[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: WNT5A has recently been implicated in inflammatory processes, but its role as a bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC)-derived mediator of joint inflammation in arthritis is unclear. Here, we investigated whether inflammatory stimuli induce WNT5A in BMSC to control inflammatory responses. WNT5A levels were determined in human BMSC after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α,) and in synovial cells and tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and human TNF-α transgenic (hTNFtg) mice. A microarray analysis of WNT5A-treated murine osteoblasts was performed using Affymetrix gene chips. The regulation of cytokine/chemokine expression was confirmed by qPCR, ELISA, and Luminex technology in BMSC after stimulation with WNT5A or WNT5A knockdown. Relevant signaling pathways were identified using specific inhibitors. Migration of MACS-purified T lymphocytes and monocytes was assessed using the FluoroBlok system. WNT5A expression was increased threefold in BMSC after stimulation with LPS or TNF-α. Synovial fibroblasts from patients with RA showed a twofold increase of WNT5A expression compared with control cells, and its expression was highly induced in the synovial tissue of patients with RA and hTNFtg mice. Microarray analysis of WNT5A-treated osteoblasts identified cytokines and chemokines as targets. The induction of IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1, and CXCL5 by WNT5A was confirmed in BMSC and depended on the activation of the NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein (MAPK), and Akt pathways. Accordingly, knockdown of WNT5A markedly reduced the basal and LPS-induced cytokine/chemokine production. Finally, migration of monocytes and T cells toward the supernatant of WNT5A-treated BMSC was increased by 25% and 20%, respectively. This study underlines the critical role of BMSC-derived WNT5A in the regulation of inflammatory processes and suggests its participation in the pathogenesis of RA.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 12/2011; 27(3):575-85. · 6.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GCs) regulate various physiological processes, including bone remodeling. Whereas physiological amounts of GCs are required for proper human osteoblast differentiation, prolonged exposure to GCs leads to substantial bone loss in vivo predominantly by inhibiting osteoblast functions. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential of an improved benefit/risk profile. Here we tested the osteoimmunological effects of CpdA on primary human osteoblasts and their paracrine interactions with osteoclasts. To assess the antiinflammatory potential of CpdA in human bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC)-derived osteoblasts, cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and cytokine expression was determined. Similar to dexamethasone (DEX), CpdA profoundly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (-63%), IL-1β (-38%), and IL-6 (-36%) (P < 0.05) mRNA levels. Of note, CpdA failed to induce osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, whereas DEX and budesonide enhanced matrix mineralization an d increased runt-related transcription factor 2 and alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels up to 5-fold in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, each substance promoted cell proliferation by 7-10% and suppressed apoptosis by 25-30% at low concentrations and early differentiation stages, whereas high concentrations (1 μm) suppressed proliferation and stimulated apoptosis in mature osteoblasts. Finally, CpdA did not increase the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to osteoprotegerin mRNA ratio as compared with DEX and did not stimulate the formation of osteoclasts in coculture with BMSCs. In summary, CpdA displays dissociated osteogenic and immunological effects in human BMSCs that are distinct from those of conventional GCs. Whether the specific osteoimmunological profile of CpdA translates into a relevant in vivo effect needs to be further explored.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells of the bone vasculature modulate development, remodeling, and repair of bone by secreting osteotropic cytokines and hormones, which can act on osteoblastic and osteoclastic lineage cells. RANKL is the essential factor for differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, whereas osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor and inhibitor for RANKL.
In this study, we analyzed the regulation of OPG by T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and the closely related IL-13 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the underlying signaling pathway, and its functional relevance on osteoclastic resorption.
IL-4 and IL-13 induced OPG mRNA levels and protein secretion in HUVEC by up to 4-fold in a dose- and time-dependent fashion (maximum effect after 48 h and at 10 ng/ml). Activation of the transcription factor STAT6 preceded IL-4-induced OPG expression, and blockade of IL-4-induced STAT6 activation by the phospholipase C-specific inhibitor D609 decreased OPG expression. Soluble IL-4 receptor (sIL-4R) dose-dependently abolished both IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation and OPG expression. RANKL stimulated the activity of osteoclasts, which was antagonized by HUVEC-derived supernatant containing OPG. The inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis was completely and specifically abrogated by a neutralizing OPG antibody in unstimulated HUVEC supernatant and partially in IL-4-stimulated HUVEC supernatant.
In summary, IL-4 and IL-13 induced OPG expression through activation of STAT6 in endothelial cells, and HUVEC-derived OPG is an IL-4/IL-13-induced inhibitor of osteoclastic resorption. These data underline the impact of Th2 cytokines on bone resorption through modulation of endothelial cell-derived cytokines.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 06/2008; 23(5):750-8. · 6.04 Impact Factor