[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Every organ in the body requires blood vessels for efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients, but independent vascular beds are highly specialized to meet the individual needs of specific organs. The vasculature of the brain is tightly sealed, with blood-brain barrier (BBB) properties developing coincident with neural vascularization. G protein-coupled receptor 124 (GPR124) (tumor endothelial marker 5, TEM5), an orphan member of the adhesion family of G protein-coupled receptors, was previously identified on the basis of its overexpression in tumor vasculature. Here, we show that global deletion or endothelial-specific deletion of GPR124 in mice results in embryonic lethality associated with abnormal angiogenesis of the forebrain and spinal cord. Expression of GPR124 was found to be required for invasion and migration of blood vessels into neuroepithelium, establishment of BBB properties, and expansion of the cerebral cortex. Thus, GPR124 is an important regulator of neurovasculature development and a potential drug target for cerebrovascular diseases.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2011; 108(14):5759-64. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1017192108 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is an integrin-like cell surface protein upregulated on tumor blood vessels and a potential vascular target for cancer therapy. Here, we found that the ability of an anti-TEM8 antibody, clone SB5, to recognize the extracellular domain of TEM8 on the cell surface depends on other host-cell factors. By taking advantage of SB5's ability to distinguish different forms of cell surface TEM8, we identified alpha-smooth muscle actin and transgelin, an actin binding protein, as intracellular factors able to alter TEM8 cell surface structure. Overexpression of either of these proteins in cells converted TEM8 from an SB5-exposed to an SB5-masked form and protected cells from SB5-saporin immunotoxins. Because the predominant form of TEM8 on the cell surface is not recognized by SB5, we also developed a new monoclonal antibody, called AF334, which is able to recognize both the SB5-exposed and the SB5-masked forms of TEM8. AF334-saporin selectively killed TEM8-positive cells independent of TEM8 cell surface structure. These studies reveal that TEM8 exists in different forms at the cell surface, a structure dependent on interactions with components of the actin cytoskeleton, and should aid in the rational design of the most effective diagnostic and therapeutic anti-TEM8 monoclonal antibodies.