[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to study the effects that the extract of rhizome and root of Helleborus odorus W. et K. (Ranunculaceae) can have on modifications in the parameter values of white blood cells count and degree of phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes in Wistar rats. The trial was conducted on 28 rats divided into 4 groups with 7 animals in each group. To the control group of rats sterile physiological solution in the quantity of 0.25 mL/100 g BW was applied intramuscularly. For the purpose of monitoring the effect of the extract of rhizome and root of hellebore (HE) during a time period, the HE was applied intramuscularly to rats in a dose of 10 mg/100 g BW, while the blood samples for analysis were taken after 24h, 48h and 72h. The consequence of intramuscular application of HE was an increased count of total leukocytes in all trial groups, the most expressed leukocytosis being registered 24h after application of HE. Statistically significant higher value in the count and percent of neutrophil granulocytes in the blood was recorded 24h after treatment in relation to the control and two other trial groups (p<0.001), among which a statistical significance was not established. The extract of hellebore rhizome and root has led to lymphopenia, resulting in the increase of the neutrophil/limphocyte index in the trial groups 24h and 48h after treatment. The application of HE had no significant effect on the count of monocytes in treated animals. The applied extract has caused a significant increase in the degree of phagocytosis by residing peritoneal macrophages and neutrophil granulocytes in blood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunomodulation is a phenomenon that is based on the influence of different endogenous and exogenous substances on the function of molecules and cells pertaining to the immune system. Some components extracted from the bovine thymus have immunomodulating features and can, both in animals and humans, by suppressing the immune response (humoral and/or cellular) bring about immunostimulation and increased organism resistance. In this paper the effects of bovine thymus extract (Thymex - L) on the parameters of humoral immune response (concentration of antibodies to tetanus toxoid - ATTx) and cellular immune response (interleukin 2 - IL-2, interferon γ - IFN-γ and degree of cutaneus basophyl hypersensitivity - CBHR) in rats previously irradiated by X-rays at a dose of 4 or 6 Gy. The studied thymus extract had shown positive effects on IL-2 and IFN-γ serum concentrations in irradiated rats. In the group of rats irradiated with 4 Gy the effects were evident on the 7th day of the trial. Rats irradiated with the higher dose (6 Gy) experienced the positive effects of thymus extract on the 21st day of the experiment. In the skin PHA hypersensitivity test, a positive effect was also recorded, being more pronounced in rats which received the lower irradiation dose. The tested thymus extract had shown a positive effect on the concentration of ATTx as early as the 14th day of the trial.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, results obtained by following up the changes in hematological parameter values in Wistar rats irradiated with 4 Gy and treated with calves thymic extract Thymex-L are presented. Following irradiation, white blood picture parameters were dramatically decreased and gradually increased from day 14. This elevation was higher in the Thymex-L treated group and the differences were statistically significant for total leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophyl granulocyte count starting from day 14. A significant increase of the monocyte count was observed only at day 28. Parameters of the red blood picture (erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed red blood cell volume) were increased starting from day 21. We were able to conclude that treatment of irradiated Wistar rats with thymic extract results in a significant improvement of hematological parameter values.