[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cerebellar Purkinje cell dendrites, heterosynaptic calcium signaling induced by the proximal climbing fiber (CF) input controls plasticity at distal parallel fiber (PF) synapses. The substrate and regulation of this long-range dendritic calcium signaling are poorly understood. Using high-speed calcium imaging, we examine the role of active dendritic conductances. Under basal conditions, CF stimulation evokes T-type calcium signaling displaying sharp proximodistal decrement. Combined mGluR1 receptor activation and depolarization, two activity-dependent signals, unlock P/Q calcium spikes initiation and propagation, mediating efficient CF signaling at distal sites. These spikes are initiated in proximal smooth dendrites, independently from somatic sodium action potentials, and evoke high-frequency bursts of all-or-none fast-rising calcium transients in PF spines. Gradual calcium spike burst unlocking arises from increasing inactivation of mGluR1-modulated low-threshold A-type potassium channels located in distal dendrites. Evidence for graded activity-dependent CF calcium signaling at PF synapses refines current views on cerebellar supervised learning rules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis emphasize the importance of water flux through the pericapillary (Virchow-Robin) space for both CSF production and reabsorption (Oreskovic and Klarica hypothesis), and challenge the classic CSF circulation theory, which proposes that CSF is primarily produced by the choroid plexus and reabsorbed by the arachnoid villi. Active suppression of aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression within brain capillaries and preservation of AQP-1 within the choroid plexus together with pericapillary water regulation by AQP-4 provide a unique opportunity for testing this recent hypothesis. We investigated water flux into three representative regions of the brain, namely, the cortex, basal ganglia, and third ventricle using a newly developed water molecular MRI technique based on JJ vicinal coupling between O and adjacent protons and water molecule proton exchanges (JJVCPE imaging) in AQP-1 and AQP-4 knockout mice in vivo. The results clearly indicate that water influx into the CSF is regulated by AQP-4, and not by AQP-1, strongly supporting the Oreskovic and Klarica hypothesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of the aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) inhibitor TGN-020 on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was examined in wild-type (WT) and AQP-4 knockout (KO) mice in vivo. Although baseline absolute rCBF of WT and KO mice were equivalent (158.9±17.7 and 155.5±10.4 ml/100 g/min, respectively), TGN-020 produced a significant increase in rCBF compared with saline-treated WT mice (control), reaching a plateau 20 min after administration (118.45±8.13%, P<0.01). TGN-020 showed no effect on KO mice, supporting the concept that the observed increase in rCBF in WT mice was AQP-4 dependent. Administration of acetazolamide (positive control) produced an even greater increase in rCBF in WT compared with TGN-020 and a similar response in KO mice as well, reaching a sustained plateau 5 min after administration (138.50±9.75 and 138.52±9.76%, respectively, P<0.01 compared with baseline or saline-treated control mice). The study demonstrated that AQP-4 plays a role in regulation of rCBF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) is the most abundant aquaporin isoform in the brain. Alterations in its expression and distribution have been correlated with the progression of several clinical disorders; however, the specific roles of AQP-4 in those disorders are not well understood. Visualizing AQP-4 in vivo is expected to provide fresh insights into its roles in disease pathology, as well as aiding the clinical assessment of those disorders. METHODS: We developed a (11) C-labeled analogue of the AQP-4 ligand TGN-020 (2-nicotinamido-1,3,4-thiadiazole) suitable for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. RESULTS: In the present study, we report the first PET images of AQP-4 in the human brain. The results unequivocally demonstrated a specific distribution pattern for AQP-4 within the brain, namely, the subpial and perivascular endfeet of astrocytes. The choroid plexus, where both AQP-4 and AQP-1 are expressed, also showed substantial uptake of the ligand. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these initial results, we believe [(11) C]TGN-020 PET will be valuable in determining the role of AQP-4 in disease progression, and for the clinical assessment of water homeostasis under various settings. J Neuroimaging 2012;XX:1-6.
Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 07/2012; · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of the aquaporin (AQP) protein family more than twenty years ago has ushered in an era where water and neutral solute trafficking is considered a prime target for pharmacological intervention. Using AQP modulation as a basis for the treatment of human disorders has been suggested by phenotype analysis involving specific AQP-null animals, as well as by pathohistological studies. Based on those reports, a wide variety of disorders, such as cerebral edema, cancer and malaria, are considered indications for AQP modulators. Recent studies have also identified several small molecule AQP modulators that can be used to test those hypotheses in disease models. We believe these studies and compounds form the basis from which future treatments and diagnostic protocols of aquaporin-based disorders will be developed.
Molecular Aspects of Medicine 01/2012; 33(5-6):691-703. · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the most abundant isozyme of the water specific membrane transporter aquaporin family, has now been implicated to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of various disease processes of the nervous system from epilepsy to Alzheimer's disease. Considering its clinical relevance, it is highly desirable to develop a noninvasive method for the quantitative analysis of AQP distribution in humans under clinical settings. Currently, the method of choice for such diagnostic examinations continues to be positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we report the successful development of a PET ligand for AQP4 imaging based on TGN-020, a potent AQP4 inhibitor developed previously in our laboratory. Utilizing [(11)C]-TGN-020, PET images were successfully generated in wild type and AQP4 null mice, providing a basis for future evaluation regarding its suitability for clinical studies.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience 10/2011; 2(10):568-571. · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural circuits are initially redundant but rearranged through activity-dependent synapse elimination during postnatal development. This process is crucial for shaping mature neural circuits and for proper brain function. At birth, Purkinje cells (PCs) in the cerebellum are innervated by multiple climbing fibers (CFs) with similar synaptic strengths. During postnatal development, a single CF is selectively strengthened in each PC through synaptic competition, the strengthened single CF undergoes translocation to a PC dendrite, and massive elimination of redundant CF synapses follows. To investigate the cellular mechanisms of this activity-dependent synaptic refinement, we generated mice with PC-selective deletion of the Ca(v)2.1 P/Q-type Ca(2+) channel, the major voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel in PCs. In the PC-selective Ca(v)2.1 knockout mice, Ca(2+) transients induced by spontaneous CF inputs are markedly reduced in PCs in vivo. Not a single but multiple CFs were equally strengthened in each PC from postnatal day 5 (P5) to P8, multiple CFs underwent translocation to PC dendrites, and subsequent synapse elimination until around P12 was severely impaired. Thus, P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels in postsynaptic PCs mediate synaptic competition among multiple CFs and trigger synapse elimination in developing cerebellum.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2011; 108(24):9987-92. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CS (chondroitin sulfate) is a glycosaminoglycan species that is widely distributed in the extracellular matrix. To understand the physiological roles of enzymes involved in CS synthesis, we produced CSGalNAcT1 (CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1)-null mice. CS production was reduced by approximately half in CSGalNAcT1-null mice, and the amount of short-chain CS was also reduced. Moreover, the cartilage of the null mice was significantly smaller than that of wild-type mice. Additionally, type-II collagen fibres in developing cartilage were abnormally aggregated and disarranged in the homozygous mutant mice. These results suggest that CSGalNAcT1 is required for normal CS production in developing cartilage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the in vivo effects of a novel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) inhibitor 2-(nicotinamide)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, TGN-020, in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia using 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pretreatment with TGN-020 significantly reduced brain edema associated with brain ischemia, as reflected by percentage of brain swelling volume (%BSV), 12.1 ± 6.3% in the treated group, compared to (20.8 ± 5.9%) in the control group (p < 0.05), and in the size of cortical infarction as reflected by the percentage of hemispheric lesion volume (%HLV), 20.0 ± 7.6% in the treated group, compared to 30.0 ± 9.1% in the control group (p < 0.05). The study indicated the potential pharmacological use of AQP4 inhibition in reducing brain edema associated with focal ischemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors require auxiliary subunits termed transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), which promote receptor trafficking to the cell surface and synapses and modulate channel pharmacology and gating. Of six TARPs, gamma-2 and gamma-7 are the two major TARPs expressed in the cerebellum. In the present study, we pursued their roles in synaptic expression of cerebellar AMPA receptors. In the cerebellar cortex, gamma-2 and gamma-7 were preferentially localized at various asymmetrical synapses. Using quantitative Western blot and immunofluorescence, we found severe reductions in GluA2 and GluA3 and mild reduction in GluA4 in gamma-2-knockout (KO) cerebellum, whereas GluA1 and GluA4 were moderately reduced in gamma-7-KO cerebellum. GluA2, GluA3 and GluA4 were further reduced in gamma-2/gamma-7 double-KO (DKO) cerebellum. The large losses of GluA2 and GluA3 in gamma-2-KO mice and further reductions in DKO mice were confirmed at all asymmetrical synapses examined with postembedding immunogold. Most notably, the GluA2 level in the postsynaptic density fraction, GluA2 labeling density at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, and AMPA receptor-mediated currents at climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses were all reduced to approximately 10% of the wild-type levels in DKO mice. On the other hand, the reduction in GluA4 in gamma-7-KO granular layer reflected its loss at mossy fiber-granule cell synapses, whereas that of GluA1 and GluA4 in gamma-7-KO molecular layer was caused, at least partly, by their loss in Bergmann glia. Therefore, gamma-2 and gamma-7 cooperatively promote synaptic expression of cerebellar AMPA receptors, and the latter also promotes glial expression.
European Journal of Neuroscience 06/2010; 31(12):2204-20. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a demyelinating syndrome characterized by myelitis and optic neuritis. Detection of anti-NMO immunoglobulin G antibody that binds to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels allows the diagnosis of a limited form of NMO in the early stage with myelitis, but not optic neuritis. However, the detailed clinicopathologic features and long-term course of this limited form remain elusive.
We investigated 8 patients with the limited form of NMO with myelitis in comparison with 9 patients with the definite form.
All patients with limited and definite form showed uniform relapsing-remitting courses, with no secondary progressive courses. Pathologic findings of biopsy specimens from the limited form were identical to those of autopsy from the definite form, demonstrating extremely active demyelination of plaques, extensive loss of AQP4 immunoreactivity in plaques, and diffuse infiltration by macrophages containing myelin basic proteins with thickened hyalinized blood vessels. Moreover, the definite form at the nadir of relapses displayed significantly higher amounts of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 in CSF than the limited form and multiple sclerosis.
This consistency of pathologic findings and uniformity of courses indicates that aquaporin 4-specific autoantibodies as the initiator of the neuromyelitis optica (NMO) lesion consistently play an important common role in the pathogenicity through the entire course, consisting of both limited and definite forms, and NMO continuously displays homogeneity of pathogenic effector immune mechanisms through terminal stages, whereas multiple sclerosis should be recognized as the heterogeneous 2-stage disease that could switch from inflammatory to degenerative phase. This report is a significant description comparing the pathologic and immunologic data of limited NMO with those of definite NMO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel expressed in glial cells, in neural activity mediated morphological changes observed in brain slice preparation. Changes in flavoprotein fluorescence (FF) and infrared light scattering (LS) signals were measured before and after repetitive stimulation of layer VI in rostral somatosensory cortical slices taken from AQP4 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Changes in FF, which reflect neural aerobic activities, were comparable for the two groups in all cortical layers. However, changes in LS signals, which are indicative of cell swelling, were significantly decreased in layer I of AQP4 KO mice compared to that of WT mice. We conclude that AQP4 likely plays a significant role in neural activity-dependent glial swelling.
Neuroscience Research 07/2009; 64(2):208-12. · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4-Ab) are specifically detected in patients with neuromyelitis optica. To investigate the role of AQP4-Ab, we examined the antibody binding epitope using human and mouse mutant AQP4.
We constructed human and mouse amino acid substitution AQP4 mutants and compared the reactivity with wild-form of human, mouse and rat AQP4.
The decreased intensity of AQP4-Ab staining with mouse AQP4 was recovered to that of human AQP4 with the mouse mutant A228E for 9 of the 10 sera.
The third extracellular loop of AQP4 is considered to be the major epitope for AQP4-Ab in NMO.
Journal of neuroimmunology 05/2009; 211(1-2):110-3. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro inhibitory effects and in silico docking energies of 18 compounds with respect to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) were investigated. More than half of the compounds tested showed inhibitory activity in the in vitro functional assay and included the 5-HT(1B/1D) agonists sumatriptan, and rizatriptan. Moreover, the observed inhibitory activity of the compounds used in this study at 20 microM showed a strong correlation with their in silico docking energies, r(2)=0.64, which was consistent with that found in previous studies. The AQP4 inhibitory IC(50) values of three compounds, 2-(nicotinamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole, sumatriptan and rizatriptan, were subsequently found to be 3, 11, and 2 microM, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to inhibit the water transport properties of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was investigated using a combination of in silico and in vitro screening methods. Virtual docking studies on 14 AEDs indicated a range of docking energies that spanned approximately 40 kcal/mol, where the most stabilized energies were consistent with that of the previously identified AQP4 inhibitor acetazolamide. Nine AEDs and one bio-active metabolite were further investigated in a functional assay using AQP4 expressing Xenopus oocytes. Seven of the assayed compounds were found to inhibit AQP4 function, while three did not. A linear correlation was indicated between the in silico docking energies and the in vitro AQP4 inhibitory activity at 20 microM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) in Asian populations is often characterized by the selective involvement of the optic nerve (ON) and spinal cord (SP) (OSMS) in contrast to classic MS (CMS), where frequent lesions are observed in the cerebrum, cerebellum or brainstem. In Western countries, inflammatory demyelinating disease preferentially involving the ON and SP is called neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Recently, Lennon et al. discovered that NMO-IgG, shown to bind to aquaporin 4 (AQP4), could be a specific marker of NMO and also of Japanese OSMS whose clinical features were identical to NMO having long spinal cord lesions extending over three vertebral segments (LCL). To examine this antibody in larger populations of Japanese OSMS patients in order to know its epidemiological and clinical spectra, we established an immunohistochemical detection system for the anti-AQP4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) using the AQP4-transfected human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293) and confirmed AQP4-Ab positivity together with the immunohistochemical staining pattern of NMO-IgG in approximately 60% of Japanese OSMS patients with LCL. Patients with OSMS without LCL and those with CMS were negative for this antibody. Our results accorded with those of Lennon et al. suggest that Japanese OSMS with LCL may have an underlying pathogenesis in common with NMO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-type calcium channels regulate neuronal membrane excitability and participate in a number of physiologic and pathologic processes in the central nervous system, including sleep and epileptic activity. Volatile anesthetics inhibit native and recombinant T-type calcium channels at concentrations comparable to those required to produce anesthesia. To determine whether T-type calcium channels are involved in the mechanisms of anesthetic action, the authors examined the effects of general anesthetics in mutant mice lacking alpha1G T-type calcium channels.
The hypnotic effects of volatile and intravenous anesthetics administered to mutant and C57BL/6 control mice were evaluated using the behavioral endpoint of loss of righting reflex. To investigate the immobilizing effects of volatile anesthetics in mice, the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values were determined using the tail-clamp method.
The 50% effective concentration for loss of righting reflex and MAC values for volatile anesthetics were not altered after alpha1G channel knockout. However, mutant mice required significantly more time to develop anesthesia/hypnosis after exposure to isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane and after intraperitoneal administration of pentobarbital.
The 50% effective concentration for loss of righting reflex and MAC values for the volatile anesthetics were not altered after alpha1G calcium channel knockout, indicating that normal functioning of alpha1G calcium channels is not required for the maintenance of anesthetic hypnosis and immobility. However, the timely induction of anesthesia/hypnosis by volatile anesthetic agents and some intravenous anesthetic agents may require the normal functioning of these channel subunits.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors AZA, EZA, and 4-acetamidobenzsulfonamide were found to inhibit human AQP4-M23 mediated water transport by 80%, 68%, and 23%, respectively, at 20 microM in an in vitro functional assay. AZA was found to have an IC50 against AQP4 of 0.9 microM. Phloretin was inactive under the same conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmembrane alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) play pivotal roles in AMPA receptor trafficking and gating. Here we examined cellular and subcellular distribution of TARP gamma-8 in the mouse brain. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence revealed the highest concentration of gamma-8 in the hippocampus. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated dense distribution of gamma-8 on the synaptic and extrasynaptic surface of hippocampal neurons with very low intracellular labeling. Of the neuronal surface, gamma-8 was distributed at the highest level on asymmetrical synapses of pyramidal cells and interneurons, whereas their symmetrical synapses selectively lacked immunogold labeling. Then, the role of gamma-8 in AMPA receptor expression was pursued in the hippocampus using mutant mice defective in the gamma-8 gene. In the mutant cornu ammonis (CA)1 region, synaptic and extrasynaptic AMPA receptors on dendrites and spines were severely reduced to 35-37% of control levels, whereas reduction was mild for extrasynaptic receptors on somata (74%) and no significant decrease was seen for intracellular receptors within spines. In the mutant CA3 region, synaptic AMPA receptors were reduced mildly at asymmetrical synapses in the stratum radiatum (67% of control level), and showed no significant decrease at mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Therefore, gamma-8 is abundantly distributed on hippocampal excitatory synapses and extrasynaptic membranes, and plays an important role in increasing the number of synaptic and extrasynaptic AMPA receptors on dendrites and spines, particularly, in the CA1 region. Variable degrees of reduction further suggest that other TARPs may also mediate this function at different potencies depending on hippocampal subregions, input sources and neuronal compartments.
European Journal of Neuroscience 11/2006; 24(8):2177-90. · 3.75 Impact Factor