[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor cells are known to have an elevated requirement for methionine due to increased protein synthesis and trans-methylation reactions. A methionine based macrocyclic tumor imaging system, DO3A-Act-Met, has been designed to provide a novel platform for tumor imaging via modalities, PET/MRI using metal ions, (68)Ga and (157)Gd.
Pharmaceutical Research 08/2014; · 4.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcium concentration modulation both inside and outside cell is of considerable interest for nervous system function in normal and pathological conditions. MRI has potential for very high spatial resolution at molecular/cellular level. Design, synthesis and evaluation of Gd-DO3A-AME-NPHE, a calcium responsive MRI contrast agent is presented. The probe is comprised of a Gd(3+)-DO3A core coupled to iminoacetate coordinating groups for calcium induced relaxivity switching. In the absence of Ca(2+) ions, inner sphere water binding to the Gd-DO3A-AME-NPHE is restricted with longitudinal relaxivity, r1 = 4.37 mM(-1) s(-1) at 4.7 T. However, addition of Ca(2+) triggers a marked enhancement in r1 = 6.99 mM(-1) s(-1) at 4.7 T (60% increase). The construct is highly selective for Ca(2+) over competitive metal ions at extracellular concentration. The r1 is modulated by changes in the hydration number (0.2 to 1.05), which was confirmed by luminescence emission lifetimes of the analogous Eu(3+) complex. T1 phantom images establish the capability of complex of visualizing changes in [Ca(2+)] by MRI.
European journal of medicinal chemistry. 05/2014; 82C:225-232.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A bis-polyazamacrocycle, 10'-bis(acetamido)ethane-bis[1,4,7-tri(carboxymethane)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane] (DO3A-AME-DO3A) was synthesized for application in magnetic resonance imaging. The efficacy of DO3A-AME-DO3A as non ionic magnetic contrast agent was tested by performing relaxometric studies on its gadolinium complex. The longitudinal relaxivity, r(1) and transverse relaxivity, r(2) values were found to be 5.84 mM(-1)s(-1) and 6.82 mM(-1)s(-1), per Gd(III) at pH 7.0, 37 °C. The luminescence properties of europium complex of DO3A-AME-DO3A were investigated in aqueous medium. The lifetime of Eu(2)-DO3A-AME-DO3A in water was found to be 0.786 ms. Emission and luminescence lifetime measurements on the europium complex of DO3A-AME-DO3A gives a hydration number of q = 1.9. The reaction enthalpy and entropy were found to be, ΔH(0) = -(6.2 ± 2) kJ mol(-1), ΔS(0) = - (1.8 ± 0.4) kJ mol(-1)K(-1), and K(Eu)(298) = (1.8 ± 0.1).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phosphonate derivative 10'-bis(acetamido)-ethane-bis[1,4,7-tri(methylene phosphonic acid)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane] (DO3P-AME-DO3P), was synthesized with 90% yield in high purity. It was labeled with (99m)Tc in 97.5% efficiency and specific activity of 112-250 MBq/μmol. The binding affinity of (99m)Tc-DO3P-AME-DO3P towards bone minerals was tested in vitro by using hydroxy apatite as a bone model with absorption of 93% during the first hour of the experiment. Receptor binding assay on human bone cell line SAOS-2 demonstrated K(d) value of 1.07 nM. Cell binding studies of DO3P-AME-DO3P on osteoblasts and osteoclasts cells performed in vitro displayed preferential affinity of the compound towards osteoclast (167.95 ± 3.56% dose/mg protein). The serum stability of (99m)Tc complex was found to be 96.8% after 24 h. Blood kinetics of (99m)Tc-DO3P-AME-DO3P performed on normal rabbits showed fast clearance with t(1/2)(F) = 15 min ± 0.014 min and t(1/2)(S) = 4 h 3 min ± 0.09 min. Biodistribution studies carried out in normal BALB/c mice showed bone-to-blood ratio of 20 and bone-to-muscle ratio of 33. The bone tissue demonstrated highest concentration of bound radioactivity with 10.73% ID/g at 1 h post injection. The protonation and stability constants were determined by pH-potentiometry titrations. The stability constants of DO3P-AME-DO3P with Lu(III), Sm(III), and Ho(III) were 19.7, 21.8, and 20.2 determined by "out of cell" method. The excellent bone seeking properties of DO3P-AME-DO3P make it a candidate of choice for SPECT imaging and preferential uptake of the compound in osteoclasts in comparison to osteoblasts; BMM and BMC can be used to understand the pathway of pathogenesis of osteoporosis and skeletal metastases.