[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemisinin-naphthoquine (ART-NQ) is a coformulated antimalarial therapy marketed as a single-dose treatment in Papua New Guinea and other tropical countries. To build on limited knowledge of the pharmacokinetic properties of the components, especially the tetra-aminoquinoline NQ, we studied ART-NQ disposition in Papua New Guinea children aged 5 to 12 years with uncomplicated malaria, comparing a single dose (15 and 6 mg/kg of body weight) administered with water (group 1; n = 13), a single dose (22 and 9 mg/kg) with milk (group 2) (n = 17), and two daily doses of 22 and 9 mg/kg with water (group 3; n = 16). The plasma NQ concentration was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the plasma ART concentration was assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population-based multicompartment pharmacokinetic models for NQ and ART were developed. NQ disposition was best characterized by a three-compartment model with a mean absorption half-life (t(1/2)) of 1.0 h and predicted median maximum plasma concentrations that ranged as high as 57 μg/liter after the second dose in group 3. The mean NQ elimination t(1/2) was 22.8 days; clearance relative to bioavailability (CL/F) was 1.1 liters/h/kg; and volume at steady state relative to bioavailability (V(ss)/F) was 710 liters/kg. Administration of NQ with fat (8.5 g; 615 kJ) versus water was associated with 25% increased bioavailability. ART disposition was best characterized by a two-compartment model with a mean CL/F (4.1 liters/h/kg) and V/F (21 liters/kg) similar to those of previous studies. There was a 77% reduction in the bioavailability of the second ART dose (group 3). NQ has pharmacokinetic properties that confirm its potential as an artemisinin partner drug for treatment of uncomplicated pediatric malaria.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2012; 56(5):2472-84. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment in infancy (IPTi) entails routine administration of antimalarial treatment doses at specified times in at-risk infants. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SDX/PYR) is a combination that has been used as first-line IPTi. Because of limited pharmacokinetic data and suggestions that higher milligram/kilogram pediatric doses than recommended should be considered, we assessed SDX/PYR disposition, randomized to conventional (25/1.25 mg/kg of body weight) or double (50/2.5 mg/kg) dose, in 70 Papua New Guinean children aged 2 to 13 months. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 28 days, and three time points randomly selected for each infant at 4 to 8 h or 2, 5, 7, 14, or 21 days. Plasma SDX, PYR, and N(4)-acetylsulfadoxine (NSX, the principal metabolite of SDX) were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using population modeling incorporating hepatic maturation and cystatin C-based renal function, two-compartment models provided best fits for PYR and SDX/NSX plasma concentration profiles. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) was greater with the double dose versus the conventional dose of PYR (4,915 versus 2,844 μg/day/liter) and SDX (2,434 versus 1,460 mg/day/liter). There was a 32% reduction in SDX relative bioavailability with the double dose but no evidence of dose-dependent metabolism. Terminal elimination half-lives (15.6 days for PYR, 9.1 days for SDX) were longer than previously reported. Both doses were well tolerated without changes in hemoglobin or hepatorenal function. Five children in the conventional and three in the double-dose group developed malaria during follow-up. These data support the potential use of double-dose SDX/PYR in infancy, but further studies should examine the influence of hepatorenal maturation in very young infants.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2011; 55(4):1693-700. · 4.57 Impact Factor