Mitchel J Doktycz

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Florida, United States

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Publications (167)485.38 Total impact

  • P.G. Shankles · A.C. Timm · M.J. Doktycz · S.T. Retterer ·
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    ABSTRACT: New strategies for combining conventional photo- and soft-lithographic techniques with high-resolution patterning and etching strategies are needed in order to produce multiscale fluidic platforms that address the full range of functional scales seen in complex biological and chemical systems. The smallest resolution required for an application often dictates the fabrication method used. Micromachining and micropowder blasting yield higher throughput, but lack the resolution needed to fully address biological and chemical systems at the cellular and molecular scales. In contrast, techniques such as electron beam lithography or nanoimprinting allow nanoscale resolution, but are traditionally considered costly and slow. Other techniques such as photolithography or soft lithography have characteristics between these extremes. Combining these techniques to fabricate multiscale or hybrid fluidics allows fundamental biological and chemical questions to be answered. In this study, a combination of photolithography and electron beam lithography are used to produce two multiscale fluidic devices that incorporate porous membranes into complex fluidic networks in order to control the flow of energy, information, and materials in chemical form. In the first device, materials and energy were used to support chemical reactions. A nanoporous membrane fabricated with e-beam lithography separates two parallel, serpentine channels. Photolithography was used to pattern microfluidic channels around the membrane. The pores were written at 150-nm and reduced in size with silicon dioxide deposition from plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition. Using this method, the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane can be adapted to the system of interest. In the second approach, photolithography was used to fabricate 200-nm thin pores. The pores confined microbes and allowed energy replenishment from a media perfusion channel. The same device can be used for study of intercellular communication via the secretion and uptake of signal molecules. Pore size was tested with 750-nm fluorescent polystyrene beads and fluorescein dye. The 200-nm polydimethylsiloxane pores were shown to be robust enough to hold 750-nm beads while under pressure, but allow fluorescein to diffuse across the barrier. Further testing showed that extended culture of bacteria within the chambers was possible. These two examples show how lithographically defined porous membranes can be adapted to two unique situations and used to tune the flow of chemical energy, materials, and information within a microfluidic network.
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    ABSTRACT: Microbial communities are complex heterogeneous systems that are influenced by physical and chemical interactions with their environment, host, and community members. Techniques that facilitate the quantitative evaluation of how microscale organization influences the morphogenesis of multispecies communities could provide valuable insights into the dynamic behavior and organization of natural communities, the design of synthetic environments for multispecies culture, and the engineering of artificial consortia. In this work, we demonstrate a method for patterning microbes into simple arrangements that allow the quantitative measurement of growth dynamics as a function of their proximity to one another. The method combines parylene-based liftoff techniques with microfluidic delivery to simultaneously pattern multiple bacterial species with high viability using low-cost, customizable methods. Quantitative measurements of bacterial growth for two competing isolates demonstrate that spatial coordination can play a critical role in multispecies growth and structure.
    Biomicrofluidics 11/2015; 9(6):064103. DOI:10.1063/1.4935938 · 3.36 Impact Factor

  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology 11/2015; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein based therapeutics are an important class of drugs, used to treat a variety of medical conditions including cancer and autoimmune diseases. Requiring continuous cold storage, and having a limited shelf life, the ability to produce such therapeutics at the point-of-care would open up new opportunities in distributing medicines and treating patients in more remote locations. Here, the authors describe the first steps in the development of a microfluidic platform that can be used for point-of-care protein synthesis. While biologic medicines, including therapeutic proteins, are commonly produced using recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) technology in large batch cell cultures, the system developed here utilizes cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) technology. CFPS is a scalable technology that uses cell extracts containing the biological machinery required for transcription and translation and combines those extracts with DNA, encoding a specific gene, and the additional metabolites required to produce proteins in vitro. While CFPS reactions are typically performed in batch or fed-batch reactions, a well-engineered reaction scheme may improve both the rate of protein production and the economic efficiency of protein synthesis reactions, as well as enable a more streamlined method for subsequent purification of the protein product—all necessary requirements for point-of-care protein synthesis. In this work, the authors describe a new bioreactor design capable of continuous production of protein using cell-free protein synthesis. The bioreactors were designed with three inlets to separate reactive components prior to on-chip mixing, which lead into a long, narrow, serpentine channel. These multiscale, serpentine channel bioreactors were designed to take advantage of microscale diffusion distances across narrow channels in reactors containing enough volume to produce a therapeutic dose of protein, and open the possibility of performing these reactions continuously and in line with downstream purification modules. Here, the authors demonstrate the capability to produce protein over time with continuous-flow reactions and examine basic design features and operation specifications fundamental to continuous microfluidic protein synthesis.
    Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics 11/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1116/1.4932155
  • L.J. Millet · M.J. Doktycz · S.T. Retterer ·
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    ABSTRACT: The integration of nano- and microfluidic technologies enables the construction of tunable interfaces to physical and biological systems across relevant length scales. The ability to perform chemical manipulations of miniscule sample volumes is greatly enhanced through these technologies and extends the ability to manipulate and sample local fluidic environments at subcellular, cellular, and community or tissue scales. Here, the authors describe the development of a flexible surface micromachining process for the creation of nanofluidic channel arrays integrated within SU-8 microfluidic networks. The use of a semiporous, silicon rich, silicon nitride structural layer allows for a rapid removal of the sacrificial silicon dioxide during the nanochannel fabrication. Nanochannel openings that form the interface to biological samples are customized using focused ion beam milling. The compatibility of these interfaces with on-chip microbial culture is demonstrated.
    Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Nanotechnology and Microelectronics 11/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1116/1.4931590
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    ABSTRACT: The Pseudomonas genus contains a metabolically versatile group of organisms that are known to occupy numerous ecological niches including the rhizosphere and endosphere of many plants. Their diversity influences the phylogenetic diversity and heterogeneity of these communities. Based on average amino acid identity, comparative genome analysis of over one thousand Pseudomonas genomes, including 21 Pseudomonas strains isolated from the roots of native Populus deltoids (Eastern Cottonwood tree), resulted in consistent and robust genomic clusters with phylogenetic homogeneity. All P. aeruginosa genomes clustered together, and these were clearly distinct from other Pseudomonas species groups based on pan and core genome analysis. In contrast, the genomes of P. fluorescens were organized into 20 distinct genomic clusters, representing enormous diversity and heterogeneity. Most of our 21 Populus-associated isolates formed three distinct subgroups within the major P. fluorescens group, supported by pathway profiles analysis, while two isolates were more closely related to P. chlororaphis and P. putida. Genes specific to Populus-associated subgroups were identified. Genes specific to subgroup 1 include several sensory systems which act in two-component signal transduction, a TonB-dependent receptor, and a phosphorelay sensor. Genes specific to subgroup 2 contain hypothetical genes, and genes specific to subgroup 3 were annotated with hydrolase activity. This study justifies the need to sequence multiple isolates, especially from P. fluorescens which displays the most genetic variation, in order to study functional capabilities from a pangenomic perspective. This information will prove useful when choosing Pseudomonas strains for use to promote growth and increase disease resistance in plants.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2015; DOI:10.1128/AEM.02612-15 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial microbiota of plants is diverse, with 1,000s of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) associated with any individual plant. In this work, we used phenotypic analysis, comparative genomics, and metabolic models to investigate the differences between 19 sequenced Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. These isolates represent a single OTU and were collected from the rhizosphere and endosphere of Populus deltoides. While no traits were exclusive to either endosphere or rhizosphere P. fluorescens isolates, multiple pathways relevant for plant-bacterial interactions are enriched in endosphere isolate genomes. Further, growth phenotypes such as phosphate solubilization, protease activity, denitrification and root growth promotion are biased towards endosphere isolates. Endosphere isolates have significantly more metabolic pathways for plant signaling compounds and an increased metabolic range that includes utilization of energy rich nucleotides and sugars, consistent with endosphere colonization. Rhizosphere P. fluorescens have fewer pathways representative of plant-bacterial interactions but show metabolic bias towards chemical substrates often found in root exudates. This work reveals the diverse functions that may contribute to colonization of the endosphere by bacteria and are enriched among closely related isolates.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 10/2015; 6(1118). DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.01118 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanomaterial based drug delivery systems allow for the independent tuning of the surface chemical and physical properties that affect their biodistribution in vivo and the therapeutic payloads that they are intended to deliver. Additionally, the added therapeutic and diagnostic value of their inherent material properties often provides extra functionality. Iron based nanomaterials with their magnetic properties and easily tailorable surface chemistry are of particular interest as model systems. In this study the core radius of the iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was 14.08 ± 3.92 nm while the hydrodynamic radius of the NPs, as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), was between 90 – 110 nm. In this study, different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable in solution. The NPs were functionalized with polycarboxylate or polyamine surface functional groups. Polycarboxylate functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of -35 mV and polyamine functionalized NPs had a zeta potential of +40 mV. The polycarboxylate functionalized NPs were chosen for in vivo biodistribution studies and hence were radiolabeled with 14C, with a final activity of 0.097 nCi/mg of NPs. In chronic studies, the biodistribution profile is tracked using low level radiolabeled proxies of the nanoparticles of interest. Conventionally, these radiolabeled proxies are chemically similar but not chemically identical to the non-radiolabeled NPs of interest. This study is novel as different approaches were explored to create radiolabeled NPs that are stable, possess a hydrodynamic radius of <100 nm and most importantly they exhibit an identical surface chemical functionality as their non-radiolabeled counterparts. Identical chemical functionality of the radiolabeled probes to the non-radiolabeled probes was an important consideration to generate statistically similar biodistribution data sets using multiple imaging and detection techniques. The radiolabeling approach described here is applicable to the synthesis of a large class of nanomaterials with multiple core and surface functionalities. This work combined with the biodistribution data suggests that the radiolabeling schemes carried out in this study have broad implications for use in pharmacokinetic studies for a variety of nanomaterials.
    Nanoscale 03/2015; 7(15). DOI:10.1039/C4NR06441K · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biochemical separations are the heart of diagnostic assays and purification methods for biologics. On-chip miniaturization and modularization of separation procedures will enable the development of customized, portable devices for personalized health-care diagnostics and point-of-use production of treatments. In this report, we describe the design and fabrication of miniature ion exchange, size exclusion and affinity chromatography modules for on-chip clean-up of recombinantly-produced proteins. Our results demonstrate that these common separations techniques can be implemented in microfluidic modules with performance comparable to conventional approaches. We introduce embedded 3-D microfluidic interconnects for integrating micro-scale separation modules that can be arranged and reconfigured to suit a variety of fluidic operations or biochemical processes. We demonstrate the utility of the modular approach with a platform for the enrichment of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from Escherichia coli lysate through integrated affinity and size-exclusion chromatography modules.
    Lab on a Chip 02/2015; 15(8). DOI:10.1039/C5LC00094G · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Motivation: To assess the potential of different types of sequence data combined with de novo and hybrid assembly approaches to improve existing draft genome sequences. Results: Illumina, 454 and PacBio sequencing technologies were used to generate de novo and hybrid genome assemblies for four different bacteria, which were assessed for quality using summary statistics (e.g. number of contigs, N50) and in silico evaluation tools. Differences in predictions of multiple copies of rDNA operons for each respective bacterium were evaluated by PCR and Sanger sequencing, and then the validated results were applied as an additional criterion to rank assemblies. In general, assemblies using longer PacBio reads were better able to resolve repetitive regions. In this study, the combination of Illumina and PacBio sequence data assembled through the ALLPATHS-LG algorithm gave the best summary statistics and most accurate rDNA operon number predictions. This study will aid others looking to improve existing draft genome assemblies. Availability and implementation: All assembly tools except CLC Genomics Workbench are freely available under GNU General Public License. Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Bioinformatics 06/2014; 30(19). DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu391 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The attachment and arrangement of microbes onto a substrate is influenced by both the biochemical and physical surface properties. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe immobilization. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line arrays or square grid patterns with 5 μm wide features and varied pitch. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates immobilized was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Films patterned as parallel lines or square grids with a pitch of 10 μm or less led to the immobilization of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates. Both geometries allowed for incremental increases in aggregate size distribution with each increase in pitch. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based capture to control the extent of microbe adhesion and aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.
    03/2014; 4(1):63-75. DOI:10.3390/bios4010063
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    ABSTRACT: Within boreal and temperate forest ecosystems the majority of trees and shrubs form beneficial relationships with mutualistic ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM) that support plant health through increased access to nutrients as well as aiding in stress and pest tolerance. The intimate interaction between fungal hyphae and plant roots result in a new symbiotic 'organ' called the ECM root tip. Little is understood concerning the metabolic re-programming that favors the formation of this hybrid tissue in compatible interactions and what prevents the formation of ECM root tips in incompatible interactions. We show here that the metabolic changes during favorable colonization between the ECM fungus Laccaria bicolor and its compatible host, Populus trichocarpa, are characterized by shifts in aromatic acid, organic acid, and fatty acid metabolism. We demonstrate that this extensive metabolic re-programming is repressed in incompatible interactions and that more defensive compounds are produced or retained. We also demonstrate that L. bicolor can metabolize a number of secreted defensive compounds and that the degradation of some of these compounds produce immune response metabolites (e.g., salicylic acid from salicin). Therefore, our results suggest that the metabolic responsiveness of plant roots to L. bicolor is a determinant factor in fungal:host interactions.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 02/2014; 27(6). DOI:10.1094/MPMI-09-13-0286-R · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Engineered gene circuits offer an opportunity to harness biological systems for biotechnological and biomedical applications. However, reliance on native host promoters for the construction of circuit elements, such as logic gates, can make the implementation of predictable, independently functioning circuits difficult. In contrast, T7 promoters offer a simple orthogonal expression system for use in a variety of cellular backgrounds and even in cell-free systems. Here we develop a T7 promoter system that can be regulated by two different transcriptional repressors for the construction of a logic gate that functions in cells and in cell-free systems. We first present LacI repressible T7lacO promoters that are regulated from a distal lac operator site for repression. We next explore the positioning of a tet operator site within the T7lacO framework to create T7 promoters that respond to tet and lac repressors and realize an IMPLIES gate. Finally, we demonstrate that these dual input sensitive promoters function in an E. coli cell-free protein expression system. Our results expand the utility of T7 promoters in cell based as well as cell-free synthetic biology applications.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78442. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078442 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    Sukanya Iyer · Mitchel J Doktycz ·
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    ABSTRACT: Realizing the potential of cell free systems will require development of ligand sensitive gene promoters that control gene expression in response to a ligand of interest. Here, we describe an approach to designing ligand sensitive transcriptional control in cell free systems that is based on the combination of a DNA aptamer that binds thrombin and the T7 bacteriophage promoter. Placement of the aptamer near the T7 promoter, and using a primarily single stranded template, results in up to a five-fold change in gene expression in a ligand concentration dependent manner. We further demonstrate that the sensitivity to thrombin concentration and the fold change in expression can be tuned by altering the position of the aptamer. The results described here pave the way for the use of DNA aptamers to achieve modular regulation of transcription in response to a wide variety of ligands in cell free systems.
    ACS Synthetic Biology 09/2013; 3(6). DOI:10.1021/sb4000756 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new synthesis approach is described that allows the direct incorporation of fluorescent labels into the volume or body of SiO2 nanoparticles. In this process, fluorescent Alexa Fluor dyes with different emission wavelengths were covalently incorporated into the SiO2 nanoparticles during their formation by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. The dye molecules were homogeneously distributed throughout the SiO2 nanoparticles. The quantum yields of the Alexa Fluor volume-labeled SiO2 nanoparticles were much higher than nanoparticles labeled using conventional organic dyes. The size of the resulting nanoparticles was controlled using microemulsion reaction media with sizes in the range of 20-100 nm and a polydispersity of <15%. In comparison with conventional surface tagged particles created by post-synthesis modification, this process maintains the physical and surface chemical properties that have the most pronounced effect on colloidal stability and interactions with their surroundings. These volume-labeled nanoparticles have proven to be extremely robust, showing excellent signal strength, negligible photobleaching, and minimal loss of functional organic components. The native or "free" surface of the volume-labeled particles can be altered to achieve a specific surface functionality without altering fluorescence. Their utility was demonstrated for visualizing the association of surface-modified fluorescent particles with cultured macrophages. Differences in particle agglomeration and cell association were clearly associated with differences in observed nanoparticle toxicity. The capacity to maintain particle fluorescence while making significant changes to surface chemistry makes these particles extremely versatile and useful for studies of particle agglomeration, uptake, and transport in environmental and biological systems.
    Nanoscale 09/2013; 5(21). DOI:10.1039/c3nr02639f · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhoea. The antibiotic of choice for treating EAEC infections is ciprofloxacin. EAEC differs from other subgroups of pathogenic E. coli by having a surface protein, dispersin, which has previously been shown to play an important role in ciprofloxacin susceptibility for EAEC model strain 042. To investigate further the role of dispersin in ciprofloxacin susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for 25 clinical isolates, including 15 with dispersin and 10 without. Dispersin-positive strains had a lower MIC than dispersin-negative strains. The mechanism of action behind this observation may be caused by dispersin (i) increasing the bacteria-antibiotic interaction or (ii) facilitating ciprofloxacin access to the intracellular target, DNA gyrase/topoisomerase. To test the role of dispersin in ciprofloxacin sensitivity, EAEC 042 as well as its isogenic mutants, dispersin mutant (042aap) and a mutant in the transporter apparatus gene aatA, believed to be involved in dispersin transport to the bacterial surface (042aatA), were utilised. As predicted, 042 had a higher sensitivity to ciprofloxacin than 042aap, but it was also found that the MIC of 042aatA was similar to 042aap. To address the question of the role of dispersin in ciprofloxacin susceptibility, the concentration of ciprofloxacin bound in biofilms of 042 and 042aap was quantified by treating bacteria with radiolabelled 2-(14)C-ciprofloxacin. The results showed that dispersin did not increase the amount of bound ciprofloxacin as a function of biomass, indicating instead that dispersin facilitates ciprofloxacin access to the intracellular target leading to increased antibiotic susceptibility.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 08/2013; 42(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.07.007 · 4.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bio-inspired bottom-up assembly and layer-by-layer (LbL) construction of inorganic materials from lithographically defined organic templates enables the fabrication of nanostructured systems under mild temperature and pH conditions. Such processes open the door to low-impact manufacturing and facile recycling of hybrid materials for energy, biology and information technologies. Here, templated LbL assembly of silica was achieved using a combination of electron beam lithography, chemical lift-off and aqueous solution chemistry. Nanopatterns of lines, honeycomb-lattices, and dot arrays were defined in polymer resist using electron beam lithography. Following development, exposed areas of silicon were functionalized with a vapor deposited amine-silane monolayer. Silicic acid solutions of varying pH and salt content were reacted with the patterned organic amine-functional templates. Vapor treatment and solution reaction could be repeated, allowing LbL deposition. Conditions for the silicic acid deposition had a strong effect on thickness of each layer and the morphology of the amorphous silica formed. 'Defects' in the arrays of silica nanostructures were minor and do not affect the overall organization of the layers. The bio-inspired method described here facilitates the bottom-up assembly of inorganic nanostructures defined in three-dimensions and provides a path, via LbL processing, for the construction of layered hybrid materials under mild conditions.
    Langmuir 01/2013; 29(7). DOI:10.1021/la3042204 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • S. Iyer · D. K. Karig · S. E. Norred · M. L. Simpson · M. J. Doktycz ·

  • Anil K Suresh · Dale A Pelletier · Mitchel J Doktycz ·
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    ABSTRACT: Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are among the most commonly used nanomaterials and their potential for adversely affecting environmental systems raises concern. Complex microbial consortia underlie environmental processes, and the potential toxicity of nanoparticles to microbial systems, and the consequent impacts on trophic balances, is particularly worrisome. The diverse array of metal and metal oxides, the different sizes and shapes that can be prepared and the variety of possible surface coatings complicate assessments of toxicity. Further muddling biocidal interpretations are the diversity of microbes and their intrinsic tolerances to stresses. Here, we review a range of studies focused on nanoparticle-microbial interactions in an effort to correlate the physical-chemical properties of engineered metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to their biological response. General conclusions regarding the parent material of the nanoparticle and the nanoparticle's size and shape on potential toxicity can be made. However, the surface coating of the material, which can be altered significantly by environmental conditions, can ameliorate or promote microbial toxicity. Understanding nanoparticle transformations and how the nanoparticle surface can be designed to control toxicity represents a key area for further study. Additionally, the vast array of microbial species and the structuring of these species within communities complicate extrapolations of nanoparticle toxicity in real world settings. Ultimately, to interpret the effect and eventual fate of engineered materials in the environment, an understanding of the relationship between nanoparticle properties and responses at the molecular, cellular and community levels will be essential.
    Nanoscale 12/2012; 5(2). DOI:10.1039/c2nr32447d · 7.39 Impact Factor
  • Meng Lian · Pat Collier · Mitchel John Doktycz · Scott T Retterer ·
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    ABSTRACT: Droplet based microfluidic systems provide an ideal platform for partitioning and manipulating aqueous samples for analysis. Identifying stable operating conditions under which droplets are generated is challenging yet crucial for real-world applications. A novel three-dimensional microfluidic platform that facilitates the consistent generation and gelation of alginate-calcium hydrogel microbeads for microbial encapsulation, over a broad range of backing pressures, in the absence of surfactants, is described. The unique three-dimensional design of the fluidic network utilizes a height difference at the junction between the aqueous sample injection and organic carrier channels to induce droplet formation via a surface tension enhanced self-shearing mechanism. Combined within a flow-focusing geometry, under constant pressure control, this arrangement facilitates predictable generation of droplets over a much broader range of operating conditions than conventional two-dimensional systems. The impact of operating pressures and geometry on droplet gelation, aqueous and organic material flow rates, microbead size and bead generation frequency are described. The system presented provides a robust platform for encapsulating single microbes in complex mixtures into individual hydrogel beads, and provides the foundation for the development of a complete system for sorting and analyzing microbes at the single cell level.
    Lab on a Chip 12/2012; 6(4). DOI:10.1063/1.4765337 · 6.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
485.38 Total Impact Points


  • 1992-2015
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      • • Biosciences Division
      • • Life Sciences Division
      • • Chemical Sciences Division
      Oak Ridge, Florida, United States
  • 2004-2014
    • The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2004-2011
    • University of Tennessee
      • • Department of Genome Science and Technology
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2002
    • Cornell University
      Итак, New York, United States
  • 1996
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (College of Medicine)
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 1995
    • Vanderbilt University
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States
  • 1990-1993
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Chemistry
      Chicago, Illinois, United States