Moxi Trivedi

Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, United States

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Publications (4)7.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: When heat is applied to the skin, heat is conducted away because of the latent heat transfer properties of the skin and an increase in skin circulation, but little attention has been paid to the heat transfer properties of skin in different areas of the body and in people with diabetes. research design: Thirty subjects in the age range of 20-75 years had a thermode (44°C) applied to the skin of their arm, leg, foot, and back for 6 min to assess the heat transfer characteristics of skin in these four areas of the body. Skin blood flow and skin temperature were monitored over the 6-min period. For the younger subjects, blood flow was not statistically different in response to heat in three areas of the body, starting at less than 200 flux measured by a laser Doppler imager and ending at approximately 1,200 flux after heat exposure. The foot had higher resting blood flow and higher blood flow in response to heat. Temperature and the rate of rise of temperature were also not different in any of the areas. The heat added to raise temperature, however, varied by body region. The arm required the least, whereas the leg and foot required the most. For the older group and subjects with diabetes, the heat required for any region of the body was much less to achieve the same increase in skin temperature, and blood flows were also much less; the subjects with diabetes showed the least blood flow and required the fewest calories to heat the skin. Whereas the foot required the greatest number of calories to heat the tissue in younger and older subjects, in subjects with diabetes, the foot took proportionally fewer calories. Thus, specific areas of the body are damaged more by diabetes than other areas.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 02/2011; 13(3):365-72. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When heat is applied to the skin, it is dissipated due to conductive heat flow in the tissue and the blood. While heat flow has been studied after applying a single heat exposure, the physiology of repeated exposures to local heat has not been well investigated. Twenty male and female subjects in the age range of 20-65 years old participated in a series of experiments during which a thermode was placed on their leg above the quadriceps muscle for 20 minutes, and on 3 sequential days, to see the effect of repeated local heat on skin blood flow, skin temperature, and on caloric transfer from a thermode used to raise skin temperature. The results of the experiment showed that, for young subjects, to raise skin temperature to 40 degrees C required more than double the calories required in older subjects. Further, in the younger subjects, the blood flow response in the first 20 minutes of heat exposure was over 30% higher than that seen in the older subjects. However, on the 2nd and 3rd day, the blood flow response of the younger subjects, was not significantly different between day 2 and 3, but was significantly less than day 1. There was no statistical difference in the blood flow response between day 1, 2 and 3 in the older subjects. In the younger subjects, in the 2 and 3rd day, the number of calories needed to warm the skin was also significantly less than that seen in the first day. In younger subjects but not older subjects, there appears to be some degree of acclimatization with an enhanced blood flow response in the first day that was protective to the skin which was not seen in repeated heat exposure.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2011; 17(1):CR1-8. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have examined the blood flow of the skin at rest and in response to sustained heat and shown that, in older people and people with diabetes, the skin blood flow response to heat is diminished compared to younger people. It is not sustained heat, however, that usually causes burns; it is a more rapid application of heat. Ten younger subjects, 10 older subjects, and 10 subjects with diabetes were examined before and after applying a water-filled thermode to the skin above the quadriceps muscle to observe the changes in skin temperature and skin blood flow and the ability of the skin to absorb heat after a 2-min heat exposure with water at 44°C. Skin temperature rose from 31.2°C at rest to 38.3°C after 2 min of heat application in all subjects (P > 0.05 between groups). The calories required in the younger group of subjects was 2.26 times the calories required in the older group of subjects for the same change in skin temperature and 13.8 times the calories needed to increase skin temperature in the subjects with diabetes. Furthermore, the blood flow at rest was lower in people with diabetes than older subjects and both groups less than that seen in younger subjects. The blood flow response to heat was slower in the subjects with diabetes compared to the older subjects and much slower than that seen in the younger subjects. Reduced skin blood flow of older and subjects with diabetes, decreased thickness of the dermal layer, and increased subcutaneous fat, as well as damage to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors, may account for some of the differences between the groups.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 12/2010; 12(12):1003-10. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm the skin paradoxically. To examine this phenomenon, 10 young male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to examine the contribution of skin blood flow in the initial warming the skin after the application of local heat. Heat flow was measured by the use of a thermode above the brachioradialis muscle. The thermode was warmed by constant temperature water at 44°C entering the thermode at a water flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor and blood flow in the underlying skin was measured by a laser Doppler imager in single point mode. The results of the experiments showed that, when skin temperature is cool (31-32°C), the number of calories being transferred to the skin from the thermode cannot account for the rise in skin temperature alone. A significant portion of the rise in skin temperature is due to the warm arterialized blood traversing the skin from the core areas of the body. However, as skin temperature approaches central core temperature, it becomes less of a heat source and more of a heat sync such that when skin temperature is at or above core temperature, the blood flow to the skin, as predicted by Pennes, becomes a heat sync pulling heat from the thermode.
    Medical Engineering & Physics 11/2010; 33(3):325-9. · 1.78 Impact Factor