ABSTRACT: To investigate the interaction of treatment-related hemodynamic changes with genotype status for Synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) gene in participants with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on and off single dose short-acting methylphenidate treatment with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).
A total of 15 right-handed adults and 16 right-handed children with DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD were evaluated. Ten milligrams of short-acting methylphenidate was administered in a crossover design. Results: Participants with SNAP-25 DdeI T/T genotype had decreased right deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) with treatment. SNAP-25 MnlI genotype was also associated with right deoxyhemoglobin ([HbO2]) and [HHb] changes as well as left [HHb] change. When the combinations of these genotypes were taken into account, the participants with [DdeI C/C or T/C and MnlI G/G or T/G] genotype had increased right [HHb] with MPH use whereas the participants with [DdeI T/T and MnlI T/T] or [DdeI T/T and MnlI G/G or T/G] genotypes had decreased right prefrontal [HHb].
These results suggested that SNAP-25 polymorphism might be associated with methylphenidate induced brain hemodynamic changes in ADHD participants.
Journal of Attention Disorders 11/2011; 15(8):628-37. · 2.45 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that both low iron and zinc levels might be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, the association of zinc and iron levels with ADHD symptoms has not been investigated at the same time in a single sample.
118 subjects with ADHD (age = 7-14 years, mean = 9.8, median = 10) were included in the study. The relationship between age, gender, ferritin, zinc, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and reticulosite distribution width and behavioral symptoms of children and adolescents with ADHD were investigated with multiple linear regression analysis.
Results showed that subjects with lower zinc level had higher Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) Total, Conduct Problems and Anxiety scores, indicating more severe problems. CPRS Hyperactivity score was associated both with zinc and ferritin levels. Conners Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS) scores were not significantly associated with zinc or ferritin levels.
Results indicated that both low zinc and ferritin levels were associated with higher hyperactivity symptoms. Zinc level was also associated with anxiety and conduct problems. Since both zinc and iron are associated with dopamine metabolism, it can be speculated that low zinc and iron levels might be associated with more significant impairment in dopaminergic transmission in subjects with ADHD.
Child Psychiatry and Human Development 03/2010; 41(4):441-7. · 1.93 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the ocular findings and refractive errors in children with intellectual disability and in controls of average intellectual development of similar socioeconomic backgrounds.
The study was conducted at Diskapi Children's Hospital in Ankara, Turkey: 724 subjects with intellectual disability and 151 control subjects were evaluated. The subjects with intellectual disability were subdivided into mild (IQ 50-69, n = 490), moderate (IQ 35-49, n = 164), and severe (IQ <34, n = 70) groups, and syndromic (n = 138) versus nonsyndromic (n = 586) disability. All children underwent cycloplegic autorefraction or retinoscopy, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and dilated fundus examination. Ocular alignment was assessed by Hirschberg, Krimsky, or prism cover test. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of refractive errors and ocular findings.
Seventy-seven percent of subjects with intellectual disability, and 42.4% of controls, had ocular findings. The children with intellectual disability had significantly more nystagmus, strabismus, astigmatism, and hypermetropia than controls. Children with syndromic intellectual disability had significantly more nystagmus, strabismus, astigmatism, and hypermetropia than subjects with nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Increasing severity of intellectual disability was related to higher prevalence of nystagmus, strabismus, astigmatism, hypermetropia, and anisometropia.
From a public health perspective, evaluation and treatment of ocular and refractive findings in children with moderate, severe, and syndromic intellectual disability categories is urgently needed and likely to be highly effective in alleviating future health and social care costs, as well as improving the productive lives of individuals with intellectual disability.
Journal of AAPOS: the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus / American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 07/2008; 12(5):477-81. · 1.07 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of refractive errors, strabismus, nystagmus, and congenital cataract in children with Down syndrome and control subjects of similar age.
Seventy-seven children with Down syndrome and 151 control subjects were evaluated for the prevalence of ocular findings.
Ocular findings were discovered in 97.4% of children with Down syndrome and 42.4% of control subjects (P < .0001). The point prevalence of nystagmus, strabismus, hypermetropia, astigmatism, and congenital cataract was significantly higher in children with Down syndrome (P < .0001 for the first four categories, and P < .01 for congenital cataract).
Evaluation, treatment, and regular review of ocular and refractive findings in children with Down syndrome is urgently needed.
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus 46(2):83-6. · 0.63 Impact Factor