Naoki Yoshida

The University of Tokyo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (129)621.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the condition for the formation of low-mass second-generation stars in the early universe. It has been proposed that gas cooling by dust thermal emission can trigger fragmentation of a low-metallicity star-forming gas cloud. In order to determine the critical condition in which dust cooling induces the formation of low-mass stars, we follow the thermal evolution of a collapsing cloud by a one-zone semi-analytic collapse model. Earlier studies assume the dust amount in the local universe, where all refractory elements are depleted onto grains, and/or assume the constant dust amount during gas collapse. In this paper, we employ the models of dust formation and destruction in early supernovae to derive the realistic dust compositions and size distributions for multiple species as the initial conditions of our collapse calculations. We also follow accretion of heavy elements in the gas phase onto dust grains, i.e., grain growth, during gas contraction. We find that grain growth well alters the fragmentation property of the clouds, and that this still does not approach to the value in the local universe. The critical conditions can be written by the gas metallicity Zcr and the initial depletion efficiency fdep,0 of gas-phase metal onto grains, or dust-to-metal mass ratio, as (Zcr/10^{-5.5} Zsun) = (fdep,0/0.18)^{-0.44} with small scatters in the range of Zcr = [0.06--3.2]x10^{-5} Zsun. We also show that the initial dust composition and size distribution are important to determine Zcr.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars starting from the recently discovered $\rm [Fe/H]<-7.1$ star SMSS J031300 (Keller et al. 2014). We show that the elemental abundances observed on the surface of SMSS J031300 can be well fit by the yields of faint, metal free, supernovae. Using properly calibrated faint supernova explosion models, we study, for the first time, the formation of dust grains in such carbon-rich, iron-poor supernova ejecta. Calculations are performed assuming both unmixed and uniformly mixed ejecta and taking into account the partial destruction by the supernova reverse shock. We find that, due to the paucity of refractory elements beside carbon, amorphous carbon is the only grain species to form, with carbon condensation efficiencies that range between (0.15-0.84), resulting in dust yields in the range (0.025-2.25)M$_{\odot}$. We follow the collapse and fragmentation of a star forming cloud enriched by the products of these faint supernova explosions and we explore the role played by fine structure line cooling and dust cooling. We show that even if grain growth during the collapse has a minor effect of the dust-to-gas ratio, due to C depletion into CO molecules at an early stage of the collapse, the formation of CEMP low-mass stars, such as SMSS J031300, could be triggered by dust cooling and fragmentation. A comparison between model predictions and observations of a sample of C-normal and C-rich metal-poor stars supports the idea that a single common pathway may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars.
    09/2014;
  • Takashi Okamoto, Ikkoh Shimizu, Naoki Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: We present cosmological hydrodynamic simulations performed to study evolution of galaxy population. The simulations follow timed release of mass, energy, and metals by stellar evolution and employ phenomenological treatments of supernova feedback, pre-supernova feedback modeled as feedback by radiation pressure from massive stars, and quenching of gas cooling in large halos. We construct the fiducial model so that it reproduces the observationally estimated galaxy stellar mass functions and the relationships between the galaxy stellar mass and the host halo mass from $z = 4$ to 0. We find that the fiducial model constructed this way naturally explains the cosmic star formation history, the galaxy downsizing, and the star formation rate and metallicity of the star-forming galaxies. The simulations without the quenching of the gas cooling in large halos overproduce massive galaxies at $z < 2$ and fail to reproduce galaxy downsizing. The simulations that do not employ the radiation pressure feedback from young stars predict too strong redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation. Furthermore, the slope of the relation becomes too steep at low redshift without the radiation pressure feedback. The metallicity dependence in the radiation pressure feedback is a key to explain the observed mass-metallicity relation. These facts indicate that these two processes in addition to supernova feedback are essential for galaxy evolution. Our simple phenomenological model is suitable to construct a mock galaxy sample to study physical properties of observed galaxy populations.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first measurement of the cross-correlation of weak gravitational lensing and the extragalactic gamma-ray background emission using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The cross-correlation is a powerful probe of signatures of dark matter annihilation, because both cosmic shear and gamma-ray emission originate directly from the same DM distribution in the universe, and it can be used to derive constraints on dark matter annihilation cross-section. We show that the measured lensing-gamma correlation is consistent with a null signal. Comparing the result to theoretical predictions, we exclude dark matter annihilation cross sections of =10^{-24}-10^{-25} cm^3 s^-1 for a 100 GeV dark matter. If dark matter halos exist down to the mass scale of 10^-6 M_sun, we are able to place constraints on the thermal cross sections ~ 3 x 10^{-26} cm^3 s^-1 for a 10 GeV dark matter annihilation into tau^{+} tau^{-}. Future gravitational lensing surveys will increase sensitivity to probe annihilation cross sections of ~ 3 x 10^{-26} cm^3 s^-1 even for a 100 GeV dark matter. Detailed modeling of the contributions from astrophysical sources to the cross correlation signal could further improve the constraints by ~ 40-70 %.
    Physical Review D 04/2014; 90(6). · 4.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dust grains in low-metallicity star-forming regions may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars. The minimal conditions to activate dust-induced fragmentation require the gas to be pre-enriched above a critical dust-to-gas mass ratio Dcr=[2.6--6.3]x10^-9 with the spread reflecting the dependence on the grain properties. The recently discovered Galactic halo star SDSS J102915+172927 has a stellar mass of 0.8 Msun and a metallicity of Z=4.5x10^-5 Zsun and represents an optimal candidate for the dust-induced low-mass star formation. Indeed, for the two most plausible Population III supernova progenitors, with 20 Msun and 35 Msun, the critical dust-to-gas mass ratio can be overcome provided that at least 0.4 Msun of dust condenses in the ejecta, allowing for moderate destruction by the reverse shock. Here we show that even if dust formation in the first supernovae is less efficient or strong dust destruction does occur, grain growth during the collapse of the parent gas cloud is sufficiently rapid to activate dust cooling and likely fragmentation into low-mass and long-lived stars. Silicates and magnetite grains can experience significant grain growth in the density range 10^9 /cc < nH<10^12 /cc by accreting gas-phase species (SiO, SiO2, and Fe) until their gas-phase abundance drops to zero, reaching condensation efficiencies =1. The corresponding increase in the dust-to-gas mass ratio allows dust-induced cooling and fragmentation to be activated at 10^12 /cc < nH < 10^14 /cc, before the collapsing cloud becomes optically thick to continuum radiation. We show that for all the initial conditions that apply to the parent cloud of SDSS J102915+172927, dust-driven fragmentation is able to account for the formation of the star.
    01/2014; 439(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Origins of superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) discovered by recent SN surveys are still not known well. One idea to explain the huge luminosity is the collision of dense CSM and SN ejecta. If SN ejecta is surrounded by dense CSM, the kinetic energy of SN ejecta is efficiently converted to radiation energy, making them very bright. To see how well this idea works quantitatively, we performed numerical simulations of collisions of SN ejecta and dense CSM by using one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA and obtained light curves (LCs) resulting from the collision. First, we show the results of our LC modeling of SLSN 2006gy. We find that physical parameters of dense CSM estimated by using the idea of shock breakout in dense CSM (e.g., Chevalier & Irwin 2011, Moriya & Tominaga 2012) can explain the LC properties of SN 2006gy well. The dense CSM's radius is about 1016 cm and its mass about 15 M ☉. It should be ejected within a few decades before the explosion of the progenitor. We also discuss how LCs change with different CSM and SN ejecta properties and origins of the diversity of H-rich SLSNe. This can potentially be a probe to see diversities in mass-loss properties of the progenitors. Finally, we also discuss a possible signature of SN ejecta-CSM interaction which can be found in H-poor SLSN.
    12/2013;
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    Masato Shirasaki, Naoki Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: Measurement of cosmic shear using weak gravitational lensing is a challenging task that involves a number of complicated procedures. We study in detail the systematic errors in measurement of weak lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). Specifically, we focus on systematics associated with galaxy shape measurement, photometric redshift errors, and shear calibration correction. We first generate mock weak lensing catalogues that directly incorporate the actual observational characteristics of the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We then perform the Fisher analysis using the large set of mock catalogues for various cosmological models. We find that the statistical error associated with the observational effects degrades the cosmological parameter constraints by a factor of a few. Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey with the sky coverage of ~1400 deg2 will constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter with an error of Delta w_0 ~ 0.25 by the lensing MFs alone, but biases induced by the systematics can be comparable to the 1-sigma error. We conclude that the lensing MFs are powerful statistics beyond the two-point statistics, only if well calibrated measurement of both the redshifts and the shapes of source galaxies is performed. Finally, we analyse the CFHTLenS data to explore the ability of the MFs to break degeneracies between a few cosmological parameters. Using a combined analysis of the MFs and the shear correlation function, we derive the matter density Omega_m0= 0.256+0.054-0.046.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 786(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the potential use of nebular emission lines in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) for determining spectroscopic redshift of z>8 galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). After making a line emissivity model as a function of metallicity, especially for the [O III] 88 micron line which is likely to be the strongest FIR line from H II regions, we predict the line fluxes from high-z galaxies based on a cosmological hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation. Since the metallicity of galaxies reaches at ~0.2 Zsun even at z>8 in our simulation, we expect the [O III] 88 micron line as strong as 1.3 mJy for 27 AB objects, which is detectable at a high significance by <1 hour integration with ALMA. Therefore, the [O III] 88 micron line would be the best tool to confirm the spectroscopic redshifts beyond z=8.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 780(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Ayuki Kamada, Masato Shirasaki, Naoki Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: We explore the discovery potential of light gravitino mass m_{3/2} by combining future cosmology surveys and collider experiments. The former probe the imprint of light gravitinos in the cosmic matter density field, whereas the latter search signatures of a supersymmetry breaking mechanism. Free-streaming of light gravitinos suppresses the density fluctuations at galactic and sub-galactic length scales, where weak gravitational lensing can be used as a powerful probe. We perform numerical simulations of structure formation to quantify the effect. We then run realistic ray-tracing simulations of gravitational lensing to measure the cosmic shear in models with light gravitino. We forecast the possible reach of future wide-field surveys by Fisher analysis; the light gravitino mass can be determined with an accuracy of m_{3/2}=4\pm 1 eV by a combination of the Hyper Suprime Cam survey and cosmic microwave background anisotropy data obtained by Planck satellite. The corresponding accuracy to be obtained by the future Large Synoptic Survey Telescope is \delta m_{3/2}=0.6 eV. Data from experiments at Large Hadron Collider at 14 TeV will provide constraint at m_{3/2} \simeq 5 eV in the minimal framework of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) model. We conclude that a large class of the GMSB model can be tested by combining the cosmological observations and the collider experiments.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We have performed a large cosmological SPH simulation tailored to the deep survey in the UDF with the HST made in 2012, the so-called UDF12 campaign. After making a light-cone output of our simulation, we have applied the exactly same color selection criteria as the UDF12 campaign to select galaxies from our simulation, and then, have examined the physical properties of them as a proxy of the real observed UDF12 galaxies at z > 7. As a result, we find that the halo mass and the stellar mass are linearly proportional to the observed ultraviolet (UV) luminosity. The dust attenuation well correlates with the observed UV luminosity, but shows a large dispersion. The UV slope also correlates with the UV luminosity, which is consistent with observations quantitatively. The star formation rate (SFR) also proportional to the stellar mass. The specific SFR shows only a weak dependency on the mass. These relations can be explained quantitatively if the SFR is determined by the halo accretion rate. The SFRs of our high-z galaxies increase with time in contrast to usual assumptions made in the SED fitting method. The typical increasing timescales of the galaxies at z ~ 7, 8, 9 and z ~ 10 are 250, 180, 100 and 50 Myr, respectively. We also find that an average metallicity weighted by the Lyman continuum luminosity measured by emission line ratios, reaches at 0.1 to 0.5 Solar for some galaxies even at z ~ 10, suggesting a rapid metal enrichment. We also expect > 0.1 mJy at 350 GHz of the dust thermal emission from the galaxies with H160 < 27, which can be detectable with the ALMA. In our simulation, the galaxies selected by the UDF12 survey contribute to only 43%, 33%, 23% and 9% of the cosmic SFR density at z ~ 7, 8, 9 and z ~10, respectively. The rest mainly comes from galaxies too faint to be detected by the current survey. The JWST will push the detected fraction up to 72-56%.
    09/2013; 440(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Redshift space distortion (RSD) observed in galaxy redshift surveys is a powerful tool to test gravity theories on cosmological scales, but the systematic uncertainties must carefully be examined for future surveys with large statistics. Here we employ various analytic models of RSD and estimate the systematic errors on measurements of the structure growth-rate parameter, f\sigma_8, induced by non-linear effects and the halo bias with respect to the dark matter distribution, by using halo catalogues from 40 realisations of 3.4 \times 10^8 comoving h^{-3}Mpc^3 cosmological N-body simulations. We consider hypothetical redshift surveys at redshifts z=0.5, 1.35 and 2, and different minimum halo mass thresholds in the range of 5.0 \times 10^{11} -- 2.0 \times 10^{13} h^{-1} M_\odot. We find that the systematic error of f\sigma_8 is greatly reduced to ~4 per cent level, when a recently proposed analytical formula of RSD that takes into account the higher-order coupling between the density and velocity fields is adopted, with a scale-dependent parametric bias model. Dependence of the systematic error on the halo mass, the redshift, and the maximum wavenumber used in the analysis is discussed. We also find that the Wilson-Hilferty transformation is useful to improve the accuracy of likelihood analysis when only a small number of modes are available in power spectrum measurements.
    08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We perform a large set of radiation hydrodynamics simulations of primordial star formation in a fully cosmological context. Our statistical sample of 100 First Stars show that the first generation of stars have a wide mass distribution M_popIII = 10 ~ 1000 M_sun. We first run cosmological simulations to generate a set of primordial star-forming gas clouds. We then follow protostar formation in each gas cloud and the subsequent protostellar evolution until the gas mass accretion onto the protostar is halted by stellar radiative feedback. The accretion rates differ significantly among the primordial gas clouds which largely determine the final stellar masses. For low accretion rates the growth of a protostar is self-regulated by radiative feedback effects and the final mass is limited to several tens of solar masses. At high accretion rates the protostar's outer envelope continues to expand and the effective surface temperature remains low; such protostars do not exert strong radiative feedback and can grow in excess to one hundred solar masses. The obtained wide mass range suggests that the first stars play a variety of roles in the early universe, by triggering both core-collapse supernovae and pair-instability supernovae as well as by leaving stellar mass black holes. We find certain correlations between the final stellar mass and the physical properties of the star-forming cloud. These correlations can be used to estimate the mass of the first star from the properties of the parent cloud or of the host halo, without following the detailed protostellar evolution.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 781(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion (Mdot >~ 0.1 Msun/yr) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond redshift of about 6. Extending our previous work, we here study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10^{4 - 5} Msun. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the "supergiant protostar" stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass, until =~ 100 AU for M_* >~ 10^4 Msun, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius the effective temperature is always less than 10^4 K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M_* >~ 10^5 Msun can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10^5 Msun. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 778(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study formation of low-mass star (< Msun) in an extremely metal-poor gas (Z ~ 10^-5 Zsun) in the early universe. Our study is motivated by the recent discovery of a low-mass (M* < 0.8 Msun) and extremely metal-poor (Z < 4.5x10^-5 Zsun) star in the Galactic halo by Caffau et al. In such a low-metallicity gas, dust cooling is considered to trigger instability even in an extremely low-metallicity cloud (Z < 10^-4 Zsun). However, in the early universe, the sites where grains are formed are limited and thus dust abundance is smaller than present-day. We propose a model that the accretion of heavy elements onto grain surfaces (grain growth) can induce dust cooling. We calculate cloud evolution and grain growth self-consistently. As a result, grain growth in a gas cloud can eventually enhance dust amount and induce dust cooling for the metallicity 4.5x10^-5 Zsun.
    07/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Sky masking is unavoidable in wide-field weak lensing observations. We study how masks affect the measurement of statistics of matter distribution probed by weak gravitational lensing. We first use 1000 cosmological ray-tracing simulations to examine in detail the impact of masked regions on the weak lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). We consider actual sky masks used for a Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging survey. The masks increase the variance of the convergence field and the expected values of the MFs are biased. The bias then affects the non-Gaussian signals induced by the gravitational growth of structure. We then explore how masks affect cosmological parameter estimation. We calculate the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio S/N for masked maps to study the information content of lensing MFs. We show that the degradation of S/N for masked maps is mainly determined by the effective survey area. We also perform simple chi^2 analysis to show the impact of lensing MF bias due to masked regions. Finally, we compare ray-tracing simulations with data from a Subaru 2 deg^2 survey in order to address if the observed lensing MFs are consistent with those of the standard cosmology. The resulting chi^2/n_dof = 29.6/30 for three combined MFs, obtained with the mask effects taken into account, suggests that the observational data are indeed consistent with the standard LambdaCDM model. We conclude that the lensing MFs are powerful probe of cosmology only if mask effects are correctly taken into account.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2013; 774(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Gen Chiaki, Takaya Nozawa, Naoki Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: In a low-metallicity gas, rapid cooling by dust thermal emission is considered to induce cloud fragmentation and play a vital role in the formation of low-mass stars (<~ 1 M_sun) in metal-poor environments. We investigate how the growth of dust grains through accretion of heavy elements in the gas phase onto grain surfaces alters the thermal evolution and fragmentation properties of a collapsing gas cloud. We calculate directly grain growth and dust emission cooling in a self-consistent manner. We show that MgSiO3 grains grow sufficiently at gas densities nH = 10^{10}, 10^{12}, and 10^{14} /cc for metallicities Z = 10^{-4}, 10^{-5}, and 10^{-6} Zsun, respectively, where the cooling of the collapsing gas cloud is enhanced. The condition for efficient dust cooling is insensitive to the initial condensation factor of pre-existing grains within the realistic range of 0.001--0.1, but sensitive to metallicity. The critical metallicity is Zcrit ~ 10^{-5.5} Zsun for the initial grain radius r_{MgSiO3,0} <~ 0.01 um and Zcrit ~ 10^{-4.5} Zsun for r_{MgSiO3,0} >~ 0.1 um. The formation of a recently discovered low-mass star with extremely low metallicity (<= 4.5x10^{-5} Zsun) could have been triggered by grain growth.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2013; 765(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the formation of non-linear structures in Warm Dark Matter (WDM) models and in a Long-Lived Charged Massive Particle (CHAMP) model. CHAMPs with a decay lifetime of about 1 yr induce characteristic suppression in the matter power spectrum at subgalactic scales through acoustic oscillations in the thermal background. We explore structure formation in such a model. We also study three WDM models, where the dark matter particles are produced through the following mechanisms: i) WDM particles are produced in the thermal background and then kinematically decoupled; ii) WDM particles are fermions produced by the decay of thermal heavy bosons; and iii) WDM particles are produced by the decay of non-relativistic heavy particles. We show that the linear matter power spectra for the three models are all characterised by the comoving Jeans scale at the matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, we can also describe the linear matter power spectrum for the Long-Lived CHAMP model in terms of a suitably defined characteristic cut-off scale k_{Ch}, similarly to the WDM models. We perform large cosmological N-body simulations to study the non-linear growth of structures in these four models. We compare the halo mass functions, the subhalo mass functions, and the radial distributions of subhalos in simulated Milky Way-size halos. We study the models with k_{cut}=51, 410, 820 h/Mpc, and confirm that these statistics are indeed similar between the different WDM models and the Long-Lived CHAMP model. The result suggests that the cut-off scale k_{cut} not only characterises the linear power spectra but also can be used to predict the non-linear clustering properties. The radial distribution of subhalos in Milky Way-size halos is consistent with the observed distribution for k_{cut}~50-800 h/Mpc; such models resolve the so-called "missing satellite problem".
    Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 01/2013; 2013(03). · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We show model light curves of superluminous supernova 2006gy on the assumption that the supernova is powered by the collision of supernova ejecta and its dense circumstellar medium. The initial conditions are constructed based on the shock breakout condition, assuming that the circumstellar medium is dense enough to cause the shock breakout within it. We perform a set of numerical light curve calculations by using a one-dimensional multigroup radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. We succeeded in reproducing the overall features of the early light curve of SN 2006gy with the circumstellar medium whose mass is about 15 Msun (the average mass-loss rate ~ 0.1 Msun/yr). Thus, the progenitor of SN 2006gy is likely a very massive star. The density profile of the circumstellar medium is not well constrained by the light curve modeling only, but our modeling disfavors the circumstellar medium formed by steady mass loss. The ejecta mass is estimated to be comparable to or less than 15 Msun and the explosion energy is expected to be more than 4e51 erg. No 56Ni is required to explain the early light curve. We find that the multidimensional effect, e.g., the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is expected to take place in the cool dense shell between the supernova ejecta and the dense circumstellar medium, is important in understanding supernovae powered by the shock interaction. We also show the evolution of the optical and near-infrared model light curves of high-redshift superluminous supernovae. They can be potentially used to identify SN 2006gy-like superluminous supernovae in the future optical and near-infrared transient surveys.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2013; 428(2):1020. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first three-dimensional simulations to include the effects of dark matter annihilation feedback during the collapse of primordial minihalos. We begin our simulations from cosmological initial conditions and account for dark matter annihilation in our treatment of the chemical and thermal evolution of the gas. The dark matter is modeled using an analytical density profile that responds to changes in the peak gas density. We find that the gas can collapse to high densities despite the additional energy input from the dark matter. No objects supported purely by dark matter annihilation heating are formed in our simulations. However, we find that dark matter annihilation heating has a large effect on the evolution of the gas following the formation of the first protostar. Previous simulations without dark matter annihilation found that protostellar disks around Population III stars rapidly fragmented, forming multiple protostars that underwent mergers or ejections. When dark matter annihilation is included, however, these disks become stable to radii of 1000 AU or more. In the cases where fragmentation does occur, it is a wide binary that is formed.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 761(2):154. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Shingo Hirano, Naoki Yoshida
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    ABSTRACT: We study the thermal evolution of primordial star-forming gas clouds using three-dimensional cosmological simulations. We critically examine how assumptions and approximations made in calculating radiative cooling rates affect the dynamics of the collapsing gas clouds. We consider two important molecular hydrogen cooling processes that operate in a dense primordial gas; H_2 line cooling and continuum cooling by H_2 collision-induced emission. To calculate the optically thick cooling rates, we follow the Sobolev method for the former, whereas we perform ray-tracing for the latter. We also run the same set of simulations using simplified fitting functions for the net cooling rates. We compare the simulation results in detail. We show that the time- and direction-dependence of hydrodynamic quantities such as gas temperature and local velocity gradients significantly affects the optically thick cooling rates. Gravitational collapse of the cloud core is accelerated when the cooling rates are calculated by using the fitting functions. The structure and evolution of the central pre-stellar disk are also affected. We conclude that physically motivated implementations of radiative transfer are necessary to follow accurately the thermal and chemical evolution of a primordial gas to high densities.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 763(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
621.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Department of Physics
      • • Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2011
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2010
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Physics II
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan
  • 2004–2009
    • Nagoya University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2003–2004
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002–2004
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy