S. N. Shore

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (309)775.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The MAGIC stereoscopic system collected 69 hours of Crab Nebula data between October 2009 and April 2011. Analysis of this data sample using the latest improvements in the MAGIC stereoscopic software provided an unprecedented precision of spectral and night-by-night light curve determination at gamma rays. We derived a differential spectrum with a single instrument from 50 GeV up to almost 30 TeV with 5 bins per energy decade. In the low energies, MAGIC results, combined with the Fermi-LAT data, show a flat Inverse Compton peak. The Fermi-LAT and MAGIC spectral data were fit from 1 GeV to 30 TeV with a log-parabola, yielding a peak position at (53 $\pm$ 3) GeV with a $\chi^2_{red}$ = 82/27 (error probably underestimated due to the bad fit quality), showing that the log-parabola is not a good representation of the Inverse Compton peak of the Crab Nebula. There is no hint of the integral flux variability on daily scales at energies above 300 GeV if accounting for systematic uncertainties of the measurement. We consider two state-of-the-art theoretical models to describe the overall spectral energy distribution of the Crab Nebula. The constant B-field model cannot satisfactorily reproduce the VHE spectral measurements presented in this work, mostly troubled by the broadness of the observed IC peak. Most probably this implies that the assumption of the homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the nebula is incorrect. On the other hand, the time-dependent 1D spectral model provides a good fit of the new VHE results when considering a 80 {\mu}G magnetic field. However, it fails to match the data when including the morphology of the nebula at lower wavelengths.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is one of the historical very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray source candidates. It is energized by one of the highest spin-down power pulsars known (5% of Crab pulsar) and it has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was previously observed by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (Whipple, VERITAS and MAGIC), although not detected, with an upper limit of 2.4% Crab Unit (C.U.) at VHE. It was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. The differential energy spectrum between 400 GeV and 10 TeV is well described by a power-law function d\phi/dE=f_0(E/1TeV)^{-Gamma} with f_0=(2.0\pm0.4_{stat}\pm0.6_{sys})\times10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1} and Gamma=2.4\pm0.2_{stat}\pm0.2_{sys}. The skymap is compatible with an unresolved source. We report the first significant detection of PWN 3C 58 at TeV energies. According to our results 3C 58 is the least luminous VHE gamma-ray PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and Far Infrared (FIR) comparable to CMB photon fields. If we consider an unexpectedly high FIR density, the data can also be reproduced by models assuming a 3.2 kpc distance. A low magnetic field, far from equipartition, is required to explain the VHE data. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of rapidly variable Very High Energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from 4C +21.35 (PKS 1222+216) by MAGIC on 2010 June 17, triggered by the high activity detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in high energy (HE; E > 100 MeV) γ-rays, poses intriguing questions on the location of the γ-ray emitting region in this flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). We present multifrequency data of 4C +21.35 collected from centimeter to VHE during 2010 to investigate the properties of this source and discuss a possible emission model. The first hint of detection at VHE was observed by MAGIC on 2010 May 3, soon after a γ-ray flare detected by Fermi-LAT that peaked on April 29. The same emission mechanism may therefore be responsible for both the HE and VHE emission during the 2010 flaring episodes. Two optical peaks were detected on 2010 April 20 and June 30, close in time but not simultaneous with the two γ-ray peaks, while no clear connection was observed between the X-ray and γ-ray emission. An increasing flux density was observed in radio and mm bands from the beginning of 2009, in accordance with the increasing γ-ray activity observed by Fermi-LAT, and peaking on 2011 January 27 in the mm regime (230 GHz). We model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 4C +21.35 for the two periods of the VHE detection and a quiescent state, using a one-zone model with the emission coming from a very compact region outside the broad line region. The three SEDs can be fit with a combination of synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton emission of seed photons from a dust torus, changing only the electron distribution parameters between the epochs. The fit of the optical/UV part of the spectrum for 2010 April 29 seems to favor an inner disk radius of <6 gravitational radii, as one would expect from a prograde-rotating Kerr black hole.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • S. Starrfield, S. N. Shore
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    ABSTRACT: Although numerous studies assume that Classical Novae ejecta are spherical and expanding in a Hubble flow, recent high resolution imaging with HST, Spitzer, and the VLT show that the material is far from spherical. In addition, spectroscopic studies show that the material is probably expanding in bi-polar jets or flows. I will review these studies and show that the new (and old) results add a fifth parameter to the physical phenomena that affect the Maximum Magnitude Rate of Decline relationship (MMRD) and make it an unlikely tool to apply to a single Classical or Recurrent Nova.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: V339 Del (Nova Del 2013) has recently emerged from the Swift Sun constraint. The final observation before the start of the constraint, on 2014 January 6 (day 144.5 after optical detection), yielded an X-ray count rate of ~40 count s-1. However, by March 4 (day 202), the count rate had dropped to ~0.8 count s-1. A further series of observations on March 9 (day 206-207) revealed a continued count rate decline to ~0.4 count s-1.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Crab pulsar is the only astronomical pulsed source detected at very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) gamma-rays. The emission mechanism of VHE pulsation is not yet fully understood, although several theoretical models have been proposed. In order to test the new models, we measured the light curve and the spectra of the Crab pulsar with high precision by means of deep observations. We analyzed 135 hours of selected MAGIC data taken between 2009 and 2013 in stereoscopic mode. In order to discuss the spectral shape in connection with lower energies, 4.6 years of {\it Fermi}-LAT data were also analyzed. The known two pulses per period were detected with a significance of $8.0~\sigma$ and $12.6~\sigma$. In addition, significant emission was found between the two pulses with $6.2~\sigma$. We discovered the bridge emission above 50 GeV between the two main pulses. This emission can not be explained with the existing theories. These data can be used for testing new theoretical models.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The bright gamma-ray quasar 4C +55.17 is a distant source ($z = 0.896$) with a hard spectrum at GeV energies as observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the {{\it Fermi}} satellite. This source is identified as a good source candidate for very-high-energy (VHE; $> 30$ GeV) gamma rays. In general VHE gamma rays from distant sources provide an unique opportunity to study the extragalactic background light (EBL) and underlying astrophysics. The flux intensity of this source in the VHE range is investigated. Then, constraints on the EBL are derived from the attenuation of gamma-ray photons coming from the distant blazar. We searched for a gamma-ray signal from this object using the 35-hour observations taken by the MAGIC telescopes between November 2010 and January 2011. No significant VHE gamma-ray signal was detected. We computed the upper limits of the integrated gamma-ray flux at $95\%$ confidence level of $9.4 \times 10^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and $2.5 \times 10^{-12}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ above $100$ GeV and $200$ GeV, respectively. The differential upper limits in four energy bins in the range from $80$ GeV to $500$ GeV are also derived. The upper limits are consistent with the attenuation predicted by low-flux EBL models on the assumption of a simple power-law spectrum extrapolated from LAT data.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We continue the analysis of the multiwavelength evolution of the recurrent nova T Pyx during its 2011 outburst, focussing on the spectral development on the 1150-3000 Å region. This extraordinary data set presents the longest temporal baseline high resolution view of the ultraviolet for any nova to date (classical or recurrent). The observations cover the early Fe-curtain stage, when the UV was completely optically thick, to 834 days after discovery when the outburst was effectively over. We present an analysis of dynamics and abundances of the interstellar species whose resonance lines are accessible in the UV. The Lyα profile is consistent with only interstellar absorption at all epochs and agrees with the H I 21 cm column density. The distance obtained to T Pyx is about 5 kpc, based on the ISM analysis. For the ejecta evolution we have been able to follow the changes in ionization and structure with previously unobtained resolution and cadence. The excited state isoelectronic transitions of C III, N IV], and O V displayed the same detached absorption lines as the optical He I transitions during the optical maximum. This is explained as resonance absorption within the ejecta of FUV ground state lines from the 300-1000 Å range. The resonance lines of all species showed absorption components between -1000 and -3000 km s-1 as soon as the Fe-curtain turned transparent (from day 105); these persisted at the same velocities and varied in strength from one ion to another through day 834. The last ultraviolet spectrum, taken more than 800 days after outburst, showed the same absorption lines on N V and C IV as day 105. There was no evidence of circumstellar absorbers. This and the related observations of profile evolution effectively rule out any wind model for the spectrum. The picture that emerges is of ejecta that became optically thin after visual maximum as the X-ray emission became visible following an outwardly propagating ionization front and for which the ionization stages froze because of ejecta expansion after the end of the soft X-ray illumination.Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: HESS J1857+026 is an extended TeV gamma-ray source that was discovered by H.E.S.S. as part of its Galactic plane survey. Given its broadband spectral energy distribution and its spatial coincidence with the young energetic pulsar PSR J1856+024, the source has been put forward as a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) candidate. MAGIC has performed follow-up observations aimed at mapping the source down to energies approaching 100 GeV in order to better understand its complex morphology. HESS J1857+026 was observed by MAGIC in 2010, yielding 29 hours of good quality stereoscopic data that allowed us to map the source region in two separate ranges of energy. We present an energy spectrum of the region, which bridges the gap between the GeV emission measured by Fermi-LAT and the multi-TeV emission measured by H.E.S.S., together with a detailed analysis of its energy-dependent morphology. We couple these results with archival multi-wavelength data and outline evidence in favor of a two-source scenario, whereby one source is associated with a PWN while the other could be linked with a molecular cloud complex containing a HII region and a possible gas cavity.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Among more than fifty blazars detected in very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) gamma-rays, only three belong to the subclass of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). MAGIC observed FSRQ PKS 1510-089 in February-April 2012 during a high activity state in the high energy (HE, E>100 MeV) gamma-ray band observed by AGILE and Fermi. MAGIC observations result in the detection of a source with significance of 6.0 sigma. In agreement with the previous VHE observations of the source, we find no statistically significant variability during the MAGIC observations in daily, weekly or monthly time scales. The other two known VHE FSRQs have shown daily scale to sub-hour variability. We study the multifrequency behaviour of the source at the epoch of MAGIC observation, collecting quasi-simultaneous data at radio and optical (GASP-WEBT and F-Gamma collaborations, REM, Steward, Perkins, Liverpool, OVRO and VLBA telescopes), X-ray (Swift satellite) and HE gamma-ray frequencies. The gamma-ray SED combining AGILE, Fermi and MAGIC data joins smoothly and shows no hint of a break. The multifrequency light curves suggest a common origin for the millimeter radio and HE gamma-ray emission and the HE gamma-ray flaring starts when the new component is ejected from the 43GHz VLBA core. The quasi-simultaneous multifrequency SED is modelled with a one-zone inverse Compton model. We study two different origins of the seed photons for the inverse Compton scattering, namely the infra-red torus and a slow sheath surrounding the jet around the VLBA core. Both models fit the data well. However, the fast HE gamma-ray variability requires that within the modelled large emitting region, there must exist more compact regions. We suggest that these observed signatures would be most naturally explained by a turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down the jet and crossing a standing conical shock.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We present a study of the very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1424+240 observed with the MAGIC telescopes. The primary aim of this paper is the multiwavelength spectral characterization and modeling of this blazar, made particularly interesting by the recent discovery of a lower limit of its redshift of z>0.6, which makes it a promising candidate to be the most distant VHE source. Methods. The source has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes in VHE gamma rays for a total observation time of 33.6 h from 2009 to 2011. Results. The source was marginally detected in VHE gamma rays during 2009 and 2010 and later the detection was confirmed during an optical outburst in 2011. The combined significance of the stacked sample is 7.2 sigma. The differential spectra measured during the different campaigns can be described by steep power laws, with the indices ranging from 3.5+/-1.2 to 5.0+/-1.7. The MAGIC spectra corrected for the absorption due to the extragalactic background light connect rather smoothly, within systematic errors, with the mean spectrum in 2009-2011 observed at lower energies by the Fermi-LAT. A recent study including the combined VERITAS and Fermi-LAT contemporaneous observations from 2009 provided different results. In addition the absorption-corrected MAGIC spectrum is flat with no apparent turn down up to 400 GeV. The multiwavelength light curve shows increasing flux in radio and optical bands that could point to a common origin from the same region of the jet. Also the large separation between the two peaks of the constructed non-simultaneous spectral energy distribution requires an extremely high Doppler factor if a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model is applied. We find that a two-component synchrotron self-Compton model describes the spectral energy distribution of the source well, if the source is located at z~0.6.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In our continuing campaign of observations of V339 Del = Nova Del 2013, we have obtained simultaneous spectroscopy with HST/STIS (medium resolution echelle, 1150 - 3000A) (ATel#5409) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (FIES high resolution echelle, 3800 - 7400A) on 2013 Nov. 21. The nova was well into the supersoft phase at the time of the observations (ATel#5573), and showed a countrate with the Swift XRT of about 32 c/s at the time of the HST observation.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Nova V339 Del was observed simultaneously with HST and with XMM-Newton on 21 November 2013, 99 days after outburst. The HST observations are described in ATel#5624. XMM-Newton observed for 34000 seconds, and timing and spectral information can be extracted from two MOS detectors as part of the European Photon Imaging Cameras (EPIC) and two Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS). The independent MOS and the RGS light curves are variable by ~10% around 60 and 30 counts per second, respectively.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Indications of a GeV component in the emission from GRBs are known since the EGRET observations during the 1990's and they have been confirmed by the data of the Fermi satellite. These results have, however, shown that our understanding of GRB physics is still unsatisfactory. The new generation of Cherenkov observatories and in particular the MAGIC telescope, allow for the first time the possibility to extend the measurement of GRBs from several tens up to hundreds of GeV energy range. Both leptonic and hadronic processes have been suggested to explain the possible GeV/TeV counterpart of GRBs. Observations with ground-based telescopes of very high energy photons (E>30 GeV) from these sources are going to play a key role in discriminating among the different proposed emission mechanisms, which are barely distinguishable at lower energies. MAGIC telescope observations of the GRB 090102 (z=1.547) field and Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data in the same time interval are analysed to derive upper limits of the GeV/TeV emission. We compare these results to the expected emissions evaluated for different processes in the framework of a relativistic blast wave model for the afterglow. Simultaneous upper limits with Fermi and a Cherenkov telescope have been derived for this GRB observation. The results we obtained are compatible with the expected emission although the difficulties in predicting the HE and VHE emission for the afterglow of this event makes it difficult to draw firmer conclusions. Nonetheless, MAGIC sensitivity in the energy range of overlap with space-based instruments (above about 40 GeV) is about one order of magnitude better with respect to Fermi. This makes evident the constraining power of ground-based observations and shows that the MAGIC telescope has reached the required performance to make possible GRB multiwavelength studies in the very high energy range.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the multifrequency emission and spectral properties of the quasar 3C 279. We observed 3C 279 in very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) gamma rays, with the MAGIC telescopes during 2011, for the first time in stereoscopic mode. We combine these measurements with observations at other energy bands: in high energy (HE, E>100MeV) gamma rays from Fermi-LAT, in X-rays from RXTE, in the optical from the KVA telescope and in the radio at 43GHz, 37GHz and 15GHz from the VLBA, Mets\"ahovi and OVRO radio telescopes and optical polarisation measurements from the KVA and Liverpool telescopes. During the MAGIC observations (February to April 2011) 3C 279 was in a low state in optical, X-ray and gamma rays. The MAGIC observations did not yield a significant detection. These upper limits are in agreement with the extrapolation of the HE gamma-ray spectrum, corrected for extragalactic background light absorption, from Fermi-LAT. The second part of the MAGIC observations in 2011 was triggered by a high activity state in the optical and gamma-ray bands. During the optical outburst the optical electric vector position angle rotatated of about 180 degrees. There was no simultaneous rotation of the 43GHz radio polarisation angle. No VHE gamma rays were detected by MAGIC, and the derived upper limits suggest the presence of a spectral break or curvature between the Fermi-LAT and MAGIC bands. The combined upper limits are the strongest derived to date for the source at VHE and below the level of the previously detected flux by a factor 2. Radiation models that include synchrotron and inverse Compton emissions match the optical to gamma-ray data, assuming an emission component inside the broad line region (BLR) responsible for the high-energy emission and one outside the BLR and the infrared torus causing optical and low-energy emission. We interpreted the optical polarisation with a bent trajectory model.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The radio galaxy NGC 1275, recently identified as a very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter by MAGIC, is one of the few non-blazar AGN detected in the VHE regime. In order to better understand the origin of the gamma-ray emission and locate it within the galaxy, we study contemporaneous multi-frequency observations of NGC 1275 and model the overall spectral energy distribution (SED). We analyze unpublished MAGIC observations carried out between Oct. 2009 and Feb. 2010, and the already published ones taken between Aug. 2010 and Feb. 2011. We study the multi-band variability and correlations analyzing data of Fermi-LAT (0.1 - 100 GeV), Chandra (X-ray), KVA (optical) and MOJAVE (radio) taken during the same period. Using custom Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to early MAGIC stereo data, we detect NGC 1275 also in the earlier MAGIC campaign. The flux level and energy spectra are similar to the results of the second campaign. The monthly light curve above 100 GeV shows a hint of variability at the 3.6 sigma level. In the Fermi-LAT band, both flux and spectral shape variabilities are reported. The optical light curve is also variable and shows a clear correlation with the gamma-ray flux above 100 MeV. In radio, three compact components are resolved in the innermost part of the jet. One of them shows a similar trend as the LAT and KVA light curves. The 0.1 - 650 GeV gamma-ray spectra measured simultaneously with MAGIC and LAT are well fit either by a log-parabola or by a power-law with a sub-exponential cutoff for both campaigns. A single-zone synchrotron-self-Compton model, with an electron spectrum following a power-law with an exponential cutoff, can explain the broadband SED and the multi-frequency behavior of the source. However, this model suggests an untypical low bulk Lorentz factor or a velocity alignment closer to the line of sight than the pc-scale radio jet.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Swift has been regularly observing the fourth LAT-detected classical nova (ATEL #5302) V339 Del (Nova Del 2013; PNV J20233073+2046041) since its outburst on 2013 August 14. Once optical loading had been correctly accounted for (ATel #5429), a real X-ray source was first detected on September 19. The XRT 0.3-10 keV X-ray count rate has been slowly rising since this time, from a value of (1.8 +0.7/-0.6)x10-3 count s-1 on September 19 to (7 +/- 2)x10-3 count s-1 on October 8 [these count rates are from grade 0 (single pixel) events only, to mitigate any residual optical loading effects].
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The galaxy IC 310 has recently been identified as a $\gamma$-ray emitter by the Fermi-LAT and at very high energies by the MAGIC telescopes. Originally classified as a head-tail radio galaxy, the nature of this object is subject of controversy because its nucleus shows blazar-like behavior. Aims. In order to understand the nature of IC 310 and the origin of the VHE emission we studied the spectral and flux variability of IC 310 from the X-ray band to the VHE regime. Methods. The daily light curve of IC 310 above 300 GeV has been measured with MAGIC from 2009 October to 2010 February. Contemporaneous Fermi-LAT data (2008-2011) in the 10-500 GeV energy range were also analyzed. In X-ray, archival observations from 2003 to 2007 with XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift-XRT in the 0.5-10 keV band were studied. Results. Several flares with similar amplitude can be seen in the MAGIC light curve. Day to day flux variability is clearly present. The photon index between 120 GeV and 8 TeV is measured to be $\Gamma=2.0$ during both low and high flux states. It does not show variability, whereas the flux at 1 TeV changes by a factor of 7. Fermi-LAT detected only eight $\gamma$ rays in the energy range 10 GeV-500 GeV in three years of observation. The measured photon index of $\Gamma=1.3\pm0.5$ in the Fermi-LAT range is very hard. The X-ray measurements show strong variability in both flux and photon index. The latter varied from 1.76 to 2.55. Conclusion. The rapid variability measured in $\gamma$ rays and X-rays confirms the blazar-like behavior of the source. The spectral behavior measured in both energy bands suggest IC 310 could be linked to extreme HBL objects. The apparent luminosity of IC 310 is a few orders of magnitude lower than other extreme HBLs however and, atypical for an HBL, it harbors a kiloparsec-scale radio structure. Thus, IC 310 could be a peculiar type of a HBL.
    05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Nova Monocerotis 2012 is the third γ-ray transient identified with a thermonuclear runaway on a white dwarf, that is, a nova event. Swift monitoring has revealed the distinct evolution of the harder and super-soft X-ray spectral components, while Swift-UV and V- and I-band photometry show a gradual decline with subtle changes of slope. During the super-soft emission phase, a coherent 7.1 hr modulation was found in the soft X-ray, UV, optical, and near-IR data, varying in phase across all wavebands. Assuming this period to be orbital, the system has a near-main-sequence secondary, with little appreciable stellar wind. This distinguishes it from the first GeV nova, V407 Cyg, where the γ-rays were proposed to form through shock-accelerated particles as the ejecta interacted with the red giant wind. We favor a model in which the γ-rays arise from the shock of the ejecta with material close to the white dwarf in the orbital plane. This suggests that classical novae may commonly be GeV sources. We ascribe the orbital modulation to a raised section of an accretion disk passing through the line of sight, periodically blocking and reflecting much of the emission. The disk must therefore have reformed by day 150 after outburst.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2013; 768(2):L26. · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • åp. 04/2013; 552:A112.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
775.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Physics "E.Fermi"
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2012
    • Technische Universität Dortmund
      • Faculty of Physics
      Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2010
    • Max Planck Institute of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008–2010
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1993–2009
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Wuerzburg
      • Faculty of Physics and Astronomy
      Würzburg, Bavaria, Germany
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • Department of Physics
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
    • Keele University
      • Department of Physics and Astrophysics
      Newcastle under Lyme, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1994–2007
    • Indiana University South Bend
      • Physics and Astronomy
      South Bend, Indiana, United States
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Earth and Space Exploration
      Tempe, AZ, United States