Masato Yano

Kinki University, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

Are you Masato Yano?

Claim your profile

Publications (20)78.37 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a disorder of skeletal malformations and progressive heterotopic ossification. The constitutively activating mutation (R206H) of the bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2), is responsible for the pathogenesis of FOP. Although transfection of the causal mutation of FOP into myoblasts enhances osteoclast formation by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), the role of osteoclasts in heterotopic ossification is unknown. We therefore examined the effects of alendronate, SB431542 and SB203580 on heterotopic ossification induced by the causal mutation of FOP. Total bone mineral content as well as numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells in heterotopic bone were significantly higher in muscle tissues implanted with ALK2 (R206H)-transfected mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells than in the tissues implanted with empty vector-transfected cells in nude mice. Alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate, did not affect total mineral content or numbers of TRAP-positive multinucleated and ALP-positive cells in heterotopic bone, which were enhanced by the implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells, although it significantly decreased serum levels of cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, a bone resorption index. Moreover, neither SB431542, an inhibitor of TGF-β receptor type I kinase, nor SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, affected the increase in heterotopic ossification due to the implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that osteoclast inhibition does not affect heterotopic ossification enhanced by FOP-related mutation.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00774-015-0701-3 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of postmenopausal osteoporosis is not fully understood. α2-Antiplasmin (α2-AP) is the primary inhibitor of plasmin in the fibrinolytic system, but is known to have activities beyond fibrinolysis. However, its role in bone metabolism and the pathogenesis of osteoporosis remains unknown. In the current study, we therefore examined the effects of α2-AP deficiency on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss by using wild-type and α2-AP-deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis revealed that α2-AP deficiency blunted OVX-induced trabecular bone loss in mice. Moreover, α2-AP deficiency significantly blunted serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and interleukin (IL)-1β elevated by OVX. α2-AP treatment elevated the levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA in RAW 264.7 cells, although it suppressed osteoclast formation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. α2-AP treatment activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase pathways in RAW 264.7 cells, and these MAP kinase inhibitors antagonized the levels of IL-1β mRNA elevated by α2-AP. The data demonstrate that α2-AP is linked to bone loss due to OVX, through a mechanism that depends in part on the production of IL-1β and TNF-α in monocytes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Bone 06/2015; 79. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2015.06.009 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0123982. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0123982 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long-term use of glucocorticoids (GCs) causes numerous adverse effects, including glucose/lipid abnormalities, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. The pathogenic mechanism, however, is not completely understood. In this study, we used PAI-1-deficient mice to explore the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in GC-induced glucose/lipid abnormalities, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Corticosterone markedly increased the levels of circulating PAI-1 and the PAI-1 mRNA level in the white adipose tissue of wild-type mice. PAI-1 deficiency significantly reduced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance but not hyperlipidemia induced by GC. An in vitro experiment revealed that active PAI-1 treatment inhibits insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and glucose uptake in HepG2 hepatocytes. However, this was not observed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes, indicating that PAI-1 suppressed insulin signaling in hepatocytes. PAI-1 deficiency attenuated the GC-induced bone loss presumably via inhibition of apoptosis of osteoblasts. Moreover, the PAI-1 deficiency also protected from GC-induced muscle loss. In conclusion, the present study indicated that PAI-1 is involved in GC-induced glucose metabolism abnormality, osteopenia, and muscle wasting in mice. PAI-1 may be a novel therapeutic target to mitigate the adverse effects of GC. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 12/2014; 64(6). DOI:10.2337/db14-1192 · 8.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Further development in research of bone regeneration is necessary to meet the clinical demand for bone reconstruction. We recently reported that plasminogen is crucial for bone repair through enhancement of vessel formation. However, the details in role of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type PA (uPA) in the bone repair process still remain unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of PAs on bone repair after a femoral bone defect using tPA-deficient (tPA(-/-)) and uPA-deficient (uPA(-/-)) mice. Bone repair of the femur was delayed in tPA(-/-) mice, unlike that in wild-type (tPA(+/+)) mice. Conversely, the bone repair was comparable between wild-type (uPA(+/+)) and uPA(-/-) mice. The number of proliferative osteoblasts was decreased at the site of bone damage in tPA(-/-) mice. Moreover, the proliferation of primary calvarial osteoblasts was reduced in tPA(-/-) mice. Recombinant tPA facilitated the proliferation of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The proliferation enhanced by tPA was antagonized by the inhibition of endogenous annexin 2 by siRNA and by the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Vessel formation as well as the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α were decreased at the damaged site in tPA(-/-) mice. Our results provide novel evidence that tPA is crucial for bone repair through the facilitation of osteoblast proliferation related to annexin 2 and ERK1/2 as well as enhancement of vessel formation related to VEGF and HIF-1α at the site of bone damage.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2014; 307(3). DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00129.2014 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is characterized by extensive ossification within muscle tissues, and its molecular pathogenesis is responsible for the constitutively activating mutation (R206H) of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2). In the present study, we investigated the effects of implanting ALK2 (R206H)-transfected myoblastic C2C12 cells into nude mice on osteoclast formation during heterotopic ossification in muscle and subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells with BMP-2 in nude mice induced robust heterotopic ossification with an increase in the formation of osteoclasts in muscle tissues, but not in subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells in muscle induced heterotopic ossification more effectively than that of empty vector-transfected cells. A co-culture of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells as well as the conditioned medium from ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells enhanced osteoclast formation in Raw264.7 cells more effectively than those with empty vector-transfected cells. The transfection of ALK2 (R206H) into C2C12 cells elevated the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, while the inhibition of TGF-β signaling suppressed the enhanced formation of osteoclasts in the co-culture with ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells and their conditioned medium. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the causal mutation transfection of FOP in myoblasts enhanced the formation of osteoclasts from its precursor through TGF-β in muscle tissues.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2014; 289(24). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.526038 · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that fracture healing is impaired in diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the impaired bone repair process by using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic female wild-type (PAI-1+/+) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice. Bone repair and the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells at the site of a femoral bone damage were comparable in PAI-1+/+ and PAI-1-/- mice without STZ treatment. Although the bone repair process was delayed by STZ treatment in PAI-1+/+ mice, this delayed bone repair was blunted in PAI-1-/- mice. The reduction in the number of ALP-positive cells at the site of bone damage induced by STZ treatment was attenuated in PAI-1-/- mice compared to PAI-1+/+ mice. On the other hand, PAI-1 deficiency increased the levels of ALP and type I collagen mRNA in female mice with or without STZ treatment, and the levels of Osterix and osteocalcin mRNA, suppressed by diabetic state in PAI-1+/+ mice, were partially protected in PAI-1-/- mice. PAI-1 deficiency did not affect formation of the cartilage matrix and the levels of types II and X collagen and aggrecan mRNA suppressed by STZ treatment, although PAI-1 deficiency increased the expression of chondrogenic markers in mice without STZ treatment. The present study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the impaired bone repair process induced by the diabetic state in part through a decrease in the number of ALP-positive cells.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92686. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092686 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is involved in type 1 diabetic bone loss in female mice. PAI-1 is well known as an adipogenic factor induced by obesity. We therefore examined the effects of PAI-1 deficiency on bone, glucose and lipid metabolism in high fat and high sucrose diet (HF/HSD)-induced obese female mice. Female wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient (KO) mice were fed with HF/HSD or normal diet for 20 weeks from 10 weeks of age. HF/HSD increased the levels of plasma PAI-1 in WT mice. PAI-1 deficiency suppressed the levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin and total cholesterol elevated by obesity. Moreover, PAI-1 deficiency improved glucose intolerance and insulin resistance induced by obesity. Bone mineral density (BMD) at trabecular bone as well as the levels of Osterix and alkaline phosphatase, and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand mRNA in tibia were decreased by HF/HSD in WT mice, and those changes by HF/HSD were not affected by PAI-1 deficiency. HF/HSD increased the levels of plasma TNF-α both in WT and PAI-1 KO mice, and the levels of plasma TNF-α were negatively correlated with trabecular BMD in tibia of female mice. In conclusion, we revealed that PAI-1 deficiency does not affect the trabecular bone loss induced by obesity despite the amelioration of insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in female mice. Our data suggest that the changes of BMD and bone metabolism by obesity might be independent of PAI-1 as well as glucose and lipid metabolism.
    Endocrinology 02/2014; 155(5):en20131888. DOI:10.1210/en.2013-1888 · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased fracture risk, an impaired fracture healing, and an increased Vitamin D insufficiency. However, the role of vitamin D in diabetic bone repair process remains unclear. We therefore examined the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the impaired bone repair in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes using female mice. Diabetes was induced by STZ injection into female mice after feeding with normal or vitamin D-deficient diet for 6 weeks from the age of 4 weeks. A femoral bone defect was induced in mice 4 weeks after induction of diabetes. The repair of damaged site on the femur was significantly delayed at day 7 and 10 after bone defect by diabetic state in mice, as assessed by quantitative computed tomography, while vitamin D deficiency did not affect the bone repair both in mice with normal and diabetic state. The decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) at cortical and trabecular bone by diabetic state were significantly augmented by vitamin D deficiency in tibia at the undamaged side in mice. Diabetic state blunted the levels of osteogenic and chondrogenic genes enhanced by vitamin D deficiency. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency significantly aggravated the decreases in osteocalcin and IGF-1 mRNA by diabetic state. In conclusion, our study showed that vitamin D deficiency aggravates the decrease in BMD by diabetic state in female mice, although vitamin D deficiency did not affect bone repair delayed by diabetic state.
    Bone 12/2013; 61. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.12.024 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of Enzamin on obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese db/db mice were examined to explore a novel agent for the prevention of insulin resistance. Db/db mice were treated with water containing Enzamin (0·1 and 1·0 %) for 8 weeks from 6 weeks of age. Enzamin treatment at 1·0 %, but not at 0·1 %, significantly decreased the fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol and TAG levels in db/db mice, without affecting body weight gain and body fat composition. Furthermore, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were improved by the treatment of db/db mice with 1·0 % Enzamin. Immunohistochemical studies and gene expression analysis showed that 1·0 % Enzamin treatment suppressed macrophage accumulation and inflammation in the adipose tissue. In addition, 1·0 % Enzamin treatment increased serum adiponectin in db/db mice. Treatment with 1·0 % Enzamin also significantly suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, suggesting an antioxidative effect for Enzamin in the adipose tissue. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory reaction was significantly suppressed by Enzamin treatment in macrophages. Enzamin treatment increased the expression of GLUT4 mRNA in muscle, but not GLUT2 mRNA in the liver of db/db mice. Enzamin also increased the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a, muscle isoform) in db/db mice, whereas Enzamin treatment did not affect the mRNA expression of CPT1b (liver isoform) in db/db mice. In conclusion, our data indicate that Enzamin can improve insulin resistance by ameliorating impaired adipocytokine expression, presumably through its anti-inflammatory action, and that Enzamin possesses a potential for preventing the metabolic syndrome.
    12/2013; 2. DOI:10.1017/jns.2013.34
  • M Yano · N Kawao · Y Tamura · K Okada · H Kaji
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested some interactions between muscle tissues and bone metabolism. The constitutively activating mutation (R206H) of the BMP type I receptor, activin-like-kinase 2 (ALK2), causes fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), which is characterized by extensive ossifications within muscle tissues. In the present study, we revealed that Tmem176b mRNA levels were upregulated by stable transfection of ALK2 (R206H) in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells. Transient Tmem176b overexpression elevated levels of osteoblast differentiation markers, such as Osterix and alkaline phosphatase, as well as mineralization in C2C12 cells. In addition, Tmem176b overexpression elevated the levels of these markers in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. On the other hand, Tmem176b overexpression suppressed the levels of myogenic markers, such as MyoD and myogenin in C2C12 cells, although it did not affect the levels of chondrogenic markers, such as type II and X collagens. In conclusion, the present study is the first to demonstrate that Tmem176b induces the differentiation of myoblasts into an osteoblast lineage.
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 10/2013; 122(1). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1357129 · 1.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a skeletal disorder with progressive heterotopic ossification in skeletal muscle. A mutation causing constitutive activation in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 1 receptor [ALK2(R206H)] is found in most patients with FOP. However, the details in the heterotopic ossification of muscle in FOP and the role of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) in bone remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of MMP-10 in the differentiation of mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells into osteoblasts. MMP-10 was extracted as a factor, whose expression was most extensively enhanced by ALK2 (R206H) transfection in C2C12 cells. MMP-10 significantly augmented the levels of Osterix, type 1 collagen, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin mRNA as well as ALP activity enhanced by BMP-2 in C2C12 cells. Moreover, a reduction in endogenous MMP-10 levels by siRNA significantly decreased the levels of Runx2, Osterix, type 1 collagen, ALP and osteocalcin mRNA enhanced by BMP-2 in these cells. In addition, MMP-10 increased the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 as well as enhanced the levels of Smad6 and Smad7 mRNA induced by BMP-2. In conclusion, the present study first demonstrated that MMP-10 promotes the differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts by interacting with the BMP signaling pathway. MMP-10 may play some important role in the heterotopic ossification of muscle in FOP.
    Endocrine Journal 09/2013; 60(12). DOI:10.1507/endocrj.EJ13-0270 · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The further development in research of bone regeneration is necessary to meet the clinical demand for bone reconstruction. Plasminogen is a critical factor of the tissue fibrinolytic system, which mediates tissue repair in the skin and liver. However, the role of the fibrinolytic system in bone regeneration remains unknown. Herein, we investigated bone repair and ectopic bone formation using plasminogen deficient (Plg-/- ) mice. Bone repair of the femur is delayed in Plg-/- mice, unlike that in the wild-type (Plg+/+ ) mice. The deposition of cartilage matrix and osteoblast formation were both decreased in Plg-/- mice. Vessel formation, macrophage accumulation, and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were decreased at the site of bone damage in Plg-/- mice. Conversely, heterotopic ossification was not significantly different between Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice. Moreover, angiogenesis, macrophage accumulation, and the levels of VEGF and TGF-β were comparable between Plg+/+ and Plg-/- mice in heterotopic ossification. Our data provide novel evidence that plasminogen is essential for bone repair. The present study indicates that plasminogen contributes to angiogenesis related to macrophage accumulation, TGF-β, and VEGF, thereby leading to the enhancement of bone repair. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 07/2013; DOI:10.1002/jbmr.1921 · 6.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aims We investigated the pathophysiological changes in mice lacking α2-antiplasmin (α2-AP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) genes, and elucidated the involvement of these inhibitors for fibrinolysis in immune response. Main methods The pathophysiological changes induced by a lack of both α2-AP and PAI-1 were investigated using double knockout (KO) mice. The lung, liver, kidney and spleen tissues from α2-AP/PAI-1-double KO mice were compared with those from wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, the bone marrow cells from α2-AP/PAI-1-double KO mice were transplanted into 10-Gy X ray irradiated WT mice, and then the effects of the transplantation were studied. Key findings PlasmaIgE levels in the α2-AP/PAI-1-double KO mice increased with age and exceeded 1,000ng/mL after 6months of age. The plasma cells that produced IgE were detected in perivascular assembled lymphocytes. In the α2-AP/PAI-1-double KO mice, perivascular lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the lung, liver, and kidneys and peribronchial lymphocyte infiltration was present in the lung. When the bone marrow cells from α2-AP/PAI-1-double KO mice were transplanted into 10-Gy X ray irradiated WT mice, the phenotypes of the recipients were similar to those of α2-AP/PAI-1-double KO mice. Significance The simultaneous expression of both the α2-AP and PAI-1 genes contribute to the maintenance of immunological functions that are related to IgE. Moreover, it is suggested that both α2-AP and PAI-1 are involved in the recruitment of lymphocytes in the peripheral tissues.
    Life sciences 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.05.023 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In diabetic patients, the risk of fracture is high because of impaired bone formation. However, the details of the mechanisms in the development of diabetic osteoporosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis by using PAI-1-deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis showed that PAI-1 deficiency protected against streptozotocin-induced bone loss in female mice, but not in male mice. PAI-1-deficiency blunted the changes in the levels of Runx2, Osterix, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in tibia as well as serum osteocalcin levels suppressed by diabetic state in female mice only. Furthermore, the osteoclast levels in tibia, suppressed in diabetes, were also blunted by PAI-1 deficiency in female mice. Streptozotocin markedly elevated the levels of PAI-1 mRNA in liver, in female mice only. In vitro study demonstrated that treatment with active PAI-1 suppressed the levels of osteogenic genes and mineralization in primary osteoblasts from female mouse calvaria. In conclusion, the present study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis in females. The expression of PAI-1 in the liver and the sensitivity of bone cells to PAI-1 may be an underlying mechanism. (200 words).
    Diabetes 05/2013; 62(9). DOI:10.2337/db12-1552 · 8.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family members, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and TGF-β that signal via the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) induce bone formation in vivo. The inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and Smad7, negatively regulate TGF-β family ligand signaling by competing with R-Smads for binding to activated type I receptors, and preventing R-Smad activation, Hence, the I-Smads potentially act as suppressors of bone formation although their effects on phenotypic changes in mature osteoblasts are unclear. While Smad7 inhibits both BMP and TGF-β signaling, Smad6 is less effective in inhibiting TGF-β signaling. The present study was performed to examine the role of Smad7 on the phenotype of mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We employed stable Smad7-transfected MC3T3-E1 cells to examine the role of Smad7 in osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. Stable Smad7 overexpression significantly inhibited the absorbance in the MTT-dye assay and inhibited the levels of PCNA compared with those in empty vector-transfected cells. Smad7 overexpression suppressed the type 1 collagen mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Smad7 inhibited ALP activity and mineralization of osteoblastic cells. The effects of stable overexpression of Smad6 were similar to those of Smad7 suggesting the changes mediated by either I-Smad occurred by inhibition of BMP rather than TGF-β signaling. In addition, PTH-(1-34) elevated the levels of Smad7 in parental MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that Smad7, as well as Smad6, inhibits proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of mouse osteoblastic cells. Therefore, I-Smads are important molecular targets for the negative control of bone formation.
    Endocrine Journal 05/2012; 59(8):653-62. DOI:10.1507/endocrj.EJ12-0022 · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and plasminogen play a primary role in liver repair through the accumulation of macrophages and alteration of their phenotype. However, it is still unclear whether u-PA and plasminogen mediate the activation of macrophage phagocytosis during liver repair. Herein, we investigated the morphological changes in macrophages that accumulated at the edge of damaged tissue induced by a photochemical reaction or hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion in mice with u-PA ( u-PA-/- ) or plasminogen ( Plg-/- ) gene deficiency by using transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy. In wild-type mice, the macrophages aligned at the edge of the damaged tissue and extended a large number of long pseudopodia. These macrophages clearly engulfed cellular debris and showed well-developed organelles, including lysosome-like vacuoles, nuclei, and Golgi complexes. In wild-type mice, the distribution of the Golgi complex in these macrophages was biased towards the direction of the damaged tissue, indicating the extension of their pseudopodia in this direction. Conversely, in u-PA-/- and Plg-/- mice, the macrophages located at the edge of the damaged tissue had few pseudopodia and less developed organelles. The Golgi complex was randomly distributed in these macrophages in u-PA-/- mice. Furthermore, interferon γ and IL-4 were expressed at a low level at the border region of the damaged tissue in u-PA-/- mice. Our data provide novel evidence that u-PA and plasminogen are essential for the phagocytosis of cellular debris by macrophages during liver repair. Furthermore, u-PA plays a critical role in the induction of macrophage polarity by affecting the microenvironment at the edge of damaged tissue.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2012; 107(4):749-59. DOI:10.1160/TH11-08-0567 · 5.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibrinolytic system impairment contributes to the development of thrombotic disease such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. Therefore, an agent that increases fibrinolytic activity may be useful for the prevention of these diseases. In this study, to explore novel profibrinolytic agents, we examined the profibrinolytic effect of Enzamin, an extract of metabolic products from Bacillus subtilis AK and Lactobacillus in vitro and in vivo. Enzamin directly enhanced plasmin activity generated by tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) by twofold but not by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) in vitro, which was measured employing both the chromogenic substrate H-D: -Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251) and fibrin plate. Enzamin also increased plasmin activity generated by t-PA in the cell lysate and culture medium of endothelial cells, measured by fibrin zymography. Furthermore, the oral administration of a 1% concentration of Enzamin increased plasmin activity generated by t-PA by 1.7-fold but not by u-PA in the euglobulin fraction of mouse plasma. In conclusion, Enzamin has a unique ability to enhance the fibrinolytic activity through an increase in endogenous plasmin activity generated by t-PA released from endothelial cells, and may be a beneficial supplement for the prevention of thrombotic episodes.
    Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 08/2011; 32(2):195-200. DOI:10.1007/s11239-011-0552-2 · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study spatiotemporal differences in vascular permeability, we histologically analysed tracer extravasation, neovessels and reactive astrocytes in a mouse ischaemic brain damage model. On day 1 after damage induction, the extravasation was not associated with the distribution of neovessels or reactive astrocytes. On day 7, the extravasation was limited within the infarct region in which neovessels, but not reactive astrocytes, were observed. However, the extravasation was not observed at peri-infarct region in which both neovessels and reactive astrocytes were observed, suggesting that neovessels had high permeability and reactive astrocytes prevented the extravasation from neovessels. Furthermore, the extravasation was denser in the regions near the surface than in those further in the infarct region, suggesting a spatial heterogeneity in neovascular permeability.
    Neuroreport 06/2011; 22(9):424-7. DOI:10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283462dd9 · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) plays an important role in tissue remodelling through the activation of plasminogen in the liver, but its mechanisms are less well known. Here, we investigated the involvement of u-PA in the accumulation and phenotypic heterogeneity of macrophages at the damaged site during liver repair. After induction of liver injury by photochemical reaction in mice, the subsequent pathological responses and expression of phenotypic markers in activated macrophages were analysed histologically. Fibrinolytic activity at the damaged site was also examined by fibrin zymography. In wild-type mice, the extent of damage decreased gradually until day 14 and was associated with an accumulation of macrophages at the border of the damaged site. In addition, the macrophages that accumulated near the damaged tissue expressed CD206, a marker of highly phagocytic macrophages, on day 7. Further, macrophages that were adjacent to CD206-positive cells expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a pro-inflammatory marker. u-PA activity increased at the damaged site on days 4 and 7, which distributed primarily at the border region. In contrast, in u-PA-deficient mice, the decrease in damage size and the accumulation of macrophages were impaired. Further, neither CD206 nor iNOS was expressed in the macrophages that accumulated at the border region in u-PA-deficient mice. Mice deficient for the gene encoding either u-PA receptor (u-PAR) or tissue-type plasminogen activator experienced normal recovery during liver repair. These data indicate that u-PA mediates the accumulation of macrophages and their phenotypic heterogeneity at the border of damaged sites through u-PAR-independent mechanisms.
    Thrombosis and Haemostasis 02/2011; 105(5):892-900. DOI:10.1160/TH10-08-0516 · 5.76 Impact Factor