Phoenix termed WaterSim 4.0. The model combines a FORTRAN library with Microsoft C# to simulate the spatial and temporal dynamics of current and projected future water supply and demand as influenced by population demographics, climatic uncertainty, and groundwater availability. This paper describes model development and rationale. Water providers receive surface water, groundwater, or both depending on their portfolio. Runoff from two riverine systems supplies surface water to Phoenix while three alluvial layers that underlie the area provide groundwater. Water demand was estimated using two approaches. One approach used residential density, population projections, water duties, and acreage. A second approach used per capita water consumption and separate population growth estimates. Simulated estimates of initial groundwater for each provider were obtained as outputs from the Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) Salt River Valley groundwater flow model (GFM). We compared simulated estimates of water storage with empirical estimates for modeled reservoirs as a test of model performance. In simulations we modified runoff by 80%-110% of the historical estimates, in 5% intervals, to examine provider-specific responses to altered surface water availability for 33 large water providers over a 25-year period (2010-2035). Two metrics were used to differentiate their response: (1) we examined groundwater reliance (GWR; that proportion of a providers' portfolio dependent upon groundwater) from the runoff sensitivity analysis, and (2) we used 100% of the historical runoff simulations to examine the cumulative groundwater withdrawals for each provider. Four groups of water providers were identified, and discussed. Water portfolios most reliant on Colorado River water may be most sensitive to potential reductions in surface water supplies. Groundwater depletions were greatest for communities who were either 100% dependent upon groundwater (urban periphery), or nearly so, coupled with high water demand projections. On-going model development includes linking WaterSim 4.0 to the GFM in order to more precisely model provider-specific estimates of groundwater, and provider-based policy options that will enable "what-if" scenarios to examine policy trade-offs and long-term sustainability of water portfolios.
    Journal of Environmental Management 06/2011; 92(10):2596-610. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.05.032 · 3.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
144.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2015
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • Department of Civil and Geological Engineering
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 1981–2015
    • Arizona State University
      • • School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning
      • • Decision Theater
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States