Ming-Shi Shiao

Chang Gung University, Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (58)217.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Identification of novel biomarkers is needed to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure (HF). Metabolic disturbance is remarkable in patients with HF. This study sought to assess the diagnostic and prognostic values of metabolomics in HF. Mass spectrometry-based profiling of plasma metabolites was performed in 515 participants; the discovery phase study enrolled 51 normal control subjects and 183 HF patients, and the validation study enrolled 63 control subjects and 218 patients with stage C HF. Another independent group of 32 patients with stage C HF who recovered to New York Heart Association functional class I at 6 and 12 months was profiled as the "recovery" group. A panel of metabolites, including histidine, phenylalanine, spermidine, and phosphatidylcholine C34:4, has a diagnostic value similar to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). In the recovery group, the values of this panel significantly improved at 6 and 12 months. To evaluate the prognostic values, events were defined as the combined endpoints of death or HF-related re-hospitalization. A metabolite panel, which consisted of the asymmetric methylarginine/arginine ratio, butyrylcarnitine, spermidine, and the total amount of essential amino acids, provided significant prognostic values (p < 0.0001) independent of BNP and traditional risk factors. The prognostic value of the metabolite panel was better than that of BNP (area under the curve of 0.85 vs. 0.74 for BNP) and Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank: 17.5 vs. 9.95). These findings were corroborated in the validation study. Metabolomics demonstrate powerful diagnostic value in estimating HF-related metabolic disturbance. The profile of metabolites provides better prognostic value versus conventional biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 04/2015; 65(15):1509-20. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.02.018 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolite identification remains a bottleneck in mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics. Currently, this process relies heavily on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra generated separately for peaks of interest identified from previous MS runs. Such a delayed and labor-intensive procedure creates a barrier to automation. Further, information embedded in MS data has not been used to its full extent for metabolite identification. Multimers, adducts, multiply charged ions, and fragments of given metabolites occupy a substantial proportion (40-80%) of the peaks of a quantitation result. However, extensive information on these derivatives, especially fragments, may facilitate metabolite identification. We propose a procedure with automation capability to group and annotate peaks associated with the same metabolite in the quantitation results of opposite modes, and to integrate this information for metabolite identification. In addition to the conventional mass and isotope ratio matches, we would match annotated fragments with low-energy MS/MS spectra in public databases. For identification of metabolites without accessible MS/MS spectra, we have developed characteristic fragment and common substructure matches. The accuracy and effectiveness of the procedure were evaluated using one public and two in-house liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) datasets. The procedure accurately identified 89% of 28 standard metabolites with derivative ions in the datasets. With respect to effectiveness, the procedure confidently identified the correct chemical formula of at least 42% of metabolites with derivative ions via MS/MS spectrum, characteristic fragment, and common substructure matches. The confidence level was determined according to the fulfilled identification criteria of various matches and relative retention time.
    Analytical Chemistry 12/2014; 87(4). DOI:10.1021/ac503325c · 5.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Mutations within the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) sequence that cause early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) have been shown to promote Aβ aggregation. How these FAD-related mutants increase the aggregative ability of Aβ is not fully understood. Here, we characterized the effect of the Arctic variant (E22G) on the conformational stability of Aβ using various forms of spectroscopy and kinetic analyses, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The E22G mutation in the Arctic variant reduced the α-helical propensity and conformational stability of Aβ on residues 15-25. This mutation also caused an increase in both α-helix-to-β-strand conversion and fibril nucleation rates. Our results suggest that the α-helical propensity of residues 15-25 may play a determinant role in the aggregative ability of Aβ. This may provide a structural basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of Aβ aggregation.
    Amyloid 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/13506129.2014.980943 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-specific impacts on the host metabolic alterations remained inconclusive. Methods: A prospective study including 229 (118 genotype 1 (G1) and 111 G2) consecutive chronic HCV patients who had completed a course of anti-HCV treatment and underwent pre- and 24 weeks post-treatment surveys of metabolic profiles was conducted. Patients were stratified according to the therapeutic response, viral genotype and baseline insulin resistance (IR: homeostasis model assessments of IR (HOMA-IR) >= 2.5). Paired t-tests were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment variables. Results: Significant post-therapeutic increases in cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B were observed in patients with sustained virological response (SVR) but not in those without. Among those with SVR, post-therapeutic increases in HDL (p < 0.001) and apolipoprotein A1 (p = 0.012) were only found in G2, whereas increased triglyceride/HDL (p = 0.01) ratios were only found in G1 patients. When stratified by baseline IR among those with SVR, a significant increase in post-treatment HDL (p = 0.019) and apolipoprotein A1 (p = 0.012) but a decrease in HOMA-IR (p = 0.04), C-peptide (p = 0.019) and hemoglobin A1c (p = 0.047) were found in patients with baseline IR; a significant increase in HOMA-IR (p = 0.002) was found in patients without baseline IR. The latter change was observed only in G1 (p = 0.01) but not G2 patients. Although the pre-treatment metabolic profiles of G1 and G2 patients were indifferent, G1 had higher post-treatment triglyceride/HDL ratios (p = 0.041) and triglyceride (p = 0.044) levels than G2 patients. Conclusions: G2 benefit more than G1 patients from viral clearance in metabolic alterations, particularly in those without baseline IR.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104783. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104783 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Methionine, an essential amino acid, is required for protein synthesis and normal cell metabolism. The transmethylation pathway and methionine salvage pathway (MTA cycle) are two major pathways regulating methionine metabolism. Recently, methionine has been reported to play a key role in Drosophila fecundityResultsHere, we revealed that the MTA cycle plays a crucial role in Drosophila fecundity using the mutant of aci-reductone dioxygenase 1 (DADI1), an enzyme in the MTA cycle. In dietary restriction condition, the egg production of adi1 mutant flies was reduced compared to that of control flies. This fecundity defect in mutant flies was rescued by reintroduction of Dadi1 gene. Moreover, a functional homolog of human ADI1 also recovered the reproduction defect, in which the enzymatic activity of human ADI1 is required for normal fecundity. Importantly, methionine supply rescued the fecundity defect in Dadi1 mutant flies. The detailed analysis of Dadi1 mutant ovaries revealed a dramatic change in the levels of methionine metabolism. In addition, we found that three compounds namely, methionine, SAM and Methionine sulfoxide, respectively, may be required for normal fecundityConclusions In summary, these results suggest that ADI1, an MTA cycle enzyme, affects fly fecundity through the regulation of methionine metabolism.
    Journal of Biomedical Science 07/2014; 21(1):64. DOI:10.1186/s12929-014-0064-4 · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom renowned in East Asia for its potential biological effects. To enable a systematic exploration of the genes associated with the various phenotypes of the fungus, the genome consortium of G. lucidum has carried out an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project. Using a Sanger sequencing based approach, 47,285 ESTs were obtained from in vitro cultures of G. lucidum mycelium of various durations. These ESTs were further clustered and merged into 7,774 non-redundant expressed loci. The features of these expressed contigs were explored in terms of over-representation, alternative splicing, and natural antisense transcripts. Our results provide an invaluable information resource for exploring the G. lucidum transcriptome and its regulation. Many cases of the genes over-represented in fast-growing dikaryotic mycelium are closely related to growth, such as cell wall and bioactive compound synthesis. In addition, the EST-genome alignments containing putative cassette exons and retained introns were manually curated and then used to make inferences about the predominating splice-site recognition mechanism of G. lucidum. Moreover, a number of putative antisense transcripts have been pinpointed, from which we noticed that two cases are likely to reveal hitherto undiscovered biological pathways. To allow users to access the data and the initial analysis of the results of this project, a dedicated web site has been created at http://csb2.ym.edu.tw/est/.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(5):e61127. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061127 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease. Beta-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are responsible for neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, L17 and F19 residues were identified as playing key roles in the stabilization of the Aβ40 conformation and in the reduction of its neurotoxicity. In this study, the effects of L17A/F19A mutations on the neurotoxicity of Aβ genetic mutant Arctic-type Aβ40(E22G) were tested. The results showed that compared to Aβ40(E22G), Aβ40(L17A/F19A/E22G) reduced the rate of conformation conversion, aggregation, and cytotoxicity, suggesting that L17 and F19 are critical residues responsible for conformational changes which may trigger the neurotoxic cascade of Aβ. Aβ40(L17A/F19A/E22G) also had decreased damage due to reactive oxygen species. The results are consistent with the discordant helix hypothesis, and confirm that residues 17-25 are in the discordant helix region. Compared to Aβ40(L17A/F19A), reduction in aggregation of Aβ40(L17A/F19A/E22G) was less significantly decreased. This observation provides an explanation based on the discordant helix hypothesis that the mutation of E22 to G22 of Aβ40(E22G) alters the propensity of the discordant helix. Arctic-type Aβ40(E22G) aggregates more severely than wild-type Aβ40, with a consequential increase in toxicity.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61874. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0061874 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is a multiplex disorder and puts patients on the road to type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. However, a surrogate biomarker in plasma or urine in fully reflecting features of metabolic syndrome has not been explored.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Urine metabolomics has potential utility in metabolic profiling because urine metabolites analysis reflects global outflux of metabolic change. Accordingly, we collected data on subjects (n = 99) with overweight, dyslipidemia, hypertension or impaired glucose tolerance and took a metabolomics approach to analyze the metabolites of urine revealed in metabolic syndrome by high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and elicit potential biomarkers to picture metabolic syndrome.RESULTSOur results revealed that the urine nicotinuric acid value of subjects with diabetes (HbA(1c) ≥6.5% or those receiving diabetes medications) (n = 25) was higher than subjects without diabetes (n = 37) (221 ± 31 vs. 152 ± 13 × 10(3) mAU, P = 0.0268). Moreover, urinary nicotinuric acid level was positively correlated with body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein, but negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.CONCLUSIONS This is the first study, to our knowledge, to propose that nicotinuric acid represents an important pathogenic mechanism in process from metabolic syndrome to diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
    Diabetes care 12/2012; 36(6). DOI:10.2337/dc12-1067 · 8.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: G6PD is crucial to NADPH generation and redox homeostasis. We have recently shown that G6PD deficiency predisposes cells to oxidant-induced cell death, and it is associated with the impairment of GSH regeneration. It remains unclear what other metabolic pathways are affected by G6PD deficiency, and whether the altered metabolism disturbs cellular redox homeostasis and underlies the increased susceptibility to oxidants. In the study, we examined the effect of diamide on global metabolite profiles of SK-Hep1-derived SK-i-Gi and SK-i-Sc cells, which could inducibly express shRNAs against G6PD (Gi) and control shRNA (Sc), respectively. There was no significant difference in their metabolite profiles under uninduced condition. Doxycycline (Dox) addition resulted in over 70% decrease in G6PD activity in SK-i-Gi cells. It was accompanied by relatively minor changes in the metabolome of SK-i-Gi cells. Upon further diamide treatment, the metabolite profiles of both SK-i-Gi and SK-i-Sc cells changed in a time-dependent manner. A number of metabolic pathways, including those involved in energy metabolism and metabolism of amino acid and glutathione, were affected. However, the changes in metabolite profile of Dox-treated SK-i-Gi cells were distinct from those of control cells (i.e. Dox-treated SK-i-Sc, SK-i-Gi, and SK-i-Sc cells). Cellular glutathione was depleted, while its disulfide form increased significantly in diamide, Dox-treated SK-i-Gi cells. Metabolites related to energy metabolism, such as AMP, ADP and acetylcarnitine, increased to a greater extent in these cells than in diamide-treated control cells. In contrast, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and glutathione dropped to a lower level in SK-i-Gi cells than in control cells. The NAD depletion in SK-i-Gi cells was accompanied by a significant increase in NAD kinase activity. Targeted analyses revealed that NADP and NADPH increased significantly in diamide, Dox-treated SK-i-Gi cells as compared with similarly treated control cells. Our results suggest that diamide induces oxidation and depletion of glutathione in SK-i-Gi cells under the condition of G6PD shRNA induction, and subsequently induces conversion of NAD to NADP through enhanced NAD kinase activity. This may represent a compensatory mechanism to restore cellular NADPH reserve in G6PD-deficient cells. It is accompanied by alteration in pathways of cellular energy metabolism, such as glycolysis and β-oxidation.
    Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11/2012; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.557 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), which accounts for 70% of the liver's total miRNAs, plays a pivotal role in the liver. However, its intrinsic physiological roles remain largely undetermined. We demonstrated that mice lacking the gene encoding miR-122a (Mir122a) are viable but develop temporally controlled steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These mice exhibited a striking disparity in HCC incidence based on sex, with a male-to-female ratio of 3.9:1, which recapitulates the disease incidence in humans. Impaired expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) contributed to steatosis, which was reversed by in vivo restoration of Mttp expression. We found that hepatic fibrosis onset can be partially attributed to the action of a miR-122a target, the Klf6 transcript. In addition, Mir122a(-/-) livers exhibited disruptions in a range of pathways, many of which closely resemble the disruptions found in human HCC. Importantly, the reexpression of miR-122a reduced disease manifestation and tumor incidence in Mir122a(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates that mice with a targeted deletion of the Mir122a gene possess several key phenotypes of human liver diseases, which provides a rationale for the development of a unique therapy for the treatment of chronic liver disease and HCC.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 07/2012; 122(8):2884-97. DOI:10.1172/JCI63455 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: β-Amyloid peptide (1) (Aβ) aggregates are toxic to neuron and the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role of congo red (CR) on Aβ aggregation is controversial in aqueous solution. Both prevention and promotion of Aβ aggregation have been proposed, suggesting that CR may interact with Aβ of different structural conformations resulting in different effects on Aβ aggregation behavior. CR with these characteristics can be applied to probe the molecular mechanism of Aβ aggregation. Therefore, in the present study, we used CR as a probe to study the Aβ aggregation behavior in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) condition. Our results show that Aβ(40) adopts two short helices at Q15-S26 and K28-L34 in the SDS environment. CR can interact with the helical form of Aβ(40), and the main interaction site is located at the first helical and hydrophobic core region, residues 17-25, which is assigned as a discordant helix region. Furthermore, CR may prevent Aβ(40) undergoing α-helix to β-strand conversion, and therefore aggregation through stabilizing the helical conformation of discordant helix in SDS environment, suggesting that the discordant helix plays a key role on the conformational stabilization of Aβ. Our present study implies that any factors or molecules that can stabilize the discordant helical conformation may also prevent the Aβ aggregation in membrane associated state. This leads to a new therapeutic strategy for the development of lead compounds to AD.
    Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 06/2012; 30(2):160-9. DOI:10.1080/07391102.2012.677767 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DHEA is known to have chemopreventive and antiproliferative activities, and was initially thought to be mediated by inhibition of G6PD. Our previous study has shown that DHEA may act through interference with energy metabolism. To study the effect of pharmacological dose of DHEA on cellular metabolism, and to further delineate the mechanism underlying its antiproliferative effect, we applied a metabolomic approach to globally profile the changes in metabolites in SK-Hep1 cells underexpressing G6PD (Sk-Gi) and control cells (Sk-Sc) after DHEA treatment. RRLC-TOF-MS was used to identify metabolites, and tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm their identity. DHEA induced changes in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) metabolism, as well as lysine metabolism. Elevation in level of glutathione disulfide, together with a concomitant decrease in level of reduced glutathione, was indicative of increased oxidative stress. Depletion of carnitine and its acyl derivatives reflected decline in fatty acid catabolism. These changes were associated with mitochondrial malfunction and reduction in cellular ATP content. Cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels decreased significantly, suggesting that alterations in lipid composition are causally related to decline in mitochondrial function after DHEA treatment. The decline in cellular SAM content was accompanied by decreased expression of methionine adenosyltransferase genes MAT2A and MAT2B. SAM supplementation partially rescued cells from DHEA-induced growth stagnation. Our findings suggest that DHEA causes perturbation of multiple pathways in cellular metabolism. Decreased SAM production, and cardiolipin depletion and the resulting mitochondrial dysfunction underlie the antiproliferative effect of DHEA.
    Biochemical pharmacology 08/2011; 82(11):1549-61. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2011.07.104 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by dysregulated energy metabolism. Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic animals. However, its overall in vivo effects on energy metabolism and the underlying mechanism require further investigation. In the present study, electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry was employed to characterize the urine and plasma metabolomes of control, streptozotocin-induced DM and RSV-treated DM rats. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and heat map analysis, we discovered significant differences among control and experimental groups. RSV treatment significantly reduced the metabolic abnormalities in DM rats. Compared with the age-matched control rats, the level of carnitine was lower, and the levels of acetylcarnitine and butyrylcarnitine were higher in the urine and plasma of DM rats. RSV treatment ameliorated the deranged carnitine metabolism in DM rats. In addition, RSV treatment attenuated the diabetic ketoacidosis and muscle protein degradation, as evidenced from the attenuation of elevated urinary methyl-histidine and plasma branched-chain amino acids levels in DM rats. The beneficial effects of RSV in DM rats were correlated with activation of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase and SIRT1 expression, increase of hepatic and muscular mitochondrial biogenesis and inhibition of muscle NF-κB activities. We concluded that RSV possesses multiple beneficial metabolic effects in insulin-deficient DM rats, particularly in improving energy metabolism and reducing protein wasting.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2011; 301(5):E853-63. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00048.2011 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238-3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway in such organisms is described. Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ18526 was shown to be capable of degrading testosterone in the absence of oxygen and was selected as the model organism in this study. In a previous investigation, we identified the initial intermediates involved in an anoxic testosterone catabolic pathway, most of which are identical to those of the oxic pathway demonstrated in Comamonas testosteroni. In this study, five additional intermediates of the anoxic pathway were identified. We demonstrated that subsequent steps of the anoxic pathway greatly differ from those of the established oxic pathway, which suggests that a novel pathway for testosterone catabolism is present. In the proposed anoxic pathway, a reduction reaction occurs at C-4 and C-5 of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, the last common intermediate of both the oxic and anoxic pathways. After that, a novel hydration reaction occurs and a hydroxyl group is thus introduced to the C-1α position of C(19)steroid substrates. To our knowledge, an enzymatic hydration reaction occurring at the A ring of steroid compounds has not been reported before.
    Journal of bacteriology 07/2011; 193(17):4447-55. DOI:10.1128/JB.00331-11 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A strategy consisting of a two-phase analytical procedure was used to obtain detailed molecular species composition for glycerophosphocholines (GPCs) profiling in biological tissue using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating under electrospray mode. In phase one of the analytical procedure, the precursor ion scan was first conducted to obtain the preliminary lipid profile that revealed the composition of the molecular species possessing phosphocholine structure in the biological tissue. In phase two of the analytical procedure, each product ion spectrum obtained for the GPC components in the profile was sequentially acquired for the determination of the molecular structure. A simple guide with high differentiability was proposed for the diacyl-, alkyl-acyl- and alk-1-enyl-acyl-GPC, and related lyso-GPCs molecular structure decision. Total 93 GPCs molecular species were identified in the fetal mouse lung with the relative amounts from 14.39% to less than 0.01% (normalizing by the total GPCs signal). The optimized chromatographic conditions were also proposed in the analytical procedure based on the compromise between the separation efficiency and electrospray signal response. The plate number of the probing GPCs was obviously improved to above 30,000 and the detection limits of the probing GPCs were between 0.002 and 0.016 ng/μL. The practical usability of the analytical procedure has been validated using a study of chemically induced early lung maturation. The metabolic difference between chemically treated and untreated fetal mouse lung was clearly distinguished by the composition of GPCs with several characteristics of molecular structure. The overall results showed that this two-phase analytical procedure was reliable for comprehensive GPC profiling.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 06/2011; 879(22):2095-106. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.05.044 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aggregated β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) are neurotoxic and responsible for neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. From the structural point of view, Aβ self-aggregation involves a conformational change in the peptide. Here, we investigated the relationship between conformational changes and amino acid residues of Aβ(40). Urea unfolding in combination with NMR spectroscopy was applied to probe the stabilization of Aβ(40) conformation. L17 and F19 residues were found more sensitive to environmental changes than the other residues. Replacement of these two residues with alanine could stabilize the conformation of Aβ(40). Further analysis indicated that the Aβ(40)(L17A/F19A) mutant could diminish the aggregation and reduce the neurotoxicity. These results suggest that L17 and F19 are the critical residues responsible for conformational changes which may trigger neurotoxic cascade of Aβ(40).
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2011; 405(1):91-5. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.12.133 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis and restenosis are inflammatory responses involving free radicals and lipid peroxidation and may be prevented/cured by antioxidant-mediated lipid peroxidation inhibition. Salvianolic acid (Sal B), a water-soluble antioxidant obtained from a Chinese medicinal herb, is believed to have multiple preventive and therapeutic effects against human vascular diseases. In this study the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of Sal B on oxidative stress were determined. In human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), Sal B reduced oxidative stress, inhibited low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and reduced oxidised LDL-induced cytotoxicity. Sal B inhibited Cu(2+) -induced LDL oxidation in vitro (with a potency 16.3 times that of probucol) and attenuated HAEC-mediated LDL oxidation as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbits (with probucol as positive control), Sal B intake reduced Cu(2+) -induced LDL oxidation, lipid deposition in the thoracic aorta, intimal thickness of the aortic arch and thoracic aorta and neointimal formation in the abdominal aorta. The data obtained in this study suggest that Sal B protects HAECs from oxidative injury-mediated cell death via inhibition of ROS production. The antioxidant activity of Sal B may help explain its efficacy in the treatment of vascular diseases.
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 01/2011; 91(1):134-41. DOI:10.1002/jsfa.4163 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise training improves vascular endothelial functions, while oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) impede them. We proposed that exercise training might influence the endothelial sensitivity to lipoprotein-induced vascular changes. Male Wistar rats either exercised on a leveled treadmill for 8 weeks or remained sedentary as the control. The endothelial intracellular calcium level (EC [Ca(2+)](i)) in vitro was examined using dissected aortic segments treated with different lipoproteins, including native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL), various oxLDLs, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Our results indicated that i) none of the various lipoproteins directly evoked EC [Ca(2+)](i) elevation; ii) the acetylcholine-evoked EC [Ca(2+)](i) elevation in the control group was increased by nLDL and progressively suppressed by oxLDLs with increasing degrees of oxidation; iii) exercise training ameliorated the oxLDL-induced suppressive effects on acetylcholine-evoked EC [Ca(2+)](i) elevation; iv) HDL potentiated the acetylcholine-evoked EC [Ca(2+)](i) elevation in vessel segments from exercised rats but not those from control rats; and v) when HDL was present, the suppressive effects of extensively modified oxLDLs were reduced. Furthermore, comparing with the effects of various lipoproteins on EC calcium signaling, the lipoprotein effects on endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing response appeared to be similar but less pronounced. Taken together, one of the beneficial effects of exercise training on vascular functions might be to make blood vessels more resistant to oxLDLs and more sensitive to HDL.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 02/2009; 234(3):323-31. DOI:10.3181/0805-RM-180 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the endothelial gap junctions in diabetic hyperlipidemic mice. Male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice were made diabetic by streptozotocin. Three weeks later, the animals were treated with simvastatin for 2 weeks. The expression of aortic gap junctions in the non-diabetic (n=10), untreated diabetic (n=10), and simvastatin-treated diabetic animals (n=6) was analyzed. There was a >4-fold increase in serum cholesterol level and >50% increase in plaque areas in the diabetic mice, regardless of simvastatin treatment. Western blotting of aortae showed reduced expression of connexin37 (Cx37) and Cx40 in the diabetic mice, which were further decreased in the simvastatin-treated diabetic mice. Immunoconfocal microscopy showed that endothelial gap junctions made of Cx37 and Cx40 were both reduced in the untreated diabetic mice compared with the non-diabetic mice (decrease: Cx37, 41%; Cx40, 42%; both p<0.01). The reduction was greater in the simvastatin-treated mice (decrease in treated diabetic vs non-diabetic: Cx37, 61%; Cx40, 79%; both p<0.01; decrease in treated diabetic vs untreated diabetic: Cx37, 34%; Cx40, 63%; both p<0.01). Cx37 and Cx40 were decreased in the endothelium of plaque surface. Cx43 appeared in the medial layer and inner layer of the intima. All three connexins were rarely expressed in monocytes/macrophages inside the plaques. In conclusion, in apoE-deficient mice, streptozotocin-induced diabetes is associated with downregulation of endothelial Cx37 and Cx40 gap junctions. Short-term treatment with simvastatin exacerbates the downregulation.
    Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 09/2008; 56(8):745-52. DOI:10.1369/jhc.2008.950816 · 2.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
217.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2015
    • Chang Gung University
      • • Department of Biomedical Sciences
      • • Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2014
    • Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 1989–2013
    • Taipei Veterans General Hospital
      • Department of Medical Research and Education
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2011
    • Arabian Gulf University
      • M.A. Program in Biotechnology
      Al Manāmah, Capital, Bahrain
  • 2002–2003
    • National Yang Ming University
      • • Institute of Traditional Medicine
      • • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan