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Publications (14)1.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust coefficient of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle at combustion chamber pressures of 12l.4 to 16.5 MPa (1800 to 2400 psia). A nozzle with a modified Rao contour and an expansion ratio fo 1025:1 was tested with hydrogen and oxygen at altitude conditions. The same nozzle, truncated to an area ratio of 440:1 was also tested. Values of thrust coefficient are presented along with characteristic exhaust velocity efficiencies, nozzle wall temperatures, and overall thruster specific impulse.
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    ABSTRACT: Improved design concept developed for combustion chambers for rocket engines, described in three reports. Provides compliance allowing unrestrained thermal expansion in circumferential direction. Compliance lengthens life of rocket engine by reducing amount of thermal deformation caused by repeated firings.
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    ABSTRACT: A new, structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase over those of rectangular channel designs, the current state of the art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gave rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal, structural, and durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives, have corroborated the experimental observations.
    Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets 04/1994; 32(4). DOI:10.2514/3.26665 · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Electroform welding used to join variety of parts without addition of detrimental heat. Technique developed so large and/or complexly shaped parts joined without degrading properties of materials. Commercial uses include joining dissimilar alloys. Beneficial for suppression of distortion or maintenance of close tolerances in precise components.
  • John M. Kazaroff
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    ABSTRACT: Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced, subscale, tubular combustion chambers were built and test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants to assess the increase in fatigue life that can be obtained with this type of construction. Two chambers were tested: one ran for 637 cycles without failing, compared to a predicted life of 200 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. The other chamber failed at 256 cycles, compared to a predicted life of 118 cycles for a comparable smooth-wall milled-channel liner configuration. Posttest metallographic analysis determined that the strain-relieving design (structural compliance) of the tubular configuration was the cause of this increase in life.
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    ABSTRACT: A hydrogen-oxygen subscale rocket combustion chamber was designed incorporating an advanced design concept to reduce strain and increase life. The design permits unrestrained thermal expansion of a circumferential direction and, thereby, provides structural compliance during the thermal cycling of hot-fire testing. The chamber was built and test fired at a chamber pressure of 4137 kN/sq m (600 psia) and a hydrogen-oxygen mixture ratio of 6.0. Compared with a conventional milled-channel configuration, the new structurally compliant chamber had a 134 or 287 percent increase in fatigue life, depending on the life predicted for the conventional configuration.
  • John M. Kazaroff, Albert J. Pavli
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    ABSTRACT: An advanced rocket thrust chamber for future space applications is described along with an improved method of fabrication. Included are fabrication demonstrator and test chambers produced by this method. This concept offers the promise of improved cyclic life, reusability, reliability, and performance. The performance is improved because of the enhanced enthalpy extraction. The life, reusability, and reliability is improved because of the enhanced structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber by a tube-bundle of high-conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes, and the bonding of these tubes by a unique electroforming operation. Further, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, jackets, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.
    Journal of Propulsion and Power 09/1992; 8(4). DOI:10.2514/3.23550 · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential benefits of simultaneously using hydrogen and oxygen as rocket engine coolants are described. A plug-and-spool rocket engine was examined at heat fluxes ranging from 9290 to 163,500 kW/sq m, using a combined 3D conduction/advection analysis. Both counterflow and parallel flow cooling arrangements were analyzed. The results indicate that a significant amount of heat transfer to the oxygen occurs, reducing both the hot-side wall temperature of the rocket engine and also reducing the exit temperature of the hydrogen coolant. The total heat transferred to the oxygen was found to be largely independent of the oxygen coolant flow direction. The reduction in combustion chamber wall temperatures at throttled conditions is especially desirable since the analysis indicates that double temperature maxima, one at the throat and another in the combustion chamber, occur with a traditional hydrogen-only cooled engine. A dual-cooled engine eliminates any concern for overheating in the combustion chamber.
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    John M. Kazaroff, Robert S. Jankovsky
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    ABSTRACT: An advanced thrust liner material for potential long life reusable rocket engines is described. This liner material was produced with the intent of improving the reusable life of high pressure thrust chambers by strengthening the chamber in the hoop direction, thus avoiding the longitudinal cracking due to low cycle fatigue that is observed in conventional homogeneous copper chambers, but yet not reducing the high thermal conductivity that is essential when operating with high heat fluxes. The liner material produced was a tungsten wire reinforced copper composite. Incorporating this composite into two hydrogen-oxygen test rocket chambers was done so that its performance as a reusable liner material could be evaluated. Testing results showed that both chambers failed prematurely, but the crack sites were perpendicular to the normal direction of cracking indicating a degree of success in containing the tremendous thermal strain associated with high temperature rocket engines. The failures, in all cases, were associated with drilled instrumentation ports and no other damages or deformations were found elsewhere in the composite liners.
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    John M. Kazaroff, Albert J. Pavli
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    ABSTRACT: An advanced rocket thrust chamber for future space application is described along with an improved method of fabrication. Potential benefits of the concept are improved cyclic life, reusability, and performance. Performance improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced heat transfer into the coolant which will enable higher chamber pressure in expander cycle engines. Cyclic life, reusability and reliability improvements are anticipated because of the enhanced structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber with a tube-bundle of high conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes, and the bonding of these tubes by an electroforming operation. Further, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, jackets, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.
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    John M. Kazaroff, Albert J. Pavli, Glenn A. Malone
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    ABSTRACT: An improved method of fabrication rocket chambers for future space applications is described. Included are fabrication demonstrator and test chambers produced by this method. This concept offers the promise of improved cyclic life, reusability, and performance. The performance is improved because of the enhanced enthalpy extraction. The improved cyclic life, reusability, and reliability is improved because of the structural compliance inherent in the construction. The method of construction involves the forming of the combustion chamber by a tube-bundle of high conductivity copper or copper alloy tubes and the bonding of these tubes by a unique electroforming operation. Furthermore, the method of fabrication reduces chamber complexity by incorporating manifolds, and structural stiffeners while having the potential for thrust chamber cost and weight reduction.
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    R. S. Jankovsky, J. M. Kazaroff
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    ABSTRACT: The life analysis used to compare copper tubes and milled copper channels for rocket engine cooling passages is described. Copper tubes were chosen as a possible replacement for the existing milled copper channel configuration because (1) they offer increased surface area for additional enthalpy extraction; (2) they have ideal pressure vessel characteristics; and (3) the shape of the tube is believed to allow free expansion, thus accommodating the strain resulting from thermal expansion. The analysis was a two-dimensional elastic-plastic comparison, using a finite element method, to illustrate that, under the same thermal and pressure loading, the compliant shape of the tube increases the life of the chamber. The analysis indicates that for a hot-gas-side-wall temperature of 100 F the critical strain decreases from 1.25 percent in the channel to 0.94 percent in the tube. Since the life of rocket thrust chambers is most often limited by cyclic strain or strain range, this decrease corresponds to an expected tube life which is nearly twice the channel life.
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    J. M. Kazaroff, G. A. Repas
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    ABSTRACT: The combustion chamber liner of the space shuttle main engine is made of NARloy-Z, a copper-silver-zirconium alloy. This alloy was produced by vacuum melting and vacuum centrifugal casting; a production method that is currently now available. Using conventional melting, casting, and forging methods, NASA has produced an alloy of the same composition called NASA-Z. This report compares the composition, microstructure, tensile properties, low-cycle fatigue life, and hot-firing life of these two materials. The results show that the materials have similar characteristics.