S. N. Shore

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (319)838.74 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on nova LMC 2012. This nova evolved very rapidly in all observed wavelengths. The time to fall two magnitudes in the V band was only 2 days. In X-rays the super soft phase began 13$\pm$5 days after discovery and ended around day 50 after discovery. During the super soft phase, the \Swift/XRT and \Chandra\ spectra were consistent with the underlying white dwarf being very hot, $\sim$ 1 MK, and luminous, $\sim$ 10$^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$. The UV, optical, and near-IR photometry showed a periodic variation after the initial and rapid fading had ended. Timing analysis revealed a consistent 19.24$\pm$0.03 hr period in all UV, optical, and near-IR bands with amplitudes of $\sim$ 0.3 magnitudes which we associate with the orbital period of the central binary. No periods were detected in the corresponding X-ray data sets. A moderately high inclination system, $i$ = 60$\pm$10$^{\arcdeg}$, was inferred from the early optical emission lines. The {\it HST}/STIS UV spectra were highly unusual with only the \ion{N}{5} (1240\AA) line present and superposed on a blue continuum. The lack of emission lines and the observed UV and optical continua from four epochs can be fit with a low mass ejection event, $\sim$ 10$^{-6}$ M$_{\odot}$, from a hot and massive white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar limit. The white dwarf, in turn, significantly illuminated its subgiant companion which provided the bulk of the observed UV/optical continuum emission at the later dates. The inferred extreme white dwarf characteristics and low mass ejection event favor nova LMC 2012 being a recurrent nova of the U Sco subclass.
    12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses are commonly found in the centers of galaxies. Astronomers seek to image jet formation using radio interferometry but still suffer from insufficient angular resolution. An alternative method to resolve small structures is to measure the time variability of their emission. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of the radio galaxy IC 310 obtained with the MAGIC telescopes, revealing variability with doubling time scales faster than 4.8 min. Causality constrains the size of the emission region to be smaller than 20% of the gravitational radius of its central black hole. We suggest that the emission is associated with pulsar-like particle acceleration by the electric field across a magnetospheric gap at the base of the radio jet.
    Science (New York, N.Y.). 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Mrk 501 is one of the brightest blazars at TeV energies and has been extensively studied since its first VHE detection in 1996. Our goal is to characterize in detail the source gamma-ray emission, together with the radio-to-X-ray emission, during the non-flaring (low) activity, which is less often studied than the occasional flaring (high) activity. We organized a multiwavelength (MW) campaign on Mrk 501 between March and May 2008. This multi-instrument effort included the most sensitive VHE gamma-ray instruments in the northern hemisphere, namely the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes MAGIC and VERITAS, as well as Swift, RXTE, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments. Mrk 501 was found to be in a low state of activity during the campaign, with a VHE flux in the range of 10%-20% of the Crab nebula flux. Nevertheless, significant flux variations were detected with various instruments, with a trend of increasing variability with energy. The broadband spectral energy distribution during the two different emission states of the campaign can be adequately described within the homogeneous one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model, with the (slightly) higher state described by an increase in the electron number density. This agrees with previous studies of the broadband emission of this source during flaring and non-flaring states. We report for the first time a tentative X-ray-to-VHE correlation during a low VHE activity. Although marginally significant, this positive correlation between X-ray and VHE, which has been reported many times during flaring activity, suggests that the mechanisms that dominate the X-ray/VHE emission during non-flaring-activity are not substantially different from those that are responsible for the emission during flaring activity.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. During summer 2011 and 2012 it underwent a series of upgrades, involving the exchange of the MAGIC-I camera and its trigger system, as well as the upgrade of the readout system of both telescopes. We use observations of the Crab Nebula taken at low and medium zenith angles to assess the key performance parameters of the MAGIC stereo system. For low zenith observations the trigger threshold of the MAGIC telescopes is about 50GeV. The integral sensitivity for sources with Crab Nebula-like spectrum above 220GeV is (0.66+/-0.03)% of Crab Nebula flux in 50 h of observations. The angular resolution at those energies is < 0.07 degree, while the energy resolution is 16%. We also re-evaluate the effect of the systematic uncertainty on the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes after the upgrade. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties can be divided in following components: < 15% in energy scale, 11-18% in flux normalization and +/-0.15 for the energy spectrum power-law slope.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to characterize the broadband emission from 2FGL J2001.1+4352, which has been associated with the unknown-redshift blazar MG4 J200112+4352. Based on its gamma-ray spectral properties, it was identified as a potential very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter. The source was observed with MAGIC first in 2009 and later in 2010 within a multi-instrument observation campaign. The MAGIC observations yielded 14.8 hours of good quality stereoscopic data. The object was monitored at radio, optical and gamma-ray energies during the years 2010 and 2011. The source, named MAGIC J2001+439, is detected for the first time at VHE with MAGIC at a statistical significance of 6.3 {\sigma} (E > 70 GeV) during a 1.3-hour long observation on 2010 July 16. The multi-instrument observations show variability in all energy bands with the highest amplitude of variability in the X-ray and VHE bands. We also organized deep imaging optical observations with the Nordic Optical Telescope in 2013 to determine the source redshift. We determine for the first time the redshift of this BL Lac object through the measurement of its host galaxy during low blazar activity. Using the observational evidence that the luminosities of BL Lac host galaxies are confined to a relatively narrow range, we obtain z = 0.18 +/- 0.04. Additionally, we use the Fermi-LAT and MAGIC gamma-ray spectra to provide an independent redshift estimation, z = 0.17 +/- 0.10. Using the former (more accurate) redshift value, we adequately describe the broadband emission with a one-zone SSC model for different activity states and interpret the few-day timescale variability as produced by changes in the high-energy component of the electron energy distribution.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We critically examine the recent claimed detection of Raman scattered O VI at around 6830\AA\ in the iron curtain stage spectra of the classical CO nova V339 Del. The observed line variations are compatible in profile and timing of emission line strength with an excited state transition of neutral carbon. Line formation in classical nova ejecta is physically very different from that in symbiotic binaries, in which the O VI emission line is formed within the wind of the companion red giant at low differential velocity. The ejecta velocity and density structure prevent the scattering from producing analogous features. There might , however, be a broadband spectropolarimetric signature of the Raman process and also Rayleigh scattering at some stage in the expansion. We show that the neutral carbon spectrum, hitherto under-exploited for novae, is especially useful as a probe of the structure of the ejecta during the early, optically thick stages of the expansion
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. In the low energies, MAGIC results, combined with the Fermi-LAT data, show a flat Inverse Compton peak. The Fermi-LAT and MAGIC spectral data were fit from 1 GeV to 30 TeV with a log-parabola, yielding a peak position at (53 $\pm$ 3) GeV with a $\chi^2_{red}$ = 82/27 (error probably underestimated due to the bad fit quality), showing that the log-parabola is not a good representation of the Inverse Compton peak of the Crab Nebula. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV if accounting for systematic uncertainties of the measurement. We consider two state-of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, mostly troubled by the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 {\mu}G magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is one of the historical very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray source candidates. It is energized by one of the highest spin-down power pulsars known (5% of Crab pulsar) and it has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was previously observed by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (Whipple, VERITAS and MAGIC), although not detected, with an upper limit of 2.4% Crab Unit (C.U.) at VHE. It was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. The differential energy spectrum between 400 GeV and 10 TeV is well described by a power-law function d\phi/dE=f_0(E/1TeV)^{-Gamma} with f_0=(2.0\pm0.4_{stat}\pm0.6_{sys})\times10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1} and Gamma=2.4\pm0.2_{stat}\pm0.2_{sys}. The skymap is compatible with an unresolved source. We report the first significant detection of PWN 3C 58 at TeV energies. According to our results 3C 58 is the least luminous VHE gamma-ray PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and Far Infrared (FIR) comparable to CMB photon fields. If we consider an unexpectedly high FIR density, the data can also be reproduced by models assuming a 3.2 kpc distance. A low magnetic field, far from equipartition, is required to explain the VHE data. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of rapidly variable Very High Energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216) by MAGIC on 2010 June 17, triggered by the high activity detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in high energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) γ-rays, poses intriguing questions on the location of the γ-ray emitting region in this flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). We present multifrequency data of 4C +21.35 collected from centimeter to VHE during 2010 to investigate the properties of this source and discuss a possible emission model. The first hint of detection at VHE was observed by MAGIC on 2010 May 3, soon after a γ-ray flare detected by Fermi-LAT that peaked on April 29. The same emission mechanism may therefore be responsible for both the HE and VHE emission during the 2010 flaring episodes. Two optical peaks were detected on 2010 April 20 and June 30, close in time but not simultaneous with the two γ-ray peaks, while no clear connection was observed between the X-ray and γ-ray emission. An increasing flux density was observed in radio and mm bands from the beginning of 2009, in accordance with the increasing γ-ray activity observed by Fermi-LAT, and peaking on 2011 January 27 in the mm regime (230 GHz). We model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 4C +21.35 for the two periods of the VHE detection and a quiescent state, using a one-zone model with the emission coming from a very compact region outside the broad line region. The three SEDs can be fit with a combination of synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission of seed photons from a dust torus, changing only the electron distribution parameters between the epochs. The fit of the optical/UV part of the spectrum for 2010 April 29 seems to favor an inner disk radius of <6 gravitational radii, as one would expect from a prograde-rotating Kerr black hole.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • S. Starrfield, S. N. Shore
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    ABSTRACT: Although numerous studies assume that Classical Novae ejecta are spherical and expanding in a Hubble flow, recent high resolution imaging with HST, Spitzer, and the VLT show that the material is far from spherical. In addition, spectroscopic studies show that the material is probably expanding in bi-polar jets or flows. I will review these studies and show that the new (and old) results add a fifth parameter to the physical phenomena that affect the Maximum Magnitude Rate of Decline relationship (MMRD) and make it an unlikely tool to apply to a single Classical or Recurrent Nova.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: V339 Del (Nova Del 2013) has recently emerged from the Swift Sun constraint. The final observation before the start of the constraint, on 2014 January 6 (day 144.5 after optical detection), yielded an X-ray count rate of ~40 count s-1. However, by March 4 (day 202), the count rate had dropped to ~0.8 count s-1. A further series of observations on March 9 (day 206-207) revealed a continued count rate decline to ~0.4 count s-1.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Crab pulsar is the only astronomical pulsed source detected at very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) gamma-rays. The emission mechanism of VHE pulsation is not yet fully understood, although several theoretical models have been proposed. In order to test the new models, we measured the light curve and the spectra of the Crab pulsar with high precision by means of deep observations. We analyzed 135 hours of selected MAGIC data taken between 2009 and 2013 in stereoscopic mode. In order to discuss the spectral shape in connection with lower energies, 4.6 years of {\it Fermi}-LAT data were also analyzed. The known two pulses per period were detected with a significance of $8.0~\sigma$ and $12.6~\sigma$. In addition, significant emission was found between the two pulses with $6.2~\sigma$. We discovered the bridge emission above 50 GeV between the two main pulses. This emission can not be explained with the existing theories. These data can be used for testing new theoretical models.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The bright gamma-ray quasar 4C +55.17 is a distant source ($z = 0.896$) with a hard spectrum at GeV energies as observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the {{\it Fermi}} satellite. This source is identified as a good source candidate for very-high-energy (VHE; $> 30$ GeV) gamma rays. In general VHE gamma rays from distant sources provide an unique opportunity to study the extragalactic background light (EBL) and underlying astrophysics. The flux intensity of this source in the VHE range is investigated. Then, constraints on the EBL are derived from the attenuation of gamma-ray photons coming from the distant blazar. We searched for a gamma-ray signal from this object using the 35-hour observations taken by the MAGIC telescopes between November 2010 and January 2011. No significant VHE gamma-ray signal was detected. We computed the upper limits of the integrated gamma-ray flux at $95\%$ confidence level of $9.4 \times 10^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and $2.5 \times 10^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ above $100$ GeV and $200$ GeV, respectively. The differential upper limits in four energy bins in the range from $80$ GeV to $500$ GeV are also derived. The upper limits are consistent with the attenuation predicted by low-flux EBL models on the assumption of a simple power-law spectrum extrapolated from LAT data.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2014; 440(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We continue the analysis of the multiwavelength evolution of the recurrent nova T Pyx during its 2011 outburst, focussing on the spectral development on the 1150-3000 Å region. This extraordinary data set presents the longest temporal baseline high resolution view of the ultraviolet for any nova to date (classical or recurrent). The observations cover the early Fe-curtain stage, when the UV was completely optically thick, to 834 days after discovery when the outburst was effectively over. We present an analysis of dynamics and abundances of the interstellar species whose resonance lines are accessible in the UV. The Lyα profile is consistent with only interstellar absorption at all epochs and agrees with the H I 21 cm column density. The distance obtained to T Pyx is about 5 kpc, based on the ISM analysis. For the ejecta evolution we have been able to follow the changes in ionization and structure with previously unobtained resolution and cadence. The excited state isoelectronic transitions of C III, N IV], and O V displayed the same detached absorption lines as the optical He I transitions during the optical maximum. This is explained as resonance absorption within the ejecta of FUV ground state lines from the 300-1000 Å range. The resonance lines of all species showed absorption components between -1000 and -3000 km s-1 as soon as the Fe-curtain turned transparent (from day 105); these persisted at the same velocities and varied in strength from one ion to another through day 834. The last ultraviolet spectrum, taken more than 800 days after outburst, showed the same absorption lines on N V and C IV as day 105. There was no evidence of circumstellar absorbers. This and the related observations of profile evolution effectively rule out any wind model for the spectrum. The picture that emerges is of ejecta that became optically thin after visual maximum as the X-ray emission became visible following an outwardly propagating ionization front and for which the ionization stages froze because of ejecta expansion after the end of the soft X-ray illumination.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: HESS J1857+026 is an extended TeV gamma-ray source that was discovered by H.E.S.S. as part of its Galactic plane survey. Given its broadband spectral energy distribution and its spatial coincidence with the young energetic pulsar PSR J1856+024, the source has been put forward as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) candidate. MAGIC has performed follow-up observations aimed at mapping the source down to energies approaching 100 GeV in order to better understand its complex morphology. HESS J1857+026 was observed by MAGIC in 2010, yielding 29 hours of good quality stereoscopic data that allowed us to map the source region in two separate ranges of energy. We present an energy spectrum of the region, which bridges the gap between the GeV emission measured by Fermi-LAT and the multi-TeV emission measured by H.E.S.S., together with a detailed analysis of its energy-dependent morphology. We couple these results with archival multi-wavelength data and outline evidence in favor of a two-source scenario, whereby one source is associated with a PWN while the other could be linked with a molecular cloud complex containing a HII region and a possible gas cavity.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Among more than fifty blazars detected in very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) gamma-rays, only three belong to the subclass of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). MAGIC observed FSRQ PKS 1510-089 in February-April 2012 during a high activity state in the high energy (HE, E>100 MeV) gamma-ray band observed by AGILE and Fermi. MAGIC observations result in the detection of a source with significance of 6.0 sigma. In agreement with the previous VHE observations of the source, we find no statistically significant variability during the MAGIC observations in daily, weekly or monthly time scales. The other two known VHE FSRQs have shown daily scale to sub-hour variability. We study the multifrequency behaviour of the source at the epoch of MAGIC observation, collecting quasi-simultaneous data at radio and optical (GASP-WEBT and F-Gamma collaborations, REM, Steward, Perkins, Liverpool, OVRO and VLBA telescopes), X-ray (Swift satellite) and HE gamma-ray frequencies. The gamma-ray SED combining AGILE, Fermi and MAGIC data joins smoothly and shows no hint of a break. The multifrequency light curves suggest a common origin for the millimeter radio and HE gamma-ray emission and the HE gamma-ray flaring starts when the new component is ejected from the 43GHz VLBA core. The quasi-simultaneous multifrequency SED is modelled with a one-zone inverse Compton model. We study two different origins of the seed photons for the inverse Compton scattering, namely the infra-red torus and a slow sheath surrounding the jet around the VLBA core. Both models fit the data well. However, the fast HE gamma-ray variability requires that within the modelled large emitting region, there must exist more compact regions. We suggest that these observed signatures would be most naturally explained by a turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down the jet and crossing a standing conical shock.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We present a study of the very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1424+240 observed with the MAGIC telescopes. The primary aim of this paper is the multiwavelength spectral characterization and modeling of this blazar, made particularly interesting by the recent discovery of a lower limit of its redshift of z>0.6, which makes it a promising candidate to be the most distant VHE source. Methods. The source has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes in VHE gamma rays for a total observation time of 33.6 h from 2009 to 2011. Results. The source was marginally detected in VHE gamma rays during 2009 and 2010 and later the detection was confirmed during an optical outburst in 2011. The combined significance of the stacked sample is 7.2 sigma. The differential spectra measured during the different campaigns can be described by steep power laws, with the indices ranging from 3.5+/-1.2 to 5.0+/-1.7. The MAGIC spectra corrected for the absorption due to the extragalactic background light connect rather smoothly, within systematic errors, with the mean spectrum in 2009-2011 observed at lower energies by the Fermi-LAT. A recent study including the combined VERITAS and Fermi-LAT contemporaneous observations from 2009 provided different results. In addition the absorption-corrected MAGIC spectrum is flat with no apparent turn down up to 400 GeV. The multiwavelength light curve shows increasing flux in radio and optical bands that could point to a common origin from the same region of the jet. Also the large separation between the two peaks of the constructed non-simultaneous spectral energy distribution requires an extremely high Doppler factor if a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model is applied. We find that a two-component synchrotron self-Compton model describes the spectral energy distribution of the source well, if the source is located at z~0.6.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In our continuing campaign of observations of V339 Del = Nova Del 2013, we have obtained simultaneous spectroscopy with HST/STIS (medium resolution echelle, 1150 - 3000A) (ATel#5409) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (FIES high resolution echelle, 3800 - 7400A) on 2013 Nov. 21. The nova was well into the supersoft phase at the time of the observations (ATel#5573), and showed a countrate with the Swift XRT of about 32 c/s at the time of the HST observation.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Nova V339 Del was observed simultaneously with HST and with XMM-Newton on 21 November 2013, 99 days after outburst. The HST observations are described in ATel#5624. XMM-Newton observed for 34000 seconds, and timing and spectral information can be extracted from two MOS detectors as part of the European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC) and two Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS). The independent MOS and the RGS light curves are variable by ~10% around 60 and 30 counts per second, respectively.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Indications of a GeV component in the emission from GRBs are known since the EGRET observations during the 1990's and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. These results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy photons (E>30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z=1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the GeV/TeV emission. We compare these results to the expected emissions evaluated for different processes in the framework of a relativistic blast wave model for the afterglow. Simultaneous upper limits with Fermi and a Cherenkov telescope have been derived for this GRB observation. The results we obtained are compatible with the expected emission although the difficulties in predicting the HE and VHE emission for the afterglow of this event makes it difficult to draw firmer conclusions. Nonetheless, MAGIC sensitivity in the energy range of overlap with space-based instruments (above about 40 GeV) is about one order of magnitude better with respect to Fermi. This makes evident the constraining power of ground-based observations and shows that the MAGIC telescope has reached the required performance to make possible GRB multiwavelength studies in the very high energy range.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; 437(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
838.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Physics "E.Fermi"
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2012
    • Technische Universität Dortmund
      • Faculty of Physics
      Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008–2010
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1993–2009
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Faculty of Physics and Astronomy
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • Department of Physics
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
    • Keele University
      • Department of Physics and Astrophysics
      Newcastle under Lyme, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1994–2007
    • Indiana University South Bend
      • Physics and Astronomy
      South Bend, Indiana, United States
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Earth and Space Exploration
      Tempe, AZ, United States