Publications (2)18.37 Total impact
Article: High-throughput detection of actionable genomic alterations in clinical tumor samples by targeted, massively parallel sequencing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Knowledge of "actionable" somatic genomic alterations present in each tumor (e.g., point mutations, small insertions/deletions, and copy-number alterations that direct therapeutic options) should facilitate individualized approaches to cancer treatment. However, clinical implementation of systematic genomic profiling has rarely been achieved beyond limited numbers of oncogene point mutations. To address this challenge, we utilized a targeted, massively parallel sequencing approach to detect tumor genomic alterations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples. Nearly 400-fold mean sequence coverage was achieved, and single-nucleotide sequence variants, small insertions/deletions, and chromosomal copynumber alterations were detected simultaneously with high accuracy compared with other methods in clinical use. Putatively actionable genomic alterations, including those that predict sensitivity or resistance to established and experimental therapies, were detected in each tumor sample tested. Thus, targeted deep sequencing of clinical tumor material may enable mutation-driven clinical trials and, ultimately, "personalized" cancer treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the rapid proliferation of targeted therapeutic agents, systematic methods to profile clinically relevant tumor genomic alterations remain underdeveloped. We describe a sequencingbased approach to identifying genomic alterations in FFPE tumor samples. These studies affirm the feasibility and clinical utility of targeted sequencing in the oncology arena and provide a foundation for genomics-based stratification of cancer patients.Cancer discovery. 01/2012; 2(1):82-93.
Article: Dissecting therapeutic resistance to RAF inhibition in melanoma by tumor genomic profiling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which tumors acquire resistance to targeted anticancer agents should speed the development of treatment strategies with lasting clinical efficacy. RAF inhibition in BRAF-mutant melanoma exemplifies the promise and challenge of many targeted drugs; although response rates are high, resistance invariably develops. Here, we articulate overarching principles of resistance to kinase inhibitors, as well as a translational approach to characterize resistance in the clinical setting through tumor mutation profiling. As a proof of principle, we performed targeted, massively parallel sequencing of 138 cancer genes in a tumor obtained from a patient with melanoma who developed resistance to PLX4032 after an initial dramatic response. The resulting profile identified an activating mutation at codon 121 in the downstream kinase MEK1 that was absent in the corresponding pretreatment tumor. The MEK1(C121S) mutation was shown to increase kinase activity and confer robust resistance to both RAF and MEK inhibition in vitro. Thus, MEK1(C121S) or functionally similar mutations are predicted to confer resistance to combined MEK/RAF inhibition. These results provide an instructive framework for assessing mechanisms of acquired resistance to kinase inhibition and illustrate the use of emerging technologies in a manner that may accelerate personalized cancer medicine.Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2011; 29(22):3085-96. · 18.37 Impact Factor