Morgane Gauthier

Institut des cellules souches pour le traitement et l'étude des maladies monogéniques, Évry-Petit-Bourg, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (7)72.3 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an RNA-mediated disorder caused by a non-coding CTG repeat expansion that, in particular, provokes functional alteration of CUG-binding proteins. As a consequence, several genes with misregulated alternative splicing have been linked to clinical symptoms. In our search for additional molecular mechanisms that would trigger functional defects in DM1, we took advantage of mutant gene-carrying human embryonic stem cell lines to identify differentially expressed genes. Among the different genes found to be misregulated by DM1 mutation, one strongly downregulated gene encodes a transcription factor, ZNF37A. In this paper, we show that this defect in expression, which derives from a loss of RNA stability, is controlled by the RNA binding protein, CUGBP1, and is associated with impaired myogenesis-a functional defect reminiscent of that observed in DM1. Loss of the ZNF37A protein results in changes in the expression of the subunit alpha 1 of the receptor for the interkeukin 13. This suggests that the pathological molecular mechanisms linking ZNF37A and myogenesis may involve the signaling pathway that is known to promote myoblast recruitment during development and regeneration.
    Human Molecular Genetics 08/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 exhibit a diversity of symptoms that affect many different organs. Among those are cognitive dysfunctions, the origin of which has remained elusive due in part to the difficulty in accessing neural cells. Here, we have taken advantage of pluripotent stem cell lines derived from embryos identified during a pre-implantation genetic diagnosis as mutant gene-carriers, in order to differentiate cells along the neural lineage. Functional characterization of these cells revealed reduced proliferative capacity and increased autophagy linked to mTOR signaling pathway alterations. Interestingly, loss of function of MBNL1, a RNA-binding protein whose function is defective in DM1 patients, resulted in the mTOR signaling alteration whereas gain-of-function experiments rescued the phenotype. Collectively, these results provide a mechanism by which DM1 mutation might affect a major signaling pathway and highlight the pertinence of using pluripotent stem cells to study neuronal defects.
    Journal of Cell Science 02/2013; · 5.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable hope surrounds the use of disease-specific pluripotent stem cells to generate models of human disease allowing exploration of pathological mechanisms and search for new treatments. Disease-specific human embryonic stem cells were the first to provide a useful source for studying certain disease states. The recent demonstration that human somatic cells, derived from readily accessible tissue such as skin or blood, can be converted to embryonic-like induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has opened new perspectives for modelling and understanding a larger number of human pathologies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges for the use of disease-specific pluripotent stem cells in disease modelling and drug screening. Progress in these areas will substantially accelerate effective application of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells for drug screening.
    BioEssays 01/2012; 34(1):61-71. · 5.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable hope surrounds the use of disease-specific pluripotent stem cells, which can differentiate into any cell type, as starting materials to generate models of human disease that will allow exploration of pathological mechanisms and the search for new treatments. Disease-specific human embryonic stem cells have provided a useful source for studying certain disease states. However, reprogramming of human somatic cells that use readily accessible tissue, such as skin or blood, to generate embryonic-like induced pluripotent stem cells has opened new perspectives for modeling and understanding a larger number of human pathologies. Here, we examine the challenges in creating a disease model from human pluripotent stem cells, and describe their use to model both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, the need for adequate control experiments and the genetic limitations of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Progress in these areas will substantially accelerate effective application of disease-specific human pluripotent stem cells for drug screening.
    Regenerative Medicine 09/2011; 6(5):607-22. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder affecting a variety of organs, including the central nervous system. By using neuronal progeny derived from human embryonic stem cells carrying the causal DM1 mutation, we have identified an early developmental defect in genes involved in neurite formation and the establishment of neuromuscular connections. Differential gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR revealed decreased expression of two members of the SLITRK family in DM1 neural cells and in DM1 brain biopsies. In addition, DM1 motoneuron/muscle cell cocultures showed alterations that are consistent with the known role of SLITRK genes in neurite outgrowth, neuritogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Rescue and knockdown experiments suggested that the functional defects can be directly attributed to SLITRK misexpression. These neuropathological mechanisms may be clinically significant for the functional changes in neuromuscular connections associated with DM1.
    Cell Stem Cell 04/2011; · 25.32 Impact Factor
  • Medecine sciences: M/S 04/2011; 27(4):443-6. · 0.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder affecting a variety of organs, including the central nervous system. By using neuronal progeny derived from human embryonic stem cells carrying the causal DM1 mutation, we have identified an early developmental defect in genes involved in neurite formation and the establishment of neuromuscular connections. Differential gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR revealed decreased expression of two members of the SLITRK family in DM1 neural cells and in DM1 brain biopsies. In addition, DM1 motoneuron/muscle cell cocultures showed alterations that are consistent with the known role of SLITRK genes in neurite outgrowth, neuritogenesis, and synaptogenesis. Rescue and knockdown experiments suggested that the functional defects can be directly attributed to SLITRK misexpression. These neuropathological mechanisms may be clinically significant for the functional changes in neuromuscular connections associated with DM1.
    Cell stem cell 03/2011; 8(4):434-44. · 23.56 Impact Factor