[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Mutations within the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) sequence that cause early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) have been shown to promote Aβ aggregation. How these FAD-related mutants increase the aggregative ability of Aβ is not fully understood. Here, we characterized the effect of the Arctic variant (E22G) on the conformational stability of Aβ using various forms of spectroscopy and kinetic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The E22G mutation in the Arctic variant reduced the α-helical propensity and conformational stability of Aβ on residues 15-25. This mutation also caused an increase in both α-helix-to-β-strand conversion and fibril nucleation rates. Our results suggest that the α-helical propensity of residues 15-25 may play a determinant role in the aggregative ability of Aβ. This may provide a structural basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of Aβ aggregation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Methionine, an essential amino acid, is required for protein synthesis and normal cell metabolism. The transmethylation pathway and methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle) are two major pathways regulating methionine metabolism. Recently, methionine has been reported to play a key role in Drosophila fecundityResultsHere, we revealed that the MTA cycle plays a crucial role in Drosophila fecundity using the mutant of aci-reductone dioxygenase 1 (DADI1), an enzyme in the MTA cycle. In dietary restriction condition, the egg production of adi1 mutant flies was reduced compared to that of control flies. This fecundity defect in mutant flies was rescued by reintroduction of Dadi1 gene. Moreover, a functional homolog of human ADI1 also recovered the reproduction defect, in which the enzymatic activity of human ADI1 is required for normal fecundity. Importantly, methionine supply rescued the fecundity defect in Dadi1 mutant flies. The detailed analysis of Dadi1 mutant ovaries revealed a dramatic change in the levels of methionine metabolism. In addition, we found that three compounds namely, methionine, SAM and Methionine sulfoxide, respectively, may be required for normal fecundityConclusions
In summary, these results suggest that ADI1, an MTA cycle enzyme, affects fly fecundity through the regulation of methionine metabolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom renowned in East Asia for its potential biological effects. To enable a systematic exploration of the genes associated with the various phenotypes of the fungus, the genome consortium of G. lucidum has carried out an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project. Using a Sanger sequencing based approach, 47,285 ESTs were obtained from in vitro cultures of G. lucidum mycelium of various durations. These ESTs were further clustered and merged into 7,774 non-redundant expressed loci. The features of these expressed contigs were explored in terms of over-representation, alternative splicing, and natural antisense transcripts. Our results provide an invaluable information resource for exploring the G. lucidum transcriptome and its regulation. Many cases of the genes over-represented in fast-growing dikaryotic mycelium are closely related to growth, such as cell wall and bioactive compound synthesis. In addition, the EST-genome alignments containing putative cassette exons and retained introns were manually curated and then used to make inferences about the predominating splice-site recognition mechanism of G. lucidum. Moreover, a number of putative antisense transcripts have been pinpointed, from which we noticed that two cases are likely to reveal hitherto undiscovered biological pathways. To allow users to access the data and the initial analysis of the results of this project, a dedicated web site has been created at http://csb2.ym.edu.tw/est/.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(5):e61127. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. Beta-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are responsible for neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, L17 and F19 residues were identified as playing key roles in the stabilization of the Aβ40 conformation and in the reduction of its neurotoxicity. In this study, the effects of L17A/F19A mutations on the neurotoxicity of Aβ genetic mutant Arctic-type Aβ40(E22G) were tested. The results showed that compared to Aβ40(E22G), Aβ40(L17A/F19A/E22G) reduced the rate of conformation conversion, aggregation, and cytotoxicity, suggesting that L17 and F19 are critical residues responsible for conformational changes which may trigger the neurotoxic cascade of Aβ. Aβ40(L17A/F19A/E22G) also had decreased damage due to reactive oxygen species. The results are consistent with the discordant helix hypothesis, and confirm that residues 17-25 are in the discordant helix region. Compared to Aβ40(L17A/F19A), reduction in aggregation of Aβ40(L17A/F19A/E22G) was less significantly decreased. This observation provides an explanation based on the discordant helix hypothesis that the mutation of E22 to G22 of Aβ40(E22G) alters the propensity of the discordant helix. Arctic-type Aβ40(E22G) aggregates more severely than wild-type Aβ40, with a consequential increase in toxicity.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e61874. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
Metabolic syndrome is a multiplex disorder and puts patients on the road to type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, a surrogate biomarker in plasma or urine in fully reflecting features of metabolic syndrome has not been explored.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Urine metabolomics has potential utility in metabolic profiling because urine metabolites analysis reflects global outflux of metabolic change. Accordingly, we collected data on subjects (n = 99) with overweight, dyslipidemia, hypertension or impaired glucose tolerance and took a metabolomics approach to analyze the metabolites of urine revealed in metabolic syndrome by high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and elicit potential biomarkers to picture metabolic syndrome.RESULTSOur results revealed that the urine nicotinuric acid value of subjects with diabetes (HbA(1c) ≥6.5% or those receiving diabetes medications) (n = 25) was higher than subjects without diabetes (n = 37) (221 ± 31 vs. 152 ± 13 × 10(3) mAU, P = 0.0268). Moreover, urinary nicotinuric acid level was positively correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.CONCLUSIONS
This is the first study, to our knowledge, to propose that nicotinuric acid represents an important pathogenic mechanism in process from metabolic syndrome to diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: G6PD is crucial to NADPH generation and redox homeostasis. We have recently shown that G6PD deficiency predisposes cells to oxidant-induced cell death, and it is associated with the impairment of GSH regeneration. It remains unclear what other metabolic pathways are affected by G6PD deficiency, and whether the altered metabolism disturbs cellular redox homeostasis and underlies the increased susceptibility to oxidants. In the study, we examined the effect of diamide on global metabolite profiles of SK-Hep1-derived SK-i-Gi and SK-i-Sc cells, which could inducibly express shRNAs against G6PD (Gi) and control shRNA (Sc), respectively. There was no significant difference in their metabolite profiles under uninduced condition. Doxycycline (Dox) addition resulted in over 70% decrease in G6PD activity in SK-i-Gi cells. It was accompanied by relatively minor changes in the metabolome of SK-i-Gi cells. Upon further diamide treatment, the metabolite profiles of both SK-i-Gi and SK-i-Sc cells changed in a time-dependent manner. A number of metabolic pathways, including those involved in energy metabolism and metabolism of amino acid and glutathione, were affected. However, the changes in metabolite profile of Dox-treated SK-i-Gi cells were distinct from those of control cells (i.e. Dox-treated SK-i-Sc, SK-i-Gi, and SK-i-Sc cells). Cellular glutathione was depleted, while its disulfide form increased significantly in diamide, Dox-treated SK-i-Gi cells. Metabolites related to energy metabolism, such as AMP, ADP and acetylcarnitine, increased to a greater extent in these cells than in diamide-treated control cells. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and glutathione dropped to a lower level in SK-i-Gi cells than in control cells. The NAD depletion in SK-i-Gi cells was accompanied by a significant increase in NAD kinase activity. Targeted analyses revealed that NADP and NADPH increased significantly in diamide, Dox-treated SK-i-Gi cells as compared with similarly treated control cells. Our results suggest that diamide induces oxidation and depletion of glutathione in SK-i-Gi cells under the condition of G6PD shRNA induction, and subsequently induces conversion of NAD to NADP through enhanced NAD kinase activity. This may represent a compensatory mechanism to restore cellular NADPH reserve in G6PD-deficient cells. It is accompanied by alteration in pathways of cellular energy metabolism, such as glycolysis and β-oxidation.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2012; · 5.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), which accounts for 70% of the liver's total miRNAs, plays a pivotal role in the liver. However, its intrinsic physiological roles remain largely undetermined. We demonstrated that mice lacking the gene encoding miR-122a (Mir122a) are viable but develop temporally controlled steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These mice exhibited a striking disparity in HCC incidence based on sex, with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1, which recapitulates the disease incidence in humans. Impaired expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) contributed to steatosis, which was reversed by in vivo restoration of Mttp expression. We found that hepatic fibrosis onset can be partially attributed to the action of a miR-122a target, the Klf6 transcript. In addition, Mir122a(-/-) livers exhibited disruptions in a range of pathways, many of which closely resemble the disruptions found in human HCC. Importantly, the reexpression of miR-122a reduced disease manifestation and tumor incidence in Mir122a(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates that mice with a targeted deletion of the Mir122a gene possess several key phenotypes of human liver diseases, which provides a rationale for the development of a unique therapy for the treatment of chronic liver disease and HCC.
The Journal of clinical investigation 07/2012; 122(8):2884-97. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Amyloid peptide (1) (Aβ) aggregates are toxic to neuron and the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of congo red (CR) on Aβ aggregation is controversial in aqueous solution. Both prevention and promotion of Aβ aggregation have been proposed, suggesting that CR may interact with Aβ of different structural conformations resulting in different effects on Aβ aggregation behavior. CR with these characteristics can be applied to probe the molecular mechanism of Aβ aggregation. Therefore, in the present study, we used CR as a probe to study the Aβ aggregation behavior in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) condition. Our results show that Aβ(40) adopts two short helices at Q15-S26 and K28-L34 in the SDS environment. CR can interact with the helical form of Aβ(40), and the main interaction site is located at the first helical and hydrophobic core region, residues 17-25, which is assigned as a discordant helix region. Furthermore, CR may prevent Aβ(40) undergoing α-helix to β-strand conversion, and therefore aggregation through stabilizing the helical conformation of discordant helix in SDS environment, suggesting that the discordant helix plays a key role on the conformational stabilization of Aβ. Our present study implies that any factors or molecules that can stabilize the discordant helical conformation may also prevent the Aβ aggregation in membrane associated state. This leads to a new therapeutic strategy for the development of lead compounds to AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DHEA is known to have chemopreventive and antiproliferative activities, and was initially thought to be mediated by inhibition of G6PD. Our previous study has shown that DHEA may act through interference with energy metabolism. To study the effect of pharmacological dose of DHEA on cellular metabolism, and to further delineate the mechanism underlying its antiproliferative effect, we applied a metabolomic approach to globally profile the changes in metabolites in SK-Hep1 cells underexpressing G6PD (Sk-Gi) and control cells (Sk-Sc) after DHEA treatment. RRLC-TOF-MS was used to identify metabolites, and tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm their identity. DHEA induced changes in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) metabolism, as well as lysine metabolism. Elevation in level of glutathione disulfide, together with a concomitant decrease in level of reduced glutathione, was indicative of increased oxidative stress. Depletion of carnitine and its acyl derivatives reflected decline in fatty acid catabolism. These changes were associated with mitochondrial malfunction and reduction in cellular ATP content. Cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels decreased significantly, suggesting that alterations in lipid composition are causally related to decline in mitochondrial function after DHEA treatment. The decline in cellular SAM content was accompanied by decreased expression of methionine adenosyltransferase genes MAT2A and MAT2B. SAM supplementation partially rescued cells from DHEA-induced growth stagnation. Our findings suggest that DHEA causes perturbation of multiple pathways in cellular metabolism. Decreased SAM production, and cardiolipin depletion and the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction underlie the antiproliferative effect of DHEA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by dysregulated energy metabolism. Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic animals. However, its overall in vivo effects on energy metabolism and the underlying mechanism require further investigation. In the present study, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was employed to characterize the urine and plasma metabolomes of control, streptozotocin-induced DM and RSV-treated DM rats. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and heat map analysis, we discovered significant differences among control and experimental groups. RSV treatment significantly reduced the metabolic abnormalities in DM rats. Compared with the age-matched control rats, the level of carnitine was lower, and the levels of acetylcarnitine and butyrylcarnitine were higher in the urine and plasma of DM rats. RSV treatment ameliorated the deranged carnitine metabolism in DM rats. In addition, RSV treatment attenuated the diabetic ketoacidosis and muscle protein degradation, as evidenced from the attenuation of elevated urinary methyl-histidine and plasma branched-chain amino acids levels in DM rats. The beneficial effects of RSV in DM rats were correlated with activation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 expression, increase of hepatic and muscular mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibition of muscle NF-κB activities. We concluded that RSV possesses multiple beneficial metabolic effects in insulin-deficient DM rats, particularly in improving energy metabolism and reducing protein wasting.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2011; 301(5):E853-63. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A strategy consisting of a two-phase analytical procedure was used to obtain detailed molecular species composition for glycerophosphocholines (GPCs) profiling in biological tissue using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating under electrospray mode. In phase one of the analytical procedure, the precursor ion scan was first conducted to obtain the preliminary lipid profile that revealed the composition of the molecular species possessing phosphocholine structure in the biological tissue. In phase two of the analytical procedure, each product ion spectrum obtained for the GPC components in the profile was sequentially acquired for the determination of the molecular structure. A simple guide with high differentiability was proposed for the diacyl-, alkyl-acyl- and alk-1-enyl-acyl-GPC, and related lyso-GPCs molecular structure decision. Total 93 GPCs molecular species were identified in the fetal mouse lung with the relative amounts from 14.39% to less than 0.01% (normalizing by the total GPCs signal). The optimized chromatographic conditions were also proposed in the analytical procedure based on the compromise between the separation efficiency and electrospray signal response. The plate number of the probing GPCs was obviously improved to above 30,000 and the detection limits of the probing GPCs were between 0.002 and 0.016 ng/μL. The practical usability of the analytical procedure has been validated using a study of chemically induced early lung maturation. The metabolic difference between chemically treated and untreated fetal mouse lung was clearly distinguished by the composition of GPCs with several characteristics of molecular structure. The overall results showed that this two-phase analytical procedure was reliable for comprehensive GPC profiling.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 06/2011; 879(22):2095-106. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aggregated β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are neurotoxic and responsible for neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. From the structural point of view, Aβ self-aggregation involves a conformational change in the peptide. Here, we investigated the relationship between conformational changes and amino acid residues of Aβ(40). Urea unfolding in combination with NMR spectroscopy was applied to probe the stabilization of Aβ(40) conformation. L17 and F19 residues were found more sensitive to environmental changes than the other residues. Replacement of these two residues with alanine could stabilize the conformation of Aβ(40). Further analysis indicated that the Aβ(40)(L17A/F19A) mutant could diminish the aggregation and reduce the neurotoxicity. These results suggest that L17 and F19 are the critical residues responsible for conformational changes which may trigger neurotoxic cascade of Aβ(40).
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2011; 405(1):91-5. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis and restenosis are inflammatory responses involving free radicals and lipid peroxidation and may be prevented/cured by antioxidant-mediated lipid peroxidation inhibition. Salvianolic acid (Sal B), a water-soluble antioxidant obtained from a Chinese medicinal herb, is believed to have multiple preventive and therapeutic effects against human vascular diseases. In this study the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of Sal B on oxidative stress were determined.
In human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), Sal B reduced oxidative stress, inhibited low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and reduced oxidised LDL-induced cytotoxicity. Sal B inhibited Cu(2+) -induced LDL oxidation in vitro (with a potency 16.3 times that of probucol) and attenuated HAEC-mediated LDL oxidation as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbits (with probucol as positive control), Sal B intake reduced Cu(2+) -induced LDL oxidation, lipid deposition in the thoracic aorta, intimal thickness of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta and neointimal formation in the abdominal aorta.
The data obtained in this study suggest that Sal B protects HAECs from oxidative injury-mediated cell death via inhibition of ROS production. The antioxidant activity of Sal B may help explain its efficacy in the treatment of vascular diseases.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2011; 91(1):134-41. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the endothelial gap junctions in diabetic hyperlipidemic mice. Male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice were made diabetic by streptozotocin. Three weeks later, the animals were treated with simvastatin for 2 weeks. The expression of aortic gap junctions in the non-diabetic (n=10), untreated diabetic (n=10), and simvastatin-treated diabetic animals (n=6) was analyzed. There was a >4-fold increase in serum cholesterol level and >50% increase in plaque areas in the diabetic mice, regardless of simvastatin treatment. Western blotting of aortae showed reduced expression of connexin37 (Cx37) and Cx40 in the diabetic mice, which were further decreased in the simvastatin-treated diabetic mice. Immunoconfocal microscopy showed that endothelial gap junctions made of Cx37 and Cx40 were both reduced in the untreated diabetic mice compared with the non-diabetic mice (decrease: Cx37, 41%; Cx40, 42%; both p<0.01). The reduction was greater in the simvastatin-treated mice (decrease in treated diabetic vs non-diabetic: Cx37, 61%; Cx40, 79%; both p<0.01; decrease in treated diabetic vs untreated diabetic: Cx37, 34%; Cx40, 63%; both p<0.01). Cx37 and Cx40 were decreased in the endothelium of plaque surface. Cx43 appeared in the medial layer and inner layer of the intima. All three connexins were rarely expressed in monocytes/macrophages inside the plaques. In conclusion, in apoE-deficient mice, streptozotocin-induced diabetes is associated with downregulation of endothelial Cx37 and Cx40 gap junctions. Short-term treatment with simvastatin exacerbates the downregulation.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 09/2008; 56(8):745-52. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for the study of metabolomics are reviewed. Sample preparations of biofluids and practical aspects of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography are discussed. Applicability of different kinds of mass spectrometers for metabolite profiling is described. New tools-ion mobility spectroscopy and automated chip-based nanoelectrospray system with potentials to be applied in the metabolomics analysis are described.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many recent studies have suggested that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Herbal regimens in the treatment of blood stasis, a counterpart of atherosclerosis, commonly use medicinal plants of leguminosae and labiatae. We have developed disease-oriented screening methods to search for bioactive components, particularly isoflavones in leguminosae and polyphenols in labiatae from Chinese herbal medicines. Many bioactive components and active fractions capable of inhibiting a. Cu(II)-induced LDL oxidation, b. oxidized LDL-induced endothelial damage, c. uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages (J774A.1), and d. expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) have been identified. A polyphenol, namely salvianolic acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza was identified to be a potent antioxidant, endothelial-protecting agent, and an inhibitor to suppress the expression of ICAM and VCAM. This review also briefly describes the strategy for developing herbal medicines as anti-atherosclerotic agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a water-soluble antioxidant derived from a Chinese medicinal herb, is believed to have multiple therapeutic and preventive against human vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. To elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms, we produced hypercholesterolemia by feeding apo-E-deficient mice a 0.15% cholesterol diet and inflammation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), focusing on the metallopreteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, the relevant signal transduction pathways and the effects of Sal B. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated apo-E-deficient mice fed a 0.15% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks exhibited thickened intima and elevated levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in aortic sections, both of which were attenuated by 0.3% Sal B dietary supplement. Western blotting and zymography analyses indicated that unstimulated HASMCs exhibited basal levels of protein and activity levels for MMP-2 and barely detectable levels for MMP-9, both of which were markedly upregulated by LPS, which also induced cell migration. Sal B significantly attenuated upregulations of both MMPs as well as the LPS-induced cell migration through the inactivation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein synthesis as well as the downregulation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). These results demonstrate that Sal B has anti-migration properties on smooth muscle cells and may explain its anti-atherosclerotic properties. This novel mechanism of action of Sal B, in addition to its previously reported inhibition of LDL oxidation, may help explain its efficacy in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2007; 100(2):372-84. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salviae miltiorrhizae (SM), a clinical, commonly used herb, can activate blood circulation and resolve stasis. We have investigated the effects of salvianolic acid B (Sal B), a pure compound extracted from the dried SM roots, on fibrinolytic (tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor, t-PA and PAI) and anticoagulant (thrombomodulin,TM) properties of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). When HUVECs were treated with Sal B, a dose- (0.0125-0.5 mg/ml) and a time-dependent decrease in PAI activity were observed. PAI type 1 (PAI-1) antigen and PAI-1 mRNA expression significantly decreased compared to control values in the conditioned media of HUVECs pretreated with Sal B for 12 h. Moreover, TM activity reached a maximum stimulation of 1.25-fold over control levels in the pretreatment of Sal B for 12 h and t-PA and TM specific mRNA expression also increased (1.7- and 1.8-fold, respectively). In conclusion, Sal B increased the fibrinolytic and anticoagulant potential of cultured HUVECs by up-regulating the expression of t-PA and TM and by down-regulating the expression of PAI-1. These data suggest that Sal B is clinically effective because of its ability to change the gene expression profile of endothelial cells thereby preventing vascular events.
Thrombosis Research 02/2007; 119(6):769-75. · 3.13 Impact Factor