Mohammad Siahpush

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States

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Publications (102)263.38 Total impact

  • Gopal K Singh, Mohammad Siahpush
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited research on rural-urban disparities in U.S. life expectancy. This study examined trends in rural-urban disparities in life expectancy at birth in the U.S. between 1969 and 2009. The 1969-2009 U.S. county-level mortality data linked to a rural-urban continuum measure were analyzed. Life expectancies were calculated by age, gender, and race for 3-year time periods between 1969 and 2004 and for 2005-2009 using standard life-table methodology. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was inversely related to levels of rurality. In 2005-2009, those in large metropolitan areas had a life expectancy of 79.1 years, compared with 76.9 years in small urban towns and 76.7 years in rural areas. When stratified by gender, race, and income, life expectancy ranged from 67.7 years among poor black men in nonmetropolitan areas to 89.6 among poor Asian/Pacific Islander women in metropolitan areas. Rural-urban disparities widened over time. In 1969-1971, life expectancy was 0.4 years longer in metropolitan than in nonmetropolitan areas (70.9 vs 70.5 years). By 2005-2009, the life expectancy difference had increased to 2.0 years (78.8 vs 76.8 years). The rural poor and rural blacks currently experience survival probabilities that urban rich and urban whites enjoyed 4 decades earlier. Causes of death contributing most to the increasing rural-urban disparity and lower life expectancy in rural areas include heart disease, unintentional injuries, COPD, lung cancer, stroke, suicide, and diabetes. Between 1969 and 2009, residents in metropolitan areas experienced larger gains in life expectancy than those in nonmetropolitan areas, contributing to the widening gap.
    American journal of preventive medicine 02/2014; 46(2):e19-29. · 4.24 Impact Factor
  • Gopal K Singh, Mohammad Siahpush
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined trends in rural-urban disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA between 1969 and 2009. A rural-urban continuum measure was linked to county-level mortality data. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated by sex, race, cause-of-death, area-poverty, and urbanization level for 13 time periods between 1969 and 2009. Cause-of-death decomposition and log-linear and Poisson regression were used to analyze rural-urban differentials. Mortality rates increased with increasing levels of rurality overall and for non-Hispanic whites, blacks, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Despite the declining mortality trends, mortality risks for both males and females and for blacks and whites have been increasingly higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas, particularly since 1990. In 2005-2009, mortality rates varied from 391.9 per 100,000 population for Asians/Pacific Islanders in rural areas to 1,063.2 for blacks in small-urban towns. Poverty gradients were steeper in rural areas, which maintained higher mortality than urban areas after adjustment for poverty level. Poor blacks in non-metropolitan areas experienced two to three times higher all-cause and premature mortality risks than affluent blacks and whites in metropolitan areas. Disparities widened over time; excess mortality from all causes combined and from several major causes of death in non-metropolitan areas was greater in 2005-2009 than in 1990-1992. Causes of death contributing most to the increasing rural-urban disparity and higher rural mortality include heart disease, unintentional injuries, COPD, lung cancer, stroke, suicide, diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Residents in metropolitan areas experienced larger mortality reductions during the past four decades than non-metropolitan residents, contributing to the widening gap.
    Journal of Urban Health 12/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increases in tobacco taxation can lead to reductions in tobacco consumption and prevalence of use across social groups. However, use of price-minimisation strategies to manage current and future tobacco use and the role of financial stress is less understood. This study aimed to measure the effect of cigarette price increases on price-minimisation strategy endorsement and financial stress among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Community service organisation welfare recipients in NSW, Australia completed a touchscreen survey. Smoking history, financial stress, highest price to quit and responses to hypothetical cigarette price increases were assessed. Participants were 354 smokers (response rate = 79%). Most participants received income from a government pension (95%), earned <A$300/week (55%), had not completed secondary schooling (64%), were moderately or heavily nicotine-dependent (60%), reported high financial stress (66%) and spent A$56/week on tobacco. In response to 10% and 20% hypothetical price rises, significantly more participants endorsed trying to quit in response to the larger increase scenario (P < 0.001), and fewer selected no change to their smoking (P < 0.001). Numerous price-minimisation strategies (e.g. switching to cheaper brands/products) were endorsed, but remained constant across hypothetical scenarios; level of financial stress appeared to have little influence. Smokers indicating they would not change their smoking in response to price rises had higher levels of nicotine dependence. Socially disadvantaged smokers endorsed numerous price-minimising strategies to maintain smoking at hypothetically increased costs. Larger cigarette price rises motivated more smokers to consider quitting, while price-resistant smokers appeared to have a more entrenched smoker status.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 12/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe factors that influence decisions of young African Americans to start smoking. Young adult African Americans have a high risk for becoming regular smokers, but little is understood about their smoking. This knowledge is needed because understanding young adults' smokers will help develop effective tobacco cessation and prevention strategies. Qualitative study. The study consisted of 22 in-depth interviews with African Americans between the ages of 19-25. Data were collected between 2009-2010. Smokers, former smokers and non-smokers were included. Results indicated that smoking identity of young adults was influenced by their limited and discounted knowledge of health risks and the stigma associated with the type of tobacco smoked. The importance of cost was discussed as was the effect of smoking on relationships and vice versa. Marijuana was the primary reason they started smoking tobacco. Their transition into adulthood and views of smoking, adulthood and success all influenced smoking. Additionally, self-reflection on personal choices around smoking was important and may be useful in effective smoking cessation programmes for this group. Nurses are in an ideal position to promote effective smoking cessation in young adults. Direct, culturally relevant messages are needed that fit into the context of the young adults' lives by addressing concurrent use of marijuana, self-esteem and success in life.
    Journal of Advanced Nursing 10/2013; · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this research was to assess the association of prolonged financial stress (FS) with subsequent obesity. Design and Methods: Data were from Waves 8 (2008), 9 (2009), and 10 (2010) of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. The outcome was obesity measured in 2010. Prolonged FS was defined as having experienced FS in both 2008 and 2009. FS was measured in each year using seven questionnaire items. Analyses adjusted for health, physical activity, income, education, baseline obesity, and other covariates. Results: Prolonged FS was a strong predictor of subsequent obesity. The adjusted risk of being obese in 2010 were 20% higher (RR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.10-1.30) among individuals who experienced FS in both 2008 and 2009 than those who did not experience FS in either year. The association of FS with obesity was independent of income and constant across income categories. Conclusions: Obesity prevention research should pay more attention to FS as an important dimension of economic deprivation, a concept that is distinct from common indicators of socioeconomic status such as income. Future research can examine the effect of financial education and counseling programs that help individuals with such skills as money management, budgeting, and saving on a reduction in FS and obesity.
    Obesity 07/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
  • Gopal K Singh, Mohammad Siahpush, Sean F Altekruse
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined unemployment and racial/ethnic disparities in liver cancer mortality, incidence, survival, and risk factors in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to 1969-2009 county-level mortality and incidence data, whereas 2006-2011 National Health Interview Surveys were used to examine variations in hepatitis infection and alcohol consumption. Age-adjusted mortality rates, risk-ratios, and rate-differences were calculated by year, sex, race, and county-unemployment level. Log-linear, Poisson, and logistic regression and disparity indices were used to model trends and differentials. Although liver-cancer mortality rose markedly for all groups during 1969-2011, higher unemployment levels were associated with increased mortality and incidence rates in each time period. Both absolute and relative inequalities in liver cancer mortality according to unemployment level increased over time for both males and females and for those aged 25-64 years. Compared to the lowest-unemployment group, those aged 25-64 in the highest-unemployment group had 56 and 115 % higher liver-cancer mortality in 1969-1971 and 2005-2009, respectively. Regardless of unemployment levels, Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics had the highest mortality and incidence rates. The adjusted odds of hepatitis infection and heavy drinking were 38-39 % higher among the unemployed than employed. Liver-cancer mortality and incidence have risen steadily among all racial/ethnic, sex, and socioeconomic groups. Faster increases in mortality among the highest-unemployment group have led to a widening gap in mortality over time. Disparities in mortality and incidence are consistent with similar inequalities in hepatitis infection and alcohol consumption.
    Journal of Community Health 05/2013; · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Legal tobacco tax avoidance strategies such as cross-border cigarette purchasing may attenuate the impact of tax increases on tobacco consumption. Little is known about socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border purchasing. OBJECTIVE: To describe socioeconomic and country variations in cross-border cigarette purchasing in six European countries. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from adult smokers (n=7873) from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys in France (2006/2007), Germany (2007), Ireland (2006), The Netherlands (2008), Scotland (2006) and the rest of the UK (2007/2008) were used. Respondents were asked whether they had bought cigarettes outside their country in the last 6 months and how often. FINDINGS: In French and German provinces/states bordering countries with lower cigarette prices, 24% and 13% of smokers, respectively, reported purchasing cigarettes frequently outside their country. In non-border regions of France and Germany, and in Ireland, Scotland, the rest of the UK and The Netherlands, frequent purchasing of cigarettes outside the country was reported by 2-7% of smokers. Smokers with higher levels of education or income, younger smokers, daily smokers, heavier smokers and smokers not planning to quit smoking were more likely to purchase cigarettes outside their country. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-border cigarette purchasing is more common in European regions bordering countries with lower cigarette prices and is more often reported by smokers with higher education and income. Increasing taxes in countries with lower cigarette prices, and reducing the number of cigarettes that can be legally imported across borders could help to avoid cross-border purchasing.
    Tobacco control 05/2013; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to compare the risk of all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers combined, lung cancer, respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus between normal-weight smokers and overweight or obese ex-smokers. METHODS: Data were from 1997 to 2004 National Health Interview Survey (with response rates ranging from 70% to 80%) which were linked to records in the National Death Index. Mortality follow-up was through 31 December 2006. The sample was limited to normal-weight smokers and overweight/obese ex-smokers 25 years of age and older (n=52 819). HR from Cox regression was computed to represent mortality effect. RESULTS: Results showed that in both women and men, normal-weight smokers, relative to overweight or obese ex-smokers, had a higher risk of mortality from all causes combined, all cancers combined, lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Among women, there was no difference in mortality risk from diabetes mellitus between normal-weight smokers and overweight or obese ex-smokers. Among men, there was some evidence that the risk of mortality was higher in obese ex-smokers than normal-weight smokers. CONCLUSIONS: This article concludes that, overall, mortality risk is smaller in overweight or obese ex-smokers than normal-weight smokers. Smoking cessation interventions can tailor messages that highlight the greater reduction in mortality associated with quitting, compared with potential weight gain.
    Tobacco control 04/2013; · 3.85 Impact Factor
  • Health Education Journal 01/2013; · 0.73 Impact Factor
  • Raees A Shaikh, Mohammad Siahpush, Gopal K Singh
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIM: In recent years, new non-traditional, potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), claiming to contain fewer harmful chemicals than the traditional products, have been introduced in the market. Little is known about socioeconomic, demographic and smoking-related determinants of the likelihood of using these products among smokers. The aim of this study was to examine these determinants. METHODS: Data from the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey was used. We limited the analysis to current smokers (n=40 724). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the association between covariates and the probability of the use of PREPs. RESULTS: We found that younger age, lower education, higher nicotine addiction and having an intention to quit are associated with higher likelihood of the use of PREPs. The likelihood of using these products was found to be higher among respondents who are unemployed or have a service, production, sales or farming occupation than those with a professional occupation. Smokers living in the midwest, south or west, were found to have a greater likelihood of the use of PREPs than those living in the northeast. CONCLUSIONS: Because there is little evidence to suggest that PREPs are less harmful that other tobacco products, their marketing as harm-minimising products should be regulated. Smokers, in particular those who are younger, have a lower socioeconomic status, and are more nicotine-dependent, should be the target of educational programmes that reveal the actual harm of PREPs.
    Tobacco control 01/2013; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878) and relapse (n = 3,242). Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004). The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p < 0.001). We found that socioeconomic status, social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2013; 10(7):2906-19. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    Gopal K Singh, Romuladus E Azuine, Mohammad Siahpush
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the extent to which socioeconomic and racial and geographic disparities in HIV/AIDS mortality in the United States changed between 1987 and 2011. Census-based deprivation indices were linked to county-level mortality data from 1987 to 2009. Log-linear, least-squares, and Poisson regression were used to model mortality trends and differentials. HIV/AIDS mortality rose between 1987 and 1995 and then declined markedly for all groups between 1996 and 2011. Despite the steep mortality decline, socioeconomic gradients and racial and geographic disparities in HIV/AIDS mortality increased substantially during the study period. Compared to whites, blacks had 3 times higher HIV/AIDS mortality in 1987 and 8 times higher mortality in 2011. In 1987, those in the most-deprived group had 1.9 times higher HIV/AIDS mortality than those in the most-affluent group; the corresponding relative risks increased to 2.9 in 1998 and 3.6 in 2009. Socioeconomic gradients existed across all race-sex groups, with mortality risk being 8-16 times higher among blacks than whites within each deprivation group. Dramatic reductions in HIV/AIDS mortality represent a major public health success. However, slower mortality declines among more deprived groups and blacks contributed to the widening gap. Mortality disparities reflect inequalities in incidence, access to antiretroviral therapy, and patient survival.
    Advances in preventive medicine. 01/2013; 2013:657961.
  • Obesity 01/2013; · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers.
    Addictive behaviors 12/2012; 37(12):1307-13. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Research findings on social disparities in barriers to quitting faced by smokers from mainly Western English language countries may or may not generalize to smokers in China. This paper sought to determine whether nicotine dependence, quitting self-efficacy, quitting interest differ by socio-economic status (SES), and whether they mediate the relationship between SES and quitting behavior of urban Chinese smokers. METHODS: Data come from 7,309 adult smokers who participated in the first 3 waves of the International Tobacco Control-China survey conducted in 7 cities across China. The association of socio-economic indicators with nicotine dependence, quitting self-efficacy, quitting interest, and behavior was evaluated using generalized estimating equations models along with a formal test of mediational effects. RESULTS: The SES index indicated that those from lower SES were significantly more addicted (p < .001), less confident (p < .001), and less interested in quitting (p < .05). This finding was replicated by education and employment status, but it was not clearly related to income. Mediational analyses revealed that the effects of SES on making quit attempts and quit success among those who tried were indirect. For quit attempts, self-efficacy, interest to quit, and heaviness of smoking index (HSI) were all significant mediators of the SES effect (p < .001), but for maintenance, only HSI was a significant mediator (p < .001).Conclusions:Urban Chinese smokers from lower socio- economic backgrounds experience greater levels of psychological and behavioral barriers to quitting than their counterparts from higher socio-economic backgrounds and as such, they need more help to quit and do so successfully.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 11/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Mohammad Siahpush, Jennifer L Huberty, Aaron Beighle
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    ABSTRACT: The recess environment in schools has been identified as an integral part of school-based programs to enhance physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to report pilot findings on the extent to which the Ready for Recess intervention was associated with a different amount of increase in moderate to vigorous PA (MPVA) during recess and the rest of the school day between girls and boys, and between nonwhites and whites. The Ready for Recess intervention modified the recess environment of schools by providing staff training and recreational equipment. The MPVA levels of 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade students (n = 93) at 2 schools were measured pre- and post-intervention using ActiGraph accelerometers. Multiple regression models with robust variance were utilized to test for the interaction of intervention with gender and race/ethnicity. The intervention was associated with an adjusted increase of 4.7 minutes (P <.001) in moderate/vigorous PA during recess. There was no evidence that this effect varied by gender (P = .944) or race (P = .731). The intervention was also associated with an adjusted increase of 29.6 minutes (P < .001) in moderate/vigorous PA during rest of the school day. While this effect did not vary by gender, there was some evidence (P = .034) that nonwhites benefited more from the intervention than whites. Simple strategies such as staff training and recreational equipment may be an effective way to increase PA in children (despite gender or ethnicity) during recess time as well as during the rest of the school day.
    Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP 09/2012; 18(5):416-22. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. METHODS: We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). RESULTS: Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. CONCLUSION: Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.
    Tobacco control 08/2012; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed international patterns and socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS among US youth aged 15-24 years. A county-level socioeconomic deprivation index and rural-urban continuum measure were linked to the 1999-2007 US mortality data. Mortality rates were calculated for each socioeconomic and rural-urban group. Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks of youth mortality by deprivation level and rural-urban residence. The USA has the highest youth homicide rate and 6th highest overall youth mortality rate in the industrialized world. Substantial socioeconomic and rural-urban gradients in youth mortality were observed within the USA. Compared to their most affluent counterparts, youth in the most deprived group had 1.9 times higher all-cause mortality, 8.0 times higher homicide mortality, 1.5 times higher unintentional-injury mortality, and 8.8 times higher HIV/AIDS mortality. Youth in rural areas had significantly higher mortality rates than their urban counterparts regardless of deprivation levels, with suicide and unintentional-injury mortality risks being 1.8 and 2.3 times larger in rural than in urban areas. However, youth in the most urbanized areas had at least 5.6 times higher risks of homicide and HIV/AIDS mortality than their rural counterparts. Disparities in mortality differed by race and sex. Socioeconomic deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to disparities in youth mortality among all sex and racial/ethnic groups, although the impact of deprivation was considerably greater. The USA ranks poorly in all-cause mortality, youth homicide, and unintentional-injury mortality rates when compared with other industrialized countries.
    Journal of Urban Health 07/2012; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the attitudes to various tobacco control regulations among smokers from four different countries and explore differences by country and socioeconomic status. Questions relating to tobacco regulation were asked of adult smokers from the 2007-2008 International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC4). Measures included attitudes to tobacco industry and product regulation, and measures of socioeconomic status and economic disadvantage. Overall smokers supported greater regulation of the tobacco industry with least supportive US smokers and most supportive Australian smokers. Reporting smoking-related deprivation and a lower income was independently associated with increased support for regulation of the tobacco industry (both p ≤ 0.01). Policy-makers interested in doing more to control tobacco should be reassured that, for the most part, they have the support of smokers, with greatest support in countries with the strongest regulations. Smokers economically disadvantaged by smoking were more supportive of government policies to regulate the tobacco industry suggesting that reactance against regulation is not likely to differentially contribute to lower cessation rates in this group.
    International Journal of Public Health 06/2012; 57(5):777-86. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While higher tobacco prices lead to a reduction in smoking prevalence, there is a concern that paying more for cigarettes can lead to excess financial burden. Our primary aim was to examine the association of daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and financial stress (FS). We used data from wave 7 (2008-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four-Country Survey which is a survey of smokers in Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia (n = 5887). Logistic regressions were used to assess the association of daily cigarette expenditure with SID and FS. In multivariate analyses, a one standard deviation increase in daily cigarette expenditure was associated with an increase of 24% (P = 0.004) in the probability of experiencing SID. While we found no association between daily cigarette expenditure and FS, we found that SID is a strong predictor of FS (odds ratio 6.25; P < 0.001). This suggests that cigarette expenditure indirectly affects FS through SID. Results showed no evidence of an interaction between cigarette expenditure and income or education in their effect on SID or FS. Our results imply that spending more on tobacco may result in SID but surprisingly has no direct effect on FS. While most smokers may be adjusting their incomes and consumption to minimise FS, some fail to do so occasionally as indexed by the SID measure. Future studies need to prospectively examine the effect of increased tobacco expenditure on financial burden of smokers.
    Drug and Alcohol Review 03/2012; 31(5):664-71. · 1.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
277 Downloads
263.38 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • University of Nebraska Medical Center
      • Department of Health Promotion, Social and Behavioral Health
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Nebraska at Omaha
      • • School of Health, Physical Education & Recreation
      • • College of Public Health
      • • Department of Health Promotion, Social & Behavioral Health
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
    • The Nebraska Medical Center
      Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Psychology
      Waterloo, Quebec, Canada
  • 2006–2012
    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
      • Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • Cancer Council Victoria
      • Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • BC Cancer Research Centre
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2009
    • Deakin University
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
  • 2003
    • Cancer Research Institute
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2001–2002
    • National Institutes of Health
      • Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • La Trobe University
      • Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia