[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel therapeutic scaffolding system of engineered nanocarriers within a foam matrix for the long-term and sequential delivery of growth factors is reported. Mesoporous silica nanospheres were first functionalized to have an enlarged mesopore size (12.2 nm) and aminated surface, which was then shelled by a biopolymer, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), via electrospraying. The hybrid nanocarrier was subsequently combined with collagen to produce foam scaffolds. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), used as a model protein, was effectively loaded within the enlarged nanospheres. The biopolymer shell substantially prolonged the release period of BSA (2–3 weeks from shelled nanospheres vs. within 1 week from bare nanospheres), and the release rate was highly dependent on the shell composition (PEG > PLA). Collagen foam scaffolding of the shelled nanocarrier further slowed down the protein release, while enabling the incorporation of a rapidly releasing protein, which is effective for sequential protein delivery. Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), loaded onto the shelled-nanocarrier scaffolds, was released over a month at a highly sustainable rate, profiling a release pattern similar to that of BSA. The biological activity of the aFGF was evidenced by the significant proliferation of osteoblastic precursor cells in the aFGF-releasing scaffolds. Furthermore, the aFGF-delivering scaffolds implanted in rat subcutaneous tissue for 2 weeks showed a substantially enhanced invasion of fibroblasts with a homogeneous population. Taken together, it is concluded that the biopolymer encapsulation of mesoporous nanospheres effectively prolongs the release of growth factors over weeks to a month, providing a nanocarrier platform for a long-term growth factor delivery. Moreover, the foam scaffolding of the nanocarrier system is a potential therapeutic three-dimensional matrix for cell culture and tissue engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional matrices that encapsulate and deliver stem cells with defect-tuned formulations are promising for bone tissue engineering. Here we designed a novel stem cell delivery system composed of collagen and alginate as the core and shell, respectively. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were loaded into the collagen solution and then deposited directly into a fibrous structure while simultaneously sheathing with alginate using a newly designed core-shell nozzle. Alginate encapsulation was achieved by the cross-linking within an adjusted calcium-containing solution that effectively preserved the continuous fibrous structure of the inner cell-collagen part. The constructed hydrogel carriers showed a continuous fiber with diameter of approximately 700-1000 µm for the core and 200-500 μm for the shell area, which was largely dependent on the alginate concentration (2-5%) as well as the injection rate (20-80 ml/h). Water uptake capacity of the core-shell carriers was as high as 98%, which could act as a pore channel to supply nutrients and oxygen to the cells. Degradation of the scaffolds showed weight loss of ~22% at 7 days and ~43% at 14 days, suggesting a possible role as a degradable tissue-engineered construct. The MSCs encapsulated within the collagen core showed excellent viability, exhibiting significant cellular proliferation up to 21 days with levels comparable to those observed in the pure collagen gel matrix used as a control. A live/dead cell assay also confirmed similar percentages of live cells within the core-shell carrier compared to those in the pure collagen gel, suggesting the carrier was cell compatible and was effective for maintaining a cell population. Cells allowed to differentiate under osteogenic conditions expressed high levels of bone-related genes, including osteocalcin, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin. Furthermore, when the core-shell fibrous carriers were implanted in a rat calvarium defect, the bone healing was significantly improved when the MSCs were encapsulated, and even more so after an osteogenic induction of MSCs prior to implantation. Based on these results, the newly-designed core-shell collagen-alginate fibrous carrier is considered promising to enable the encapsulation of tissue cells and their delivery into damaged target tissues including bone with defect-tunability.
Tissue Engineering Part A 08/2013; 20(1). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0198 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inorganic bioactive nanomaterials are attractive for hard tissue regeneration, including nanocomponents for bone replacement composites and nanovehicles for delivering therapeutics. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGn) have recently gained potential usefulness as bone and tooth regeneratives. Here we demonstrate the capacity of the BGn with mesopores to load and deliver therapeutic molecules (drugs and particularly genes). Spherical BGn with sizes of 80-90 nm were produced to obtain 3-5 nm sized mesopores through a sono-reacted sol-gel process. A simulated body fluid test of the mesoporous BGn confirmed their excellent apatite forming ability and the cellular toxicity study demonstrated their good cell viability up to 100 μg ml(-1). Small molecules like chemical drug (Na-ampicillin) and gene (small interfering RNA; siRNA) were introduced as model drugs considering the mesopore size of the nanoparticles. Moreover, amine-functionalization allowed switchable surface charge property of the BGn (from -20-30 mV to +20-30 mV). Loading of ampicillin or siRNA saturated within a few hours (∼2 h) and reflected the mesopore structure. While the ampicillin released relatively rapidly (∼12 h), the siRNA continued to release up to 3 days with almost zero-order kinetics. The siRNA-nanoparticles were easily taken up by the cells, with a transfection efficiency as high as ∼80%. The silencing effect of siRNA delivered from the BGn, as examined by using bcl-2 model gene, showed dramatic down-regulation (∼15% of control), suggesting the potential use of BGn as a new class of nanovehicles for genes. This, in conjunction with other attractive properties, including size- and mesopore-related high surface area and pore volume, tunable surface chemistry, apatite-forming ability, good cell viability and the possible ion-related stimulatory effects, will potentiate the usefulness of the BGn in hard tissue regeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have found a variety of uses including biomedical materials; however, studies of the cytotoxicity of AgNPs by size effects are only in the beginning stage. In this study, we examined the size-dependent cellular toxicity of AgNPs using three different characteristic sizes (∼ 10, 50, and 100 nm) against several cell lines including MC3T3-E1 and PC12. The cytotoxic effect determined based on the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, lactate dehydrogenase release, ultrastructural changes in cell morphology, and upregulation of stress-related genes (ho-1 and MMP-3) was fairly size- and dose-dependent. In particular, AgNPs stimulated apoptosis in the MC3T3-E1 cells, but induced necrotic cell death in the PC12 cells. Furthermore, the smallest sized AgNPs (10 nm size) had a greater ability to induce apoptosis in the MC3T3-E1 cells than the other sized AgNPs (50 and 100 nm). These data suggest that the AgNPs-induced cytotoxic effects against tissue cells are particle size-dependent, and thus, the particle size needs careful consideration in the design of the nanoparticles for biomedical uses.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 04/2012; 100(4):1033-43. DOI:10.1002/jbm.a.34053 · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nerve regeneration and functional recovery have been a major issue following injury of nerve tissues. Electrospun nanofibers are known to be suitable scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications. In addition, modified substrates often provide better environments for neurite outgrowth. This study was conducted to determine if multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-coated electrospun poly (l-lactic acid-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) nanofibers improved the neurite outgrowth of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression of PC-12 cells. To accomplish this, the DRG neurons in either uncoated PLCL scaffolds (PLCL group) or MWCNTs-coated PLCL scaffolds (PLCL/CNT group) were cultured for nine days. MWCNTs-coated PLCL scaffolds showed improved neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons. Moreover, FAK expression was up-regulated in the PLCL/CNT group when compared to the PLCL group in a non-time-dependent manner. These findings suggest that MWCNTs-coated nanofibrous scaffolds may be alternative materials for nerve regeneration and functional recovery in neural tissue engineering.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurite outgrowth from endogenous or transplanted cells is important for neural regeneration following nerve tissue injury. Modified substrates often provide better environments for cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. This study was conducted to determine if MWCNT (multiwalled carbon nanotube)-coated electrospun PLCL [poly (l-lactic acid-co-3-caprolactone)] nanofibres improved the neurite outgrowth of PC-12 cells. To accomplish this, two groups, PC-12 cells in either uncoated PLCL scaffolds or MWCNT-coated PLCL scaffolds were cultured for 9 days. MWCNT-coated PLCL scaffolds showed improved adhesion, proliferation and neurite outgrowth of PC-12 cells. These findings suggest that MWCNT-coated nanofibrous scaffolds may be an attractive platform for cell transplantation application in neural tissue engineering.
Cell Biology International 02/2011; 35(7):741-5. DOI:10.1042/CBI20100705 · 1.93 Impact Factor