[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND. Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in several physiological functions, including metabolic regulations, energy storage, and endocrine functions. ONJECTIVES. The aim of this review is to analyze the evidence that an additional function of the AT is to modulate persistent organic pollutant (POP) toxicity through several mechanisms. METHODS. We have reviewed the literature on the interaction of AT with POPs in order to provide a comprehensive model for this additional function of the AT. DISCUSSION. As a storage compartment for lipophilic POPs, AT plays a critical role in the toxicokinetics of a variety of drugs and pollutants, in particular POPs. By sequestering the POPs, AT can protect other organs and tissues from POP overload. However, this protective function could prove to be a threat in the long run. The accumulation of lipophilic POPs will increase total body burden. These accumulated POPs are slowly released into the bloodstream, and more so during weight loss. Thus, AT constitutes a continual source of internal exposure to POPs. In addition to its buffering function, AT is also a target of POPs and may mediate part of their metabolic effects. This is particularly relevant as many POPs have been shown to display obesogenic effects leading to quantitative and qualitative alterations of AT. Some POPs also induce a proinflammatory state in the adipose tissue, which may lead to detrimental metabolic effects. CONCLUSION. The AT appears to play diverse functions both as a modulator and as a target of POP toxicity.
Environmental Health Perspectives 12/2012; · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In humans, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stored primarily in adipose tissue. Their total body burden and their contribution to obesity-associated diseases remain unclear.
We characterized POP total body burden and their redistribution in obese individuals before and after drastic weight loss and compared these values with a variety of molecular, biological, and clinical parameters.
Seventy-one obese subjects were enrolled and underwent bariatric surgery. Blood and adipose tissue samples were obtained at different times from these individuals as well as from 18 lean women.
POP content (17 dioxins/furans and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) in different adipose tissue territories was similar, allowing us to assess total POP body burden from a single biopsy. Total POP body burden was 2 to 3 times higher in obese than in lean individuals. We also found increased expression of some POP target genes in obese adipose tissue. Drastic weight loss led to increased serum POPs and, within 6-12 months, to a significant 15% decrease in total polychlorinated biphenyl body burden. Importantly, serum POP levels were positively correlated with liver toxicity markers and lipid parameters, independently of age and body mass index.
POP content in adipose tissue and serum correlate with biological markers of obesity-related dysfunctions. Drastic weight loss leads to a redistribution of POPs and to a moderate decrease of their total body burden.
Environmental Health Perspectives 12/2010; 119(3):377-83. · 7.26 Impact Factor